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Encyclopedia > Alchemy

In the history of science, alchemy from Arabic (الكيمياء )(al-kimiya)[1] refers to both an early form of the investigation of nature and an early philosophical and spiritual discipline, both combining elements of chemistry, metallurgy, physics, medicine, astrology, semiotics, mysticism, spiritualism, and art all as parts of one greater force. Alchemy has been practiced in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, Persia, India, Japan, Korea and China, in Classical Greece and Rome, in the Muslim civilization, and then in Europe up to the 19th century—in a complex network of schools and philosophical systems spanning at least 2500 years. Alchemy refers to an early protoscientific practice. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... The Michelson–Morley experiment was used to disprove that light propagated through a luminiferous aether. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... Semiotics, semiotic studies, or semiology is the study of signs and symbols, both individually and grouped into sign systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the religion. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The pyramids are the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... During the Islamic Golden Age, usually dated from the 8th century to the 13th century,[1] engineers, scholars and traders of the Islamic world contributed enormously to the arts, agriculture, economics, industry, literature, navigation, philosophy, sciences, and technology, both by preserving and building upon earlier traditions and by adding many... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ...

"Renel the Alchemist", by Sir William Douglas, 1853
"Renel the Alchemist", by Sir William Douglas, 1853

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x753, 124 KB) Title: The alchemist Painter: Sir William Fettes Douglas (1822 - 1891) Year: ? File links The following pages link to this file: Alchemy ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (583x753, 124 KB) Title: The alchemist Painter: Sir William Fettes Douglas (1822 - 1891) Year: ? File links The following pages link to this file: Alchemy ...

Alchemy as a philosophical and spiritual discipline

Alchemy was known as the spagyric art after Greek words meaning to separate and to join together. Compare this with the primary dictum of Alchemy in Latin: SOLVE ET COAGULASeparate, and Join Together.


The best-known goals of the alchemists were the transmutation of common metals into gold (called chrysopoeia) or silver (less well known is plant alchemy, or "spagyric"); the creation of a "panacea or the elixir of life," a remedy that supposedly would cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely; and the discovery of a universal solvent.[2] Although these were not the only uses for the science, they were the ones most documented and well known. Starting with the Middle Ages, European alchemists invested much effort on the search for the "philosopher's stone", a legendary substance that was believed to be an essential ingredient for either or both of those goals. The Philosophers Stone was believed to mystically amplify the user's knowledge of alchemy so much that anything was attainable. Alchemists enjoyed prestige and support through the centuries, though not for their pursuit of those goals, nor the mystic and philosophical speculation that dominates their literature. Rather it was for their mundane contributions to the "chemical" industries of the day—the invention of gunpowder, ore testing and refining, metalworking, production of ink, dyes, paints, cosmetics, leather tanning, ceramics, glass manufacture, preparation of extracts, liquors, and so on (it seems that the preparation of aqua vitae, the "water of life", was a fairly popular "experiment" among European alchemists). An alchemist was a person versed in the art of alchemy, an ancient branch of natural philosophy that eventually evolved into chemistry and pharmacology. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Spagyric, sometimes called herbal alchemy is the production of herbal medicine by alchemical procedures. ... The universal panacea (PAN-ah-see-ah), one of the goals sought by many alchemists, was a remedy that would cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... This article is about making hides into leather. ... Aqua vitae (L. water of life), is an archaic name for a concentrated aqueous solution of ethanol. ...


Starting with the Middle Ages, some alchemists increasingly came to view these metaphysical aspects as the true foundation of alchemy; and organic and inorganic chemical substances, physical states, and molecular material processes as mere metaphors for spiritual entities, spiritual states and ultimately, spiritual transformations. In this sense, the literal meanings of 'Alchemical Formulas' were a blind, hiding their true spiritual philosophy, which being at odds with the Medieval Christian Church was a necessity that could have otherwise lead them to the "stake and rack" of the Inquisition under charges of heresy.[3] Thus, both the transmutation of common metals into gold and the universal panacea symbolized evolution from an imperfect, diseased, corruptible and ephemeral state towards a perfect, healthy, incorruptible and everlasting state; and the philosopher's stone then represented some mystic key that would make this evolution possible. Applied to the alchemist himself, the twin goal symbolized his evolution from ignorance to enlightenment, and the stone represented some hidden spiritual truth or power that would lead to that goal. In texts that are written according to this view, the cryptic alchemical symbols, diagrams, and textual imagery of late alchemical works typically contain multiple layers of meanings, allegories, and references to other equally cryptic works; and must be laboriously "decoded" in order to discover their true meaning. Spiritual philosophy is a generic term for any philosophy or teaching that pertains to spirituality and spiritual realities. ... Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. ...


In his Alchemical Catechism, Paracelsus clearly denotes that his usage of the metals was a symbol: Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ...

Q. When the Philosophers speak of gold and silver, from which they extract their matter, are we to suppose that they refer to the vulgar gold and silver? A. By no means; vulgar silver and gold are dead, while those of the Philosophers are full of life.[4]

Psychology

Alchemical symbolism has been occasionally used by psychologists and philosophers. Carl Jung reexamined alchemical symbolism and theory and began to show the inner meaning of alchemical work as a spiritual path. Alchemical philosophy, symbols and methods have enjoyed something of a renaissance in post-modern contexts, such as the New Age movement. Psychological science redirects here. ... Jung redirects here. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ...


Jung saw alchemy as a Western proto-psychology dedicated to the achievement of individuation. In his interpretation, alchemy was the vessel by which Gnosticism survived its various purges into the Renaissance. In this sense, Jung viewed alchemy as comparable to a Yoga of the West. The act of Alchemy seemed to improve the mind and spirit of the Alchemist. His interpretaion of Chinese alchemical texts in terms of his analytical psychology also served as the same function. Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yoga, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... A compass rose with west highlighted This article refers to the cardinal direction; for other uses see West (disambiguation). ... Alchemy in China In China as in the Western alchemical traditions, alchemy falls into two broad categories - internal and external. ... Analytical psychology is part of the Jungian psychology movement started by Carl Jung and his followers. ...


Magnum opus

Main article: Magnum opus

The Great Work; mystic interpretation of its three stages:[5] Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ...

  • nigredo(-putrefactio), blackening(-putrefaction): individuation, purification, burnout of impureness; see also Suns in alchemy - Sol Niger
  • albedo, whitening: spiritualisation, enlightenment
  • rubedo, reddening: unification of man with god, unification of the limited with the unlimited.

Within the Magnum Opus, was the creation of the Sanctum Moleculae, that is the 'Sacred Masses' that were derived from the Sacrum Particulae, that is the 'Sacred Particles', needed to complete the process of achieving the Magnum Opus. Individuation comprises the processes whereby the undifferentiated becomes or develops individual characteristics, or the opposite process, by which components of an individual are integrated into a more indivisible whole. ... There is a persistent belief in alchemaic and hermetic tradition in the existence of two suns: a hidden one of pure philosophical gold, consisting of the essential Fire conjoined with aether, and the apparent one of profane material gold. ...


Modern alchemy

Islamic alchemy was a forerunner of modern scientific chemistry. Alchemists used many of the same laboratory tools that we use today. These tools were not usually sturdy or in good condition, especially during the medieval period of Europe. Many transmutation attempts failed when alchemists unwittingly made unstable chemicals. This was made worse by the unsafe conditions. Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ...


Up to the 16th Century, alchemy was considered serious science in Europe; for instance, Isaac Newton devoted considerably more of his time and writing to the study of alchemy (see Isaac Newton's occult studies) than he did to either optics or physics, for which he is famous. Other eminent alchemists of the Western world are Roger Bacon, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Tycho Brahe, Thomas Browne, and Parmigianino. The decline of alchemy began in the 18th century with the birth of modern chemistry, which provided a more precise and reliable framework for matter transmutations and medicine, within a new grand design of the universe based on rational materialism. Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... The unpublished work of Isaac Newton included much that would now be classified as occult studies. ... Occident redirects here. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... This article is about the astronomer. ... Sir Thomas Browne (October 19, 1605 – October 19, 1682) was an English author of varied works that disclose his wide learning in diverse fields including medicine, religion, science and the esoteric. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ...


In the first half of the nineteenth century, one established chemist, Baron Carl Reichenbach, worked on concepts similar to the old alchemy, such as the Odic force, but his research did not enter the mainstream of scientific discussion. Carl Ludwig von Reichenbach Baron Dr. Carl (Karl) Ludwig von Reichenbach (full name: Baron Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Reichenbach) (February 12, 1788 - January 19, 1869) was a recognized chemist, metallurgist, naturalist and philosopher, a member of the prestigious Prussian Academy of Sciences. ... The Odic force (also called Od [õd], Odyle, Önd, Odes or Odems) is the name given in the mid-19th century to a hypothetical vital energy or life force by Baron Carl von Reichenbach (1788-1869), an accomplished chemist (known for his analysis of creosote, waxy paraffin, and phenol). ...


Matter transmutation, the old goal of alchemy, enjoyed a moment in the sun in the 20th century when physicists were able to convert platinum atoms into gold atoms via a nuclear reaction. However, the new gold atoms, being unstable isotopes, lasted for under five seconds before they broke apart. More recently, reports of table-top element transmutation—by means of electrolysis or sonic cavitation—were the pivot of the cold fusion controversy of 1989. None of those claims have yet been reliably duplicated. In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide to produce products different from the initial particles. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a method of separating chemically bonded elements and compounds by passing an electric current through them. ... Sonic cavitation is an alchemical term for electrolysis. ... This article is about the nuclear reaction. ...


Alchemy in traditional medicine

Traditional medicines involve transmutation by alchemy, using pharmacological or combination pharmacological and spiritual techniques. In Chinese medicine the alchemical traditions of pao zhi will transform the nature of the temperature, taste, body part accessed or toxicity. In Ayurveda the samskaras are used to transform heavy metals and toxic herbs in a way that removes their toxicity. In the spagyric processing of herbal medicine similar effects are found.[6] These processes are actively used to the present day.[7][8][9] Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... In Chinese medicine the technique of altering the properties of crude drugs by such means as roasting, honey frying, wine frying, earth frying, vinegar frying, calcining, or other means. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Samskara is a process in Ayurvedic medicine of detoxification applied to heavy metals and toxic herbs, which is similar to the Chinese pao zhi. ... For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ... Spagyric, sometimes called herbal alchemy is the production of herbal medicine by alchemical procedures. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ...


Nuclear transmutation

In 1919, Ernest Rutherford used artificial disintegration to convert nitrogen into oxygen.[10] Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson OM PC FRS (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937), widely referred to as Lord Rutherford, was a nuclear physicist who became known as the father of nuclear physics. ... Artificial disintegration is the term coined by Ernest Rutherford for the process by which an atomic nucleus is broken down by bombarding it with high speed alpha particles, either from a particle accelerator, or a naturally decaying radioactive substance such as radium, as Rutherford originally used. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ...


Alchemy as a subject of historical research

The history of alchemy has become a vigorous academic field. As the obscure hermetic language of the alchemists is gradually being "deciphered", historians are becoming more aware of the intellectual connections between that discipline and other facets of Western cultural history, such as the sociology and psychology of the intellectual communities, kabbalism, spiritualism, Rosicrucianism, and other mystic movements, cryptography, witchcraft, and the evolution of science and philosophy. Kabbala may refer to; Kabbala Village, in the Karnataka State of India Kabbalah, is a religious philosophical system claiming an insight into divine nature. ... This article is about the religion. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Witch redirects here. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


History

Main article: Alchemy in history
Extract and symbol key from a 17th century book on alchemy. The symbols used have a one-to-one correspondence with symbols used in astrology at the time.
Extract and symbol key from a 17th century book on alchemy. The symbols used have a one-to-one correspondence with symbols used in astrology at the time.

Alchemy encompasses several philosophical traditions spanning some four millennia and three continents. These traditions' general penchant for cryptic and symbolic language makes it hard to trace their mutual influences and "genetic" relationships. Extract and symbol key from a 17th century book on alchemy. ... Download high resolution version (1560x600, 53 KB)Extract and symbol key from an alchemical text - Kenelm Digby A Choice Collection of Rare Secrets (1682) The image is a combination of two scanned portions of the book Wing_D1426 from Early English Books Online Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1560x600, 53 KB)Extract and symbol key from an alchemical text - Kenelm Digby A Choice Collection of Rare Secrets (1682) The image is a combination of two scanned portions of the book Wing_D1426 from Early English Books Online Source: http://www. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ...


Famous alchemists include Wei Boyang in Chinese alchemy; Calid, Geber and Rhazes in Arabic alchemy; Nagarjuna in Indian alchemy; and Albertus Magnus and pseudo-Geber in European alchemy; as well as the anonymous author of the Mutus Liber, published in France in the late 17th century, and which was a 'wordless book' that claimed to be a guide to making the philosopher's stone, using a series of 15 symbols and illustrations. Wei Boyang (Chinese: 魏伯陽) was a noted Taoist alchemist of the Eastern Han Dynasty[1]. He is the author of The Kinship of the Three, and is noted as the first person to have documented the chemical composition of gun powder in 142 AD[2][3]. ^ Italian site on Chinese alchemy... Alchemy in China In China as in the Western alchemical traditions, alchemy falls into two broad categories - internal and external. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For other uses, see Nagarjuna (disambiguation). ... Ayas. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Pseudo-Geber (false Geber) is the name assigned by modern scholars to an anonymous alchemist born in the 14th century, probably in Spain. ... The Mutus Liber, or Wordless Book was an alchemical text published in France in the latter half of the 17th century. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ...


A tentative outline is as follows:

  1. Egyptian alchemy [5000 BCE – 400 BCE], beginning of alchemy
  2. Greek alchemy [332 BCE – 642 CE], studied at the Library of Alexandria
  3. Chinese alchemy [142 CE], Wei Boyang writes The Kinship of the Three
  4. Indian alchemy [200 CE – Present], related to metallurgy; Nagarjuna was an important alchemist
  5. PersoIslamic alchemy [700 – 1400], Geber introduces experimental method and theories on philosopher's stone and creation of life
  6. PersoIslamic chemistry II [800 – Present], Alkindus and Avicenna refute alchemy and Tusi discovers conservation of mass
  7. European alchemy [1300 – Present], Saint Albertus Magnus builds on Arabic alchemy
  8. European chemistry [1661 – Present], Boyle writes The Sceptical Chymist, Lavoisier writes Elements of Chemistry, and Dalton publishes his Atomic Theory

Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ... Alchemy in China In China as in the Western alchemical traditions, alchemy falls into two broad categories - internal and external. ... Wei Boyang (Chinese: 魏伯陽) was a noted Taoist alchemist of the Eastern Han Dynasty[1]. He is the author of The Kinship of the Three, and is noted as the first person to have documented the chemical composition of gun powder in 142 AD[2][3]. ^ Italian site on Chinese alchemy... The Kinship of the Three, also referred to as The Book of the Kinship of Three, is the earliest book on theoretical alchemy in China. ... Ayas. ... Georg Agricola, author of De re metallica, an important early book on metal extraction Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their compounds, which are called alloys. ... Nagarjuna was an Indian metallurgist and alchemist, born at Fort Daihak near Somnath in Gujarat in 931. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation (or the Lomonosov-Lavoisier law), states that the mass of a closed system of substances will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Robert Boyle (Irish: Robaird Ó Bhaoill) (25 January 1627 – 30 December 1691) was an Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, inventor, and early gentleman scientist, noted for his work in physics and chemistry. ... Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (August 26, 1743 – May 8, 1794; pronounced ), the father of modern chemistry,[1] was a French nobleman prominent in the histories of chemistry, finance, biology, and economics. ... John Dalton John Dalton (September 6, 1766 – July 27, 1844) was an English chemist and physicist, born at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland. ...

Etymology

Alchemy, generally, derives from the old French alkemie; and the Arabic al-kimia: "the art of transformation." Some scholars believe the Arabs borrowed the word “kimia” from the Greeks. Others, such as Mahdihassan,[11] argue that its origins are Chinese. Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ...


Thus, an alchemist was called a 'chemist' in popular speech, and later the suffix "-ry" was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as "chemistry".


A connection has been made between alchemy and Egypt. One source in particular gives further background into the probable founding of the name itself in the following passage: "...The concept is a very ancient one, which seems to answer to deep human motivations. It came to Medieval Europe by way of Egypt. When they invaded Egypt, which they called Khem, in the seventh century, the followers of the moon god discovered that the Egyptians were masters of the art of working in gold. They called gold-working al-kimiya - 'the art of the land of Khem' - and so, according to one account, the word 'alchemy' was born."[12] The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... In Egyptian mythology, Chem (also Khem, Ham) was a god of fertility and the patron deity of the Egyptian civilization. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


See also

Related and alternative philosophies

Substances of the alchemists

Scientific connections

Alchemical symbols, originally devised as part of the protoscience of alchemy, were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. ... References to alchemy in art and entertainment are too numerous to list. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Alkahest (or alcahest) is a hypothetical universal solvent, having the power to dissolve every other substance, including gold. ... Alchemy in the Western World and other locations where it was widely practiced was (and in many cases still is) closely allied and intertwined with traditional Babylonian-Greek style astrology; in numerous ways they were built to complement each other in the search for hidden knowledge. ... In demonology Berith is a Great Duke of Hell, powerful and terrible, and has twenty-six legions of demons under his command. ... Idealized portrait of Böhmes from Theosophia Revelata (1730) Jakob Böhme (1575–1624) was a Christian mystic born in central Germany, near Görlitz. ... The circle with a point at the centre (☉) is a symbol featuring a circle with the middle marked with a dot. ... Look up duality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The elixir of life, also known as the elixir of immortality or Dancing Water and sometimes equated with the Philosophers stone, is a legendary potion, or drink, that grants the drinker eternal life or eternal youth. ... The Emerald Tablet, also known as Smaragdine Table, Tabula Smaragdina, or The Secret of Hermes, is an ancient text purporting to reveal the secret of the primordial substance and its transmutations. ... Robert Fludd Robert Fludd, also known as Robertus de Fluctibus (1574, Bearsted, Kent – September 8, 1637, London) was a prominent English Paracelsian physicist, astrologer, and mystic. ... This article is about humors in Greco-Roman medicine. ... Danziger Goldwasser (English translation: Gold water from GdaÅ„sk, Literally: Danzigs gold water) is the registered tradename of a strong (38%) root and herbal liqueur that has been produced since the 16th century in GdaÅ„sk, Poland. ... This article is about the magical and religious movement stemming from the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus. ... The concept of a homunculus (Latin for little man, sometimes spelled homonculus, plural homunculi) is often used to illustrate the functioning of a system. ... There were at least two men named Ethan A. Hitchcock: Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1798 – 1870) U.S. Army general Ethan Allen Hitchcock (1835 – 1909) United States Secretary of the Interior This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Jung redirects here. ... Michael Maier (1568–1622) was a German physician, a counsellor to Rudolf II Habsburg and a learned alchemist. ... Musaeum Hermeticum is a compendium of alchemical texts first published in 1625 by Lukas Jennis. ... Presumed portrait of Paracelsus, attributed to the school of Quentin Matsys. ... For other uses, see Philosophers stone (disambiguation). ... Look up Quintessence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Herbert Silberer (February 28, 1882 – January 12, 1923) was a Viennese psychologist involved with the professional circle surrounding Sigmund Freud which included other pioneers of psychological study as Carl Jung, Alfred Adler and others. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An alchemist was a person versed in the art of alchemy, an ancient branch of natural philosophy that eventually evolved into chemistry and pharmacology. ... . ... List of notable occultists and mystics. ... The term Western mystery tradition (also Western Esoteric tradition) refers to the collection of the mystical, esoteric knowledge of the Western world. ... Internal alchemy, also called spiritual alchemy, is a term used for different esoteric disciplines focused on balancing internal and spiritual energies. ... Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut (1888). ... This article is about the general subject of necromancy. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... For other uses, see Illuminati (disambiguation). ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (æ°´) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (æ°´) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water The six elements usually refer to wood, fire, earth, metal, and water in Chinese philosophy. ... Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ... Kayakujutsu (literally the art of gunpowder in Japanese) is the use of firearms, gunpowder and explosives especially by Ninja. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Moxibustion Moxibustion (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing moxa, or mugwort herb. ... Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... Anthroposophy, also called spiritual science, is a spiritual philosophy based on the teachings of Rudolf Steiner,[1] which states that anyone who conscientiously cultivates sense-free thinking can attain experience of and insights into the spiritual world. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Jung redirects here. ... New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... // Tay al-Ard (Ø·ÛŒ الارض or طيّ الارض or طیّ الارض - literally folding up of the earth) is the name for thaumaturgical teleportation in the Islamic religious and philosophical tradition. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the element. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... This article is about the element. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into sulfuric acid. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron disulfide, FeS2. ... Orpiment Orpiment prepared as a paint pigment Orpiment is a common monoclinic crystalline mineral Chemical Composition: As2S3, arsenic trisulfide Molecular Weight: 246. ... For other uses, see Galena (disambiguation). ... Magnesium oxide, or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. ... Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3). ... Natron is a white, crystalline hygroscopic mineral salt, primarily a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (common baking soda) and sodium carbonate (soda ash) with small amounts of sodium chloride (table salt) and sodium sulfate. ... Saltpeter is variously: potassium nitrate (niter); or sodium nitrate (soda niter) ... Kohl is a mixture of soot and other ingredients used predominantly by Middle Eastern , North African, Sub-Saharan African and Asian women, and to a lesser extent men, to darken the eyelids and as mascara for the eyelashes. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. ... Tartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as a propellant in firearms and fireworks. ... The element Carmot was a sort of element no longer believed to exist according to modern scientific knowledge. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another, which occurs through nuclear reactions. ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Anti-science is a term applied to individuals who are claimed to oppose science or the scientific method. ... An obsolete scientific theory is a scientific theory that was once commonly accepted but (for whatever reason) is no longer considered the most complete description of reality by mainstream science; or a falsifiable theory which has been shown to be false. ... For historicism as a method of interpreting biblical apocalypse, see Historicism (Christian eschatology). ...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=alchemy
  2. ^ Alchemy as Dictionary.com
  3. ^ Blavatsky, H.P. (1888). The Secret Doctrine. Theosophical Publishing Company, vol ii, 238. ISBN 978-1557000026. 
  4. ^ Paracelsus. Alchemical Catechism. Retrieved on 2007-04-18.
  5. ^ Meyrink und das theomorphische Menschenbild
  6. ^ Tillotson, Alan; AHG, D.Ay., PhD "Safety and Regulation"
  7. ^ Tierra, Michael; AHG, OMD, L.Ac. Processing Chinese Herbs
  8. ^ "Benefits of Herbal Extracts"; herbalist-alchemist.com
  9. ^ Junius, Manfred M; The Practical Handbook of Plant Alchemy: An Herbalist's Guide to Preparing Medicinal Essences, Tinctures, and Elixirs; Healing Arts Press 1985
  10. ^ [School Publications]. Reviewing Physics: The Physical Setting (English). Amsco School Publications. “"The first artificial transmutation of one element to another was performed by Rutherford in 1919. Rutherford bombarded nitrogen with energetic alpha particles that were moving fast enough to overcome the electric repulsion between themselves and the target nuclei. The alpha particles collided with, and were absorbed by, the nitrogen nuclei, and protons were ejected. In the process oxygen and hydrogen nuclei were created.”
  11. ^ Mahdihassan S. "Alchemy, Chinese versus Greek, an etymological approach: a rejoinder"
  12. ^ Mysteries of Mind, Space & Time - The Unexplained, Volume 1; Published by H.S. Stuttman, Inc. © Orbis Publishing Limited 1992, Westport, Connecticut.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Cavendish, Richard, The Black Arts, Perigee Books
  • Gettgins, Fred (1986). Encyclopedia of the Occult. London: Rider. 
  • Greenberg, Adele Droblas (2000). Chemical History Tour, Picturing Chemistry from Alchemy to Modern Molecular Science. Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 0-471-35408-2. 
  • Hart-Davis, Adam (2003). Why does a ball bounce? 101 Questions that you never thought of asking. New York: Firefly Books. 
  • Marius (1976). On the Elements. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-02856-2.  Trans. Richard Dales.
  • Weaver, Jefferson Hane (1987). The World of Physics. New York: Simon & Schuster. 
  • Zumdahl, Steven S. (1989). Chemistry, 2nd ed., Lexington, Maryland: D.C. Heath and Company. ISBN 0-669-16708-8. 

University of California Press, also known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing. ... D.C. Heath And Company is a small publishing company located at 125 Spring Street in Lexington, Massachusetts. ...

External links

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In Parson Weems Fable (1939) Grant Wood takes a sly poke at a traditional hagiographical account of George Washington Historical revisionism has both a legitimate academic use and a pejorative meaning. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Alchemy Web Site (261 words)
This site is organised by Adam McLean, the well known authority on alchemical texts and symbolism, author and publisher of over 50 books on alchemical and Hermetic ideas.
Alchemy is a complex subject with many different interconnected aspects.
This website is so complex and extensive that it can take some time to thoroughly explore all the sections.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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