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Encyclopedia > Albinism
Albinism
Classification and external resources
Girl from Honduras with probable OCA1a-type albinism.
ICD-10 E70.3
ICD-9 270.2
OMIM 203100 103470, 203200, 203280, 203290, 203300, 203310, 256710, 278400, 214450, 214500, 220900, 300500, 300600, 300650, 300700, 600501, 604228, 606574, 606952, 607624, 609227
DiseasesDB 318
MedlinePlus 001479
eMedicine derm/12 
MeSH D000417

Albinism (from Latin albus, "white"; see extended etymology) is a form of hypopigmentary congenital disorder, characterized by a partial (in hypomelanism, also known as hypomelanosis) or total (amelanism or amelanosis) lack of melanin pigment in the eyes, skin and hair (or more rarely the eyes alone). Albinism results from inheritance of recessive alleles. The condition is known to affect mammals (including humans), fish, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. While the most common term for an organism affected by albinism is "albino" (noun and adjective), the word is sometimes used in derogatory ways towards people; more neutral terms are "albinistic" (adjective) and "person with albinism" (noun). Additional clinical adjectives sometimes used to refer to animals are "albinoid" and "albinic". An albino is a person with oculocutaneus albinism - the lack of pigmentation in the eyes, skin and hair. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // E00-E35 - Endocrine diseases (E00-E07) Disorders of thyroid gland (E00) Congenital iodine-deficiency syndrome (E01) Iodine-deficiency-related thyroid disorders and allied conditions (E02) Subclinical iodine-deficiency hypothyroidism (E03) Other hypothyroidism (E030) Congenital hypothyroidism with diffuse goitre (E031) Congenital hypothyroidism without goitre (E032) Hypothyroidism due to medicaments and other... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Hypopigmentation is the loss of skin color. ... A congenital disorder is any medical condition that is present at birth. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ...

Contents

Types of human albinism

Albinism is hereditary; it is not an infectious disease and cannot be transmitted through contact, blood transfusions, or other vectors. The principal gene which results in albinism prevents the body from making the usual amounts of the pigment melanin. Most forms of albinism are the result of the biological inheritance of genetically recessive alleles (genes) passed from both parents of an individual, though some rare forms are inherited from only one parent. There are other genetic mutations which are proven to be associated with albinism. All alterations, however, lead to changes in melanin production in the body.[1][2] This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... In epidemiology, a vector is an organism that does not cause disease itself but which spreads infection by conveying pathogens from one host to another. ... The Blue Morpho butterfly, native to Central America, derives its distinctive blue coloring from iridescence rather than from pigmentation. ... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ... In genetics, dominance describes a specific relationship between the effects of different versions of a gene (alleles) on a trait (phenotype). ... For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to genetics. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... This article is about mutation in biology, for other meanings see: mutation (disambiguation). ...


Albinism was formerly categorized as tyrosinase-positive or -negative. In cases of tyrosinase-positive albinism, the enzyme tyrosinase is present. The melanocytes (pigment cells) are unable to produce melanin for any one of a variety of reasons that do not directly involve the tyrosinase enzyme. In tyrosinase-negative cases, either the tyrosinase enzyme is not produced or a nonfunctional version is produced. This classification has been rendered obsolete by recent research.[3] Tyrosinase (monophenol monooxygenase) (EC 1. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The chance of offspring with albinism resulting from the pairing of an organism with albinism and one without albinism is low, as discussed in more detail below. However, because organisms can be carriers of genes for albinism without exhibiting any traits, albinistic offspring can be produced by two non-albinistic parents. Albinism usually occurs with equal frequency in both genders.[1] An exception to this is ocular albinism, because it is passed on to offspring through X-linked inheritance. Thus, males more frequently have ocular albinism.[3]


Because organisms with albinism have skin that lacks (sufficiently or entirely) the dark pigment melanin, which helps protect the skin from ultraviolet radiation coming from the sun, they can sunburn easily from overexposure. (See human skin color for more information). Lack of melanin in the eye also results in problems with vision, related and unrelated to photosensitivity, which are discussed further below. For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... Human skin colour can range from almost black to nearly colorless (appearing pinkish white due to the blood in the skin) in different people. ... Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons of light. ...


Most humans and many animals with albinism appear white or very pale; the multiple types of melanin pigment are responsible for brown, black, gray, and some yellow colorations. In some animals, especially albinistic birds and reptiles, ruddy and yellow hues or other colors may be present on the entire body or in patches (as is common among pigeons), due to the presence of other pigments unaffected by albinism such as porphyrins, pteridines and psittacins, as well as carotenoid pigments derived from the diet. Some animals are white or pale due to chromatophore (pigment cell) defects, do not lack melanin production, and have normal eyes; they are referred to as leucistic. The direct opposite of albinism, an unusually high level of melanin pigmentation (and sometimes absence of other types of pigment in species that have more than one), is known as melanism, and results in an appearance darker than non-melanistic specimens from the same genepool.[4] Albinism-like conditions may affect other pigments or pigment-production mechanisms in some animals (e.g. "whiteface", a lack of psittacins that can affect some parrot species.).[5] Another is common in reptiles and amphibians: axanthism, in which xanthophore metabolism, instead of synthesis of melanin, is affected, resuling in reduction or absence of red and yellow pteridine pigments.[6] Of all these conditions, only albinism and melanism affect humans. Image:Wistar rat.jpg|thumb|left|px280|An albino Wistar rat, a strain commonly used for both biomedical and basic research.]] The eyes of an animal with albinism occasionally appear red due to the underlying retinal blood vessels showing through where there is not enough pigment to cover them. In humans this is rarely the case, as a human eye is quite large and thus produces enough pigment to lend opacity to the eye, often colouring the iris pale blue. However, there are cases in which the eyes of an albinistic person appear red or purple, depending on the amount of pigment present. The albinistic are generally (but see related disorders below) as healthy as the rest of their species, with growth and development occurring as normal, and albinism by itself does not cause mortality[1] (though the lack of pigment is an elevated risk for skin cancer and other problems.) Many animals with albinism lack their protective camouflage and are unable to conceal themselves from their predators or prey; the survival rate of animals with albinism in the wild is usually quite low. [7] [8] However the novelty of albino animals has occasionally led to their protection by groups such as the Albino Squirrel Preservation Society. An albino African penguin. ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... Pteridine is a chemical compound composed of fused pyrimidine and pyrazine rings. ... The orange ring surrounding Grand Prismatic Spring is due to carotenoid molecules, produced by huge mats of algae and bacteria. ... Zebrafish chromatophores mediate background adaptation on exposure to dark (top) and light environments (bottom). ... Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... The Black Panther is the prototypical example of melanism. ... Xanthophores are chromatophores that produce yellow pigments in the form of carotenoids. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek σύν (with) and θεσις (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Wistar rats are an outbred strain of albino rats belonging to the species Rattus norvegicus. ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... This article is about protective camouflage used to disguise people, animals, or military targets. ... The Albino Squirrel Preservation Society is a student organization founded in April of 2001 at the University of Texas. ...


Intentionally-bred albinistic strains of some animal species are commonly used as model organisms in biomedical study and experimentation. Examples include the BALB/c mouse and Wistar and Sprague Dawley rat strains, while albino rabbits were historically used for Draize toxicity testing. [9] Albino axolotls, zebrafish, medaka and frogs are other common laboratory animals. The yellow mutation in fruit flies is their version of albinism. A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... BALB/c mice BALB/c is an albino strain of laboratory mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. ... Wistar rats are an outbred strain of albino rats belonging to the species Rattus norvegicus. ... Sprague Dawley rats are an outbred strain of albino, laboratory rats belonging to the species Rattus norvegicus. ... A rabbit allegedly going through a Draize test. ... Binomial name (Shaw, 1789) The Axolotl (or ajolote) (Ambystoma mexicanum) is the best-known of the Mexican neotenic mole salamanders belonging to the Tiger Salamander complex. ... The name zebrafish applies to several different kinds of fish with striped bodies considered to resemble a zebra: Brachydanio rerio, also called Danio rerio or the Zebra Danio, is a commonly used model organism in studies of biological development. ... Binomial name Oryzias latipes Temminck & Schlegel 1846 The medaka or Japanese killifish, Oryzias latipes, is a very small ricefish, popular as an aquarium fish native to Southeast Asia. ... Species Xenopus amieti (volcano clawed frog) Xenopus andrei (Andres clawed frog) Xenopus borealis (Kenyan clawed frog) Xenopus boumbaensis (Mawa clawed frog) Xenopus clivii (Eritrea clawed frog) Xenopus fraseri (Frasers clawed frog) Xenopus gilli (Cape clawed frog) Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Xenopus largeni Xenopus longipes (savannah clawed frog... Type species Drosophila funebris (Fabricius, 1787) Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called fruit flies, or more appropriately vinegar flies, wine flies, pomace flies, grape flies, and picked fruit-flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger...


The incidence of albinism can be artificially increased in fish by exposing the eggs to heavy metals.[10] For other uses, see Heavy metal (disambiguation). ...


About 1 in 17,000 human beings has some type of albinism, although up to 1 in 70 is a carrier of albinism genes.[11]


Classification

There are two main categories of albinism in humans:

  • In oculocutaneous albinism (despite its Latin-derived name meaning "eye-and-skin" albinism), pigment is lacking in the eyes, skin and hair. (The equivalent mutation in non-humans also results in lack of melanin in the fur, scales or feathers.)
  • In ocular albinism, only the eyes lack pigment. People with oculocutaneous albinism can have anywhere from no pigment at all to almost-normal levels. People who have ocular albinism have generally normal skin and hair color, and many even have a normal eye appearance.

Other conditions include albinism as part of their presentation. These include Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, Griscelli syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and Tietz syndrome. These conditions are sometimes classified with albinism. [12] Young woman with albinism from Malawi. ... Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an inherited disease which results in decreased pigmentation (oculocutaneous albinism), bleeding problems due to a platelet abnormality (platelet storage pool defect), and storage of an abnormal fat-protein compound (lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin). ... Chédiak-Higashi syndrome is a rare childhood autosomal recessive disorder that affects multiple systems of the body. ... Griscelli syndrome is a rare autosomal childhood disorder characterised by hypopigmentation. ... Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder most often characterized by varying degrees of deafness, minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation anomalies. ... A benign inflammation of the ligaments connecting to the sternum or ribs, Tietzes Syndrome is most common among patients who have had thoracic surgery. ...


Symptoms and conditions associated with albinism

Genetic testing can confirm albinism and what variety it is, but offers no medical benefits except in the cases of non-OCA disorders (see below) that cause albinism along with other medical problems which may be treatable. The symptoms of albinism can be treated by various methods detailed below. Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ...


Eye conditions common in albinism may include:

Albinistic girl from Papua New Guinea
Albinistic girl from Papua New Guinea

Organisms with albinism usually have impaired vision due to one or more of the listed conditions. While a person with albinism may suffer from common refractive errors like nearsightedness or farsightedness, the visual problems particularly associated with albinism arise from a poorly-developed retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to the lack of melanin[citation needed]. This degenerate RPE causes foveal hypoplasia (a failure in the development of normal foveae), which results in eccentric fixation and lower visual acuity, and often a minor level of strabismus. Nystagmus is usually seen, as is photophobia or light sensitivity (see below). Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... For other uses, see Myopia (disambiguation). ... Hyperopia, also known as hypermetropia or colloquially as farsightedness or longsightedness, is a defect of vision caused by an imperfection in the eye (often when the eyeball is too short or when the lens cannot become round enough), causing inability to focus on near objects, and in extreme cases causing... Astigmatism is an affliction of the eye, where vision is blurred by an irregularly shaped cornea. ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... Hypersensitivity refers to undesirable (damaging, discomfort-producing and sometimes fatal) reactions produced by the normal immune system. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye, with the fovea at the bottom. ... Human eye cross-sectional view. ... Optic nerve hypoplasia is a medical condition that results in underdevelopment of the optic nerves. ... Visual pathway with optic chiasm circled The optic chiasm (from the Greek χλαζειν to mark with an X, after the letter Χ chi) is the part of the brain where the optic nerves partially cross, those parts of the right eye which see things on the right side being connected to the... Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The retinal pigment epithelium is the pigmented cell layer just outside the neurosensory retina that nourishes retinal visual cells, and is firmly attached to the underlying choroid and overlying retinal visual cells. ... Hypoplasia is an incomplete or arrested development of an organ or a part [1]. It is descriptive of many medical conditions such as: Underdeveloped breasts during puberty. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye, with the fovea at the bottom. ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ...


The iris is a sphincter with pigmented tissue (which makes up the color of the eyes) that contracts to limit the amount of light that can enter through the pupil and relaxes again to allow for better vision in darkness. This mechanism can be observed in humans and mammals (like in cat's eyes) and is needed because too much light is uncomfortable or even painful and decreases vision. In people with albinism, the iris does not have enough pigment to block the light, thus the decrease of pupil diameter is only partially successful in reducing the amount of light that enters the eye.[citation needed]. Additionally, the improper development of the RPE, which in normal eyes absorbs most of the reflected sunlight, further increases glare due to light scattering within the eye.[14] The resulting sensitivity (photophobia) generally leads to a dislike of and discomfort in bright light, but does not prevent people with albinism enjoying the outdoors, especially when using sunglasses and/or brimmed hats.[3] In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The lack of pigment also makes the skin unusually sensitive to sunlight and thus susceptible to sunburn, so people with albinism should either avoid prolonged exposure to bright sunlight or protect their skin.


Treatment of the symptoms

Albinism is a condition that cannot be "cured" per se, but small things can be done to improve the quality of life for those affected. Most importantly to improve vision, protect the eyes from bright lights, and avoid skin damage from sunlight. The extent and success rate of these measures depend on the type of albinism and severity of the symptoms; in particular, people with ocular albinism are likely to have normally-pigmented skin, and thus do not need to take special precautions against skin damage.


Surgical treatment

For the most part, treatment of the eye conditions consists of visual rehabilitation.[citation needed] Surgery is possible on the ocular muscles to decrease nystagmus, strabismus and common refractive errors like astigmatism. Strabismus surgery may improve the appearance of the eyes.[citation needed] Nystagmus-damping surgery can also be performed, to reduce the "shaking" of the eyes back and forth.[15] The effectiveness of all these procedures varies greatly and depends on individual circumstances. More importantly, since surgery will not restore a normal RPE or foveae, surgery will not provide fine binocular vision.[citation needed] In the case of esotropia (the "crossed eyes" form of strabismus), surgery may help vision by expanding the visual field (the area that the eyes can see while looking at one point).[citation needed] Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Astigmatism is an affliction of the eye, where vision is blurred by an irregularly shaped cornea. ... Nystagmus is involuntary eye movement that can be part of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), with the eyes moving first in the direction of the lesioned side (slow phase) followed by a quick correction (fast phase) to the opposite side or away from the lesioned side. ... Person exhibiting esotropia of the right eye Esotropia is a form of strabismus, or squint, in which one or both eyes turns inward. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ...


Vision aids

Glasses and other vision aids, large-print materials and closed captioning, as well as bright but angled reading lights, can help individuals with albinism, even though their vision cannot be corrected completely. Some albinistic people do well using bifocals (with a strong reading lens), prescription reading glasses, and/or hand-held devices such as magnifiers or monoculars.[3] Contact lenses may be colored to block light transmission through the iris. Some use bioptics, glasses which have small telescopes mounted on, in, or behind their regular lenses, so that they can look through either the regular lens or the telescope. Newer designs of bioptics use smaller light-weight lenses. Some US states allow the use of bioptic telescopes for driving motor vehicles. (See also NOAH bulletin "Low Vision Aids".) A pair of modern glasses Glasses, also called eyeglasses or spectacles are frames, bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV rays. ... Large font, large type or large print, is a type of book in which the pages and font are much larger. ... A commonly-used symbol indicating that a program or movie is closed-captioned. ... Bifocals are eyeglasses whose corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct optical powers. ... A magnifying glass (called a hand lens in laboratory contexts) is a convex lens which is used to produce a magnified image of an object. ... A monocular is a modified refracting telescope used to magnify the images of distant objects by passing light through a series of lenses and prisms; the use of prisms results in a lightweight telescope. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the biblical Noah. ...


Although still disputed among the experts,[who?] many ophthalmologists recommend the use of glasses from early childhood onward to allow the eyes the best development possible. This article is about the branch of medicine. ...


Optometrists or ophthalmologists who are experienced in working with low vision patients can recommend various optical aids. Some low-vision clinics provide these aids on trial loan, with instruction in their use. Optometry is a doctoral-degree health care profession concerned with eyes and related structures, as well as vision, visual systems, and vision information processing in humans. ... Low vision is alternatively a general term used to describe lowered visual acuity, and a specific legal term in Canada and the United States used to designate someone with vision of 20/70 or less in the better eye with correction. ...


Sun protection

It is vital that people with albinism use sunscreen when exposed to sunlight to prevent premature skin aging or skin cancer. This poses a problem for those who cannot afford sunscreen, especially in regions with high exposure to sunlight, as in Africa.[citation needed] Skin cancer is a malignant growth on the skin which can have many causes. ... Sunscreen (also known as sunblock, suntan lotion) is a lotion, spray or other topical product that is intended to protect the skin from the suns ultraviolet (UV) radiation. ...


Use of sunglasses and hats with wide brims can make the glare outside bearable. Other things that can help people with albinism are avoiding sudden changes of the lighting situation (switching the light on in complete darkness), using dimmable switches and adding tint to car windows or blinds to normal windows. Lights should be yellowish rather than blue[citation needed] and not point towards the usual position of a person with albinism (like their seat at a table).[citation needed] Ray-Ban Wayfarer sunglasses (RB2132 901L) Sunglasses or sun glasses are a visual aid, variously termed spectacles or glasses, which feature lenses that are coloured or darkened to prevent strong light from reaching the eyes. ...


Misconceptions

While some of the very rare albinism disorders that are coupled with deafness and immunodeficiency appear to be linked with inbreeding,[2] the vast majority of sufferers of common albinism are not the product of such unions; the more usual albinism genes are widespread enough that they can easily produce albinistic offspring from parents that are not related.


A common misconception is that albinistic individuals of a species are sterile; they are in fact fully capable of reproducing. It is also thought by many that people with albinism live short life spans. This is not true in general, but may be a distorted view of a more reasonable fact that people with albinism have a higher risk of skin cancer if they do not use proper skin protection when in the sun. (Some very rare variants of albinism are lethal by adulthood or sooner, but they are so little-known by the general public that they are unlikely to have contributed to this belief.)


It has also been misunderstood that a person or other animal with albinism will become blind halfway through life; this is incorrect.


Culture

Zāl (Persian: زال) an Iranian Knight, who is perhaps the most famous Iranian with albinism. He is mentioned in "The Book of Kings" or Shahnameh as a warrior of ancient Persia (current Iran). He was born with white hair, therefore, his parents called him Zāl. In Persian (Farsi) Zaall refers to those who suffer from albinism. Zāl was the son of Sām and the grandson of Nariman, both heroes of ancient Iran and protectors of Motherland Iran or "Iran-zamin." Because of his defect, Zāl was rejected by his father. He was left when only an infant; upon Mountain Damavand, which has the highest geographic peak in Iran. The mythical Simurgh (a very large and wise bird which darkens the sky when flying - has been said that Phoenix in Western literature is a replication of this bird) found the baby and took him to her nest, where Zāl lived until being reunited with his family. Soon after rejoining his family, Zāl married Rudaba; their child was the greatest Iranian hero, Rostam. The mighty and wise Simurgh gave Zāl three feathers to burn when in trouble. She would appear as soon as the feathers were lit. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Simurgh carrying baby Zal ZÃ¥l (زال in Persian) was a mythical warrior of ancient Iran. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ...

Afro-Brazilian albino pride parade during Bahia carnival
Afro-Brazilian albino pride parade during Bahia carnival

While on the physical side, humans with albinism commonly have vision problems and need sun protection, they also face a social challenge, as the condition is often a source of ridicule, discrimination or even fear.[citation needed] Due to albinism's effect on one's outward appearance, cultures around the world have developed many superstitions regarding people with albinism, who are believed by some to have magical powers or to be able to tell the future,[citation needed] a common theme in fiction as well (see Albinism in popular culture for examples). For example, in Zimbabwe, modern folklore posits that sexual intercourse with an albinistic person will cure one of HIV, leading to the rape (and subsequent HIV infection) of women with albinism in that region.[16] In Tanzania in 2008, President Kikwete publicly condemned witchdoctors for killing albinos for their body parts which are thought to bring good luck. 19 albinos had been murdered between March 2007 and April 2008[17]. In Jamaica, people with albinism were historically degraded, and regarded as "cursed".[citation needed] A long-standing American urban legend is that of alleged "albino colonies" in rural New Jersey. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Afro-Brazilian is the term used to racially categorise Brazilian citizens who are black or mainly-black, yet it is rarely used in Brazil. ... Capital (and largest city) Salvador Demonym Baiano Government  -  Governor Jacques Wagner  -  Vice Governor Edmundo Pereira Santos Area  -  Total 564. ... The Sorceress by John William Waterhouse Magic, sometimes known as sorcery, is a conceptual system that asserts human ability to control the natural world (including events, objects, people, and physical phenomena) through mystical, paranormal or supernatural means. ... The depiction of albinism in popular culture, especially the portrayal of people with albinism in film and fiction, is asserted to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, societal prejudice and discrimination against such people. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Human immunodeficiency virus 2 Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections). ... Colonel Jakaya Mrisho Kikwete (born October 7, 1950) is a Tanzanian politician and Current President. ... For other uses, see Witch doctor (disambiguation). ... Look up Curse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Urban legend (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Portrayals of people with albinism in literature and films are rarely positive. This fact is sometimes referred to as the "evil albino" stereotype, or albino bias. While this stereotype is common, in recent years a few more positive roles have also been cast for mock-albino actors and occasionally genuinely albinistic ones. For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... This article is about motion pictures. ...


A number of real people with albinism have become famous, including historical figures such as Emperor Seinei of Japan, and Oxford don William Archibald Spooner; actor/comedian Victor Varnado; musicians such as Johnny and Edgar Winter, Winston "King Yellowman" Foster, Brother Ali, and Willie "Piano Red" Perryman; even a fashion model, Connie Chiu. Emperor Seinei (清寧天皇 Seinei Tennō) was the 22nd imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... William Archibald Spooner (July 22, 1844–August 29, 1930) was educated at Oswestry School and New College, Oxford, the first non-Wykehamist to be so, and became an Anglican priest and a scholar. ... Victor Varnado is an African American standup comedian and actor. ... John Dawson Johnny Winter III (born on 23 February 1944 in Beaumont, Texas, USA) is an American blues guitarist, singer, and producer. ... Edgar Winter (born December 28, 1946 in Beaumont, Texas) is an American musician who had significant success in the 1970s and 1980s. ... Yellowman (born Winston Foster in Negril, Jamaica in 1959) is a Jamaican ragga and dancehall deejay. ... Brother Ali (born Jason Newman, now Ali Newman) is an American hip hop artist. ... Piano Red (born Willie Perryman, later recording as Dr. Feelgood & the Interns) was an American blues musician, and the first to hit the pop music charts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


There have also been some well-known albino animals, including Migaloo, a whale off the coast of Australia; Copito de Nieve (Little Snowflake in Spanish) a Barcelona Zoo gorilla; Snowdrop, a Bristol Zoo penguin; and the sperm whale Mocha Dick, the inspiration for Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick. Binomial name Borowski, 1781 Humpback Whale range The Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) is a baleen whale. ... Floquet de Neu, the albino gorilla. ... Bristol Zoo is a zoo in the city of Bristol in South West England. ... Mocha Dick was a notorious male sperm whale that lived in the Pacific Ocean in the early 19th century. ... Moby-Dick book cover Moby-Dick - the official title of the first edition - is a novel by Herman Melville. ...

The depiction of albinism in popular culture, especially the portrayal of people with albinism in film and fiction, is asserted to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, societal prejudice and discrimination against such people. ...

See also

Leucism is characterized by reduced pigmentation, resulting in an individual with white or brighter patches of fur, plumage or skin than in the typical representative of the species. ... The Black Panther is the prototypical example of melanism. ... Xanthochromism (also called xanthochroism or xanthism) is a term that may be applied to birds, fish and other animals whose colouration is unusually yellow through an excess of yellow pigment, or possibly a loss of darker pigments that allows yellow pigment to be unusually dominant. ... Not to be confused with alphos, a form of leprosy once called vitiligo. ... The depiction of albinism in popular culture, especially the portrayal of people with albinism in film and fiction, is asserted to be largely negative and has raised concerns that it reinforces, or even engenders, societal prejudice and discrimination against such people. ... An albino African penguin. ... Several inheritable traits or congenital conditions in humans are classical examples of Mendelian inheritance: Their presence is controlled by a single gene that can either be of the autosomal-dominant or -recessive type. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c "Albinism", by Dr. Raymond E. Boissy, Dr. James J. Nordlund, et al., at eMedicine, 22 August 2005; retrieved 31 March 2007
  2. ^ a b Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man Database, at Johns Hopkins University (see also Mendelian Inheritance in Man for more information about this source).
  3. ^ a b c d "Facts about Albinism", by Richard King et al.
  4. ^ "Feather Colors: What We See" by Dr. Julie Feinstein of the American Museum of Natural History (NY), in Birder's World Magazine online archive; sourced December 2006, actual authoring/publication date unspecified.
  5. ^ "The Parblue Puzzle: Part 4—Common Parblue Varieties: The Cockatiel [Nymphicus hollandicus]" by Clive Hesford, The Genetics of Colour in the Budgerigar and Other Parrots, January 1998
  6. ^ "Amphibian Biology & Physiology: Caudata" at Amphibian Information Resource: An Educational Web Project About Amphibian Species; sourced December 2006, actual authoring/publication date unspecified.
  7. ^ Ilo Hiler, Albinos. Young Naturalist. The Louise Lindsey Merrick Texas Environment Series, No. 6, pp. 28-31. Texas A&M University Press, College Station (1983)
  8. ^ S. Dobosz, K. Kohlmann, K. Goryczko, H. Kuzminski (2000) Growth and vitality in yellow forms of rainbow trout. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 16, 117–120.
  9. ^ Draize, J.H., Woodard, G. & Calvery, H.O. (1944) Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membranes. J. Pharmacol. and Exp. Therapeutics. 82, 377–390.
  10. ^ de Brito, Marcelo F. G.; Caramaschi, Érica P.. "An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology 3 (1): 2005. 
  11. ^ "Albinism" by Carol A. Turkington at answers.com
  12. ^ ILDS - ICD10.
  13. ^ "Albinism: Modern molecular diagnosis"
  14. ^ a b "Albinism - Review of Optometry Online"
  15. ^ by John Lee[clarify]
  16. ^ ipsnews.net[clarify]
  17. ^ Times

eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

External links

Look up Albino in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Albinism
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Albino.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

Albinism in humans

Albinism support organizations

  • Positive Exposure—Non-profit organization founded by photographer Rick Guidotti, "dedicated to celebrating the spirit of difference". Focuses on genetic conditions, especially albinism.
  • Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Network (US-based)
  • NOAH—National Organization for Albinism and Hypopigmentation (USA); also has an online support group
  • International Albinism Center (research project based at the University of Minnesota, USA)
  • Albinism Fellowship (UK and Ireland)
  • AFA—Albinism Fellowship of Australia
  • Albino Alliance A support group/forum for people living with albinism in Australia
  • TAF—The Albino Foundation (Nigeria & USA)
  • ALBA—Asociación de Ayuda a Personas con Albinismo [Aid Association to Persons with Albinism] (Spain) (Spanish)
  • OLA—Organización Latinoamericana de Albinismo [Latin-American Albinism Organization] (Mexico) (Spanish)
  • Albinizm.ru community site (Russian)
  • Parent of a Child with Albinism Information based on a parent's personal experiences in having a child with albinism.

Other

  • "The Golden Child: People of African Ancestry with Albinism"
  • Portraits of people with albinism by Pieter Hugo

Albinism in animals

Albino cobra. It retains some yellow and red pigment, because it is not also axanthic.
Albino cobra. It retains some yellow and red pigment, because it is not also axanthic.
Binomial name Corydoras paleatus Corydoras paleatus is a common variety of the Corydoras genus of catfish. ... Inborn errors of metabolism comprise a large class of genetic diseases involving disorders of metabolism. ... A ketogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into ketone bodies through ketogenesis. ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Glutaric acidemia type 2 is an genetic disorder that is characterised by defects in the bodys ability to use proteins and fats for energy. ... Hyperlysinemia is a group of hereditary disorders characterized by an abnormal increase of lysine in the blood and associated with mental retardation, convulsions, and anemia. ... Saccharopinuria (an excess of saccharopine in the urine) is a variant form of hyperlysinemia caused by a partial enzyme deficiency. ... Leucine is one of the 20 most common amino acids and coded for by DNA. It is isomeric with isoleucine. ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of amino acid metabolism. ... Isovaleric acidemia is a rare genetic disorder in which the body is unable to process certain proteins properly. ... 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to process certain proteins properly. ... 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase deficiency also referred to as HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, is an uncommon inherited disorder in which the body cannot properly process the amino acid leucine. ... A glucogenic amino acid is an amino acid that can be converted into glucose through gluconeogenesis. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... Sarcosinemia is characterized by an increased concentration of sarcosine in blood plasma and urine. ... Glutathione synthetase deficiency is a rare is a disorder that prevents the production of glutathione. ... Ketoglutaric acid is refers to either of two crystalline ketone derivatives of glutaric acid which differ only by the position of the ketone functional group. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... Glutamine (abbreviated as Gln or Q; Glx or Z represents either glutamine or glutamic acid) is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code. ... Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency, also known as 4-hydoxybutyric aciduria or gamma-hydoxybutyric aciduria, is a rare disorder of GABA metabolism caused by a lack of the enzyme succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase . ... Proline is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH[CH2)3]. L-Proline is one of the twenty DNA-encoded amino acids. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Histidinemia is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme histidase. ... Categories: Biochemistry stubs ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... Homocystinuria, also known as Cystathionine beta synthase deficiency, is inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine. ... Cystathioninuria is the condition of an excess of cystathionine in the urine. ... Valine is an amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans, so it is considered an essential amino acid for human life. ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of amino acid metabolism. ... Isoleucine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH(CH3)CH2CH3. ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of amino acid metabolism. ... Beta-ketothiolase deficiency is an uncommon inherited disorder in which the body cannot properly process the amino acid isolecine or the products of lipid breakdown. ... In chemistry, an amino acid is any molecule that contains both amino and carboxylic acid functional groups. ... Propionic acidemia is an inherited disorder of inborn error of intermediary metabolism that may present in the early neonatal period with progressive encephalopathy. ... Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) is an inborn error of intermediary metabolism that may present in the early neonatal period with progressive encephalopathy and death due to a secondary hyperammonemia. ... A fumarate is a salt or ester of fumaric acid. ... Phenyl alanine is an α-amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2C6H5. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). ... Alkaptonuria (black urine disease, alcaptonuria or ochronosis) is a rare inherited genetic disorder of tyrosine metabolism. ... Ochronosis is a dermatological disorder that results in the adverse pigmentation of cartilage from a long term buildup of phenylalanine or tyrosine. ... Tyrosinemia (or Tyrosinaemia) is an error of metabolism, usually inborn, in which the body can not effectively break down the amino acid tyrosine, found in most animal and plant proteins. ... Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency (also known as BH4 deficiency) is a rare disorder that increases the blood levels of a substance called phenylalanine. ... What is a Urea Cycle Disorder? A urea cycle disorder is a genetic disorder caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes in the urea cycle which is responsible for removing ammonia from the blood stream. ... Hyperammonemia is a metabolic disturbance characterised by an excess of ammonia in the blood. ... Arginine (abbreviated as Arg or R)[1] is an α-amino acid. ... Aspartic acid, also known as aspartate, the name of its anion, is one of the 20 natural proteinogenic amino acids which are the building blocks of proteins. ... N-Acetylglutamate synthase deficiency is a urea cycle disorder. ... Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. ... Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC), the most common of the Urea Cycle Disorders, is a rare metabolic disorder, occurring in one out of every 40000 births. ... Ornithine translocase deficiency is a rare inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. ... Citrullinemia is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia and other toxic substances to accumulate in the blood. ... Argininosuccinic aciduria is an inherited disorder that causes ammonia to accumulate in the blood. ... Ë Cystinuria is an inherited autosomal recessive disorder and is characterized by the formation of cystine stones in the kidneys, ureter, and bladder. ... Hartnup disease, or Hartnups disease, or Hartnup disorder, is a genetic metabolic disorder in the absorption of the amino acid tryptophan that leads to the insufficent production of nicotinamide. ... Oculocerebrorenal syndrome (also called Lowe syndrome) is a X-linked recessive disorder characterized by hydrophthalmia, cataracts, mental retardation, aminoaciduria, reduced renal ammonia production and vitamin D-resistant rickets. ... Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI), also named hyperdibasic aminoaciduria type 2 or familial protein intolerance, is an autosomal recessive disorder of diamino acid transport. ... Cystinosis is a hereditary disorder of the renal tubules characterized by the presence of carbohydrates and amino acids in the urine, excessive urination, and low blood levels of potassium ions and phosphates. ... Fanconi Syndrome (also known as Fanconis syndrome) is a disorder in which the proximal tubular function of the kidney is impaired, resulting in decreased reabsorption of electrolytes and nutrients back into the bloodstream. ... Tyrosine (from the Greek tyros, meaning cheese, as it was first discovered in 1846 by German chemist Justus von Liebig in the protein casein from cheese[1][2]), 4-hydroxyphenylalanine, or 2-amino-3(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid, is one of the 20 amino acids that are used by cells... Broadly, melanin is any of the polyacetylene, polyaniline, and polypyrrole blacks and browns or their mixed copolymers. ... Young woman with albinism from Malawi. ... Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS) is an inherited disease which results in decreased pigmentation (oculocutaneous albinism), bleeding problems due to a platelet abnormality (platelet storage pool defect), and storage of an abnormal fat-protein compound (lysosomal accumulation of ceroid lipofuscin). ... Waardenburg syndrome is a rare genetic disorder most often characterized by varying degrees of deafness, minor defects in structures arising from the neural crest, and pigmentation anomalies. ... For the plant, see Glycine (plant). ... For the use of creatine to enhance athletic performance, please see Creatine supplements. ... Trimethylamine, also known as NMe3, N(CH3)3, and TMA, is a colorless, hygroscopic, and flammable simple amine with a typical fishy odor in low concentrations and an ammonia-like odor in higher concentrations. ... Fumarase deficiency is an enzyme irregularity that causes severe mental retardation, unusual facial features, brain malformation, and epileptic seizures due to an abnormally low amount of fumarase in cells. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Facts About Albinism (9932 words)
General health of a child and an adult with albinism is normal, and the reduction in melanin pigment in the skin, hair and the eyes should have no effect on the brain, the cardiovascular system, the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the genitourinary system, the musculoskeletal system, or the immune system.
This appeared to be a type of ocular albinism that was caused by a gene on an autosome chromosome (non-sex chromosome) rather than on the X chromosome; hence, the name of autosomal recessive ocular albinism.
Albinism: A group of inherited conditions which include a decrease in the amount of pigment in the eyes alone, or in both the eyes and skin.
Albinism Information on Healthline (931 words)
Albinism is an inherited condition that causes a lack of pigment in the hair, skin or eyes.
This type of albinism occurs mainly in males because the gene that causes it is located on the X chromosome.
Other common affects of albinism on the eyes include nystagmus, a constant, involuntary shifting of the eyes from side to side; and strabismus, a disorder of the muscles in the eyes that causes a wandering eye or crossed eyes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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