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Encyclopedia > Albertus Magnus
Saint Albertus Magnus

Albertus Magnus (fresco, 1352, Treviso, Italy)
Doctor of the Church
Born ca. 1193/1206, Lauingen, Bavaria
Died November 15, 1280, Cologne, Germany
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Beatified 1622
Canonized 1931 by Pius XI
Major shrine St. Andreas in Cologne
Feast November 15
Patronage Cincinnati, Ohio; medical technicians; natural sciences; philosophers; scientists; students; World Youth Day
Saints Portal

Albertus Magnus (b. 1193/1206 - d. November 15, 1280), also known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, was a Dominican friar who achieved fame for his comprehensive knowledge and advocacy for the peaceful coexistence of science and religion. He is considered to be the greatest German philosopher and theologian of the Middle Ages. He was the first medieval scholar to apply Aristotle's philosophy to Christian thought at the time. Catholicism honors him as a Doctor of the Church, one of only 33 men and women with that honor. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Lauingen is a town in the district of Dillingen in Bavaria, Germany. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Icon of St. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World Youth Day 2000 in Rome World Youth Day (WYD) is a gathering of Catholic young people, initiated by Pope John Paul II in 1984 to consolidate the ordinary youth ministry by offering new encouragement for commitment, objectives which foster ever greater involvement and participation (Letter from Pope John Paul... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... // Saladin dies, and the lands of the Kurdish Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt and Syria are split among his descendants. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Middle age is that stage in life when physical decline has started but a person cannot be called old. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... In Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Lat. ...

Contents

Biography

He was born sometime between 1193 and 1206, to the Count of Bollstädt in Lauingen in Bavaria.[1] Contemporaries such as Roger Bacon applied the term "Magnus" to Albertus during his own lifetime, referring to his immense reputation as a scholar and philosopher. Lauingen is a town in the district of Dillingen in Bavaria, Germany. ... The geographic region and Free State of Bavaria (German:  ), with an area of 70,553 km² (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ...


Albertus was educated principally at Padua, where he received instruction in Aristotle's writings. A late account by Rudolph de Novamagia refers to Albertus' encounter with the Blessed Virgin Mary, who convinced him to enter holy orders. In 1223 (or 1221) he became a member of the Dominican Order, against the wishes of his family, and studied theology at Bologna and elsewhere. Selected to fill the position of lecturer at Cologne, where the Dominicans had a house, he taught for several years there, at Regensburg, Freiburg, Strasbourg and Hildesheim. In 1245 he went to Paris, received his doctorate and taught for some time as a master of theology with great success. During this time Thomas Aquinas began to study under Albertus. Gymnasivm Patavinum: The Universitys main Bo palace shown in a 1654 woodcut The University of Padua (Università degli Studi di Padova, UNIPD) is one of the most well-renowned universities in Italy. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... // Events May 13 - End of the reign of Emperor Juntoku, emperor of Japan Emperor ChÅ«kyō briefly reigns over Japan Former Emperor Go-Toba leads an unsuccessful rebellion against the Kamakura Shogunate Emperor Go-Horikawa ascends to the throne of Japan January - Mongol Army under Jochi captures the city of... At Wikiversity you can learn more and teach others about Theology at: The School of Theology Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in Emiliano-Romagnolo) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... Regensburg (also Ratisbon, Latin Ratisbona) is a city (population 151. ... Freiburg city from Schlossberg Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Breisgau region, on the western edge of the southern Black Forest (German: Schwarzwald) with about 214,000 inhabitants. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... â–¶ (help· info) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Events Rebellion against king Sancho II of Portugal in favor of his brother Alphonso. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ...


In 1254 Albertus was made provincial of the Dominican Order, and fulfilled the arduous duties of the office with great care and efficiency. During his tenure he publicly defended the Dominicans against attacks by the secular and regular faculty of the University of Paris, commented on St John, and answered the errors of the Arabian philosopher Averroes. For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... Medieval Period During the Medieval Period in Europe, philosophy was at an almost standstill. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ...


In 1260 Pope Alexander IV made him Bishop of Regensburg, which office he resigned after three years. During the exercise of his duties he enhanced his reputation for humility by refusing to ride a horse--in accord with the dictates of the Dominican order--instead walking back and forth across his huge diocese. This earned him the affectionate sobriquet, "boots the bishop," from his parishioners. After his stint as bishop, he spent the remainder of his life partly in retirement in the various houses of his order, yet often preaching throughout southern Germany. In 1270 he preached the eighth Crusade in Austria. Among the last of his labours was the defence of the orthodoxy of his former pupil, Thomas Aquinas, whose death in 1274 grieved Albertus. After suffering collapse of health in 1278, he died on November 15, 1280, in Cologne, Germany. His tomb is in the crypt of the Dominican church of St. Andreas in Cologne. The magnificent Cathedral of Chartres was dedicated in 1260. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... The Diocese of Regensburg (Latin Dioecesis Ratisbonensis) is a diocese of the Roman Catholic Church seated in Regensburg. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France, (who was by now in his mid-fifties) in 1270. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ...


Albertus is frequently mentioned by Dante, who made his doctrine of free will the basis of his ethical system. In his Divine Comedy, Dante places Albertus with his pupil Thomas Aquinas among the great lovers of wisdom (Spiriti Sapienti) in the Heaven of the Sun. Albertus is also mentioned, along with Agrippa and Paracelsus, in Mary Shelly's Frankenstein, where his writings serve as an influence to a young Victor Frankenstein. Dante in a fresco series of famous men by Andrea del Castagno, ca. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Cornelius Agrippa, as portrayed in Libri tres de occulta philosophia. ... Paracelsus (11 November or 17 December 1493 in Einsiedeln, Switzerland - 24 September 1541) was an alchemist, physician, astrologer, and general occultist. ... Mary Shelley Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley née Godwin (August 30, 1797–February 1, 1851) was an English writer who is, perhaps, equally-famously remembered as the wife of Romantic poet Percy Bysshe Shelley and as the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... This article is about the 1818 novel. ... Victor Frankenstein is the protagonist of the 1818 novel Frankenstein, written by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley. ...


Albertus was beatified in 1622. He was canonized and officially named a Doctor of the Church in 1931 by Pope Pius XI. His feast day is celebrated on November 15. Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ) (May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Writings

Albertus' writings collected in 1899 went to 38 volumes. These displayed his prolific habits and literally encyclopedic knowledge of topics such as logic, theology, botany, geography, astronomy/astrology, mineralogy, chemistry, zoology, physiology, phrenology and others; all of which the result of logic and observation. He was perhaps the most widely read author of his time. He digested, interpreted and systematized the whole of Aristotle's works, gleaned from the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators, in accordance with church doctrine. He came to be so associated with Aristotle that he was sometimes referred to as "Aristotle's ape". Most modern knowledge of Aristotle was preserved and presented by Albertus. Image File history File links Albertus_Magnus_Painting_by_Joos_van_Gent. ... Image File history File links Albertus_Magnus_Painting_by_Joos_van_Gent. ... The Institution of the Eucharist Joos van Wassenhove, Justus or Jodocus of Ghent, or Giusto da Guanto. ... Panorama of Urbino with the cathedral and the palazzo ducale Urbino is a city in the Marche in Italy, southwest of Pesaro, a World Heritage Site with a great cultural history during the Renaissance as the seat of Federico da Montefeltro. ... 5<sup>Superscript text</sup>7<!-- Comment --><blockquote> Block quote </blockquote>{| class=class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |-{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1, cell 2 | row 1, cell 3 |- | row 2... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A 19th century Phrenology chart. ...


Albertus' activity, however, was more philosophical than theological (see Scholasticism). The philosophical works, occupying the first six and the last of the twenty-one volumes, are generally divided according to the Aristotelian scheme of the sciences, and consist of interpretations and condensations of Aristotle's relative works, with supplementary discussions upon contemporary topics, and occasional divergences from the opinions of the master. Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ...


His principal theological works are a commentary in three volumes on the Books of the Sentences of Peter Lombard (Magister Sententiarum), and the Summa Theologiae in two volumes. The latter is in substance a more didactic repetition of the former.
Peter Lombard (c. ...


Albertus as a scientist

Albertus Magnus monument in Cologne
Albertus Magnus monument in Cologne

Albertus's knowledge of physical science was considerable and for the age remarkably accurate. His industry in every department was great, and though we find in his system many gaps which are characteristic of scholastic philosophy, his protracted study of Aristotle gave him a great power of systematic thought and exposition. His scholarly legacy justifies his contemporaries' bestowing upon him the honourable surname Doctor Universalis. It must, however, be admitted that much of his knowledge was ill digested; it even appears that he regarded Plato and Speusippus as Stoics.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (1224x1632, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1224x1632, 335 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Cologne (disambiguation). ... PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Speusippus was an ancient Greek philosopher, nephew and successor of Plato. ... Stoicism is a school of philosophy commonly associated with such Greek philosophers as Zeno of Citium, Cleanthes, or Chrysippus and with such later Romans as Cicero, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Epictetus. ...


In the centuries since his death many stories arose about Albertus. These stories are without basis in fact, as are those that portray him as a magician and alchemist. He did believe that stones had occult properties, as he related in his work De mineralibus. However, there is no evidence that he ever performed alchemical experiments or wrote on the subject. Much of the modern confusion results from the fact that later works, particularly the alchemical work known as the Secreta Alberti or the Experimenta Alberti, were falsely attributed to Albertus by their authors in order to increase the prestige of the text through association.


However, it is true that Albertus was deeply interested in astrology, as has been articulated by scholars such as Paola Zambelli.[2] While today we would view this as evidence of superstition, in the high Middle Ages--and well into the early modern period--few intellectuals, if any, questioned the basic assumptions of astrology: humans live within a web of celestial influences that affect our bodies, and thereby motivate us to behave in certain ways. Within this worldview, it was logical to believe that astrology could be used to predict the probable future of a human being. Albertus made this a central component of his philosophical system, arguing that an understanding of the celestial influences affecting us could help us to live our lives more in accord with Christian precepts. The most comprehensive statement of his astrological beliefs is to be found in a work he authored around 1260, now known as the Speculum astronomiae. However, details of these beliefs can be found in almost everything he wrote, from his early Summa de bonoto his last work, the Summa theologiae. Hand-coloured version of the anonymous Flammarion woodcut. ...


Music

Albertus is known for his enlightening commentary on the musical practice of his times. Most of his written musical observations are found in his commentary on Aristotle's Poetics. He rejected the idea of "music of the spheres" as ridiculous: movement of astronomical bodies, he supposed, is incapable of generating sound. He also wrote extensively on proportions in music, and on the three different subjective levels on which plainchant could work on the human soul: purging of the impure; illumination leading to contemplation; and nourishing perfection through contemplation. Of particular interest to 20th century music theorists is the attention he paid to silence as an integral part of music. Musica universalis or music of the spheres is a medieval philosophical concept that regards the proportions in the movements of the celestial bodies - the sun, moon and planets - as a form of musica (the medieval Latin name for music). ... Broadly speaking, plainsong is the name given to the body of traditional songs used in the liturgies of the Catholic Church. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901&#8211;2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900&#8211;1999...


Trivia

Iconography inspired by writings of Albertus Magnus
Iconography inspired by writings of Albertus Magnus
  • The iconography of the tympanum and archivolts of the late-13th c. portal of Strasbourg Cathedral was inspired by the writings of Albertus Magnus.[3]
  • Magnus is recorded as having made a mechanical automaton in the form of a brass head that would answer questions put to it. Such a feat was also attributed to Roger Bacon.[4]
  • In The Concept of Anxiety Søren Kierkegaard wrote that Albert Magnus, "arrogantly boasted of his speculation before the deity and suddenly became stupid." Kierkegaard cites G. O. Marbach who he quotes as saying "Albertus repente ex asino factus philosophus et ex philosopho asinus [Albert was suddenly transformed from an ass into a philosopher and from a philosopher into an ass]"[5]
  • The typeface Albertus is named in his memory.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution (1524 × 1040 pixel, file size: 599 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albertus Magnus Archivolt ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 546 pixelsFull resolution (1524 × 1040 pixel, file size: 599 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albertus Magnus Archivolt ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pediment is a classical architectural element consisting of a triangular section or gable found above the horizontal superstructure (entablature) which lies immediately upon the columns. ... An archivolt is a group of mouldings (or other elements) surrounding an arched opening, corresponding to the architrave in the case of a rectangular opening. ... A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ... West façade of the cathedral, viewed from Rue Mercière A close-up of the west façades central portal in the above picture The Cathedral of our Lady of Strasbourg (French: , German: ) is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Strasbourg, France. ... An automaton (plural: automata) is a self-operating machine. ... The Concept of Dread (or The Concept of Anxiety depending upon the translation) was a philosophical work written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1844. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Albertus is a glyphic serif typeface designed by Berthold Wolpe in the period 1932 to 1940 for the the Monotype Corporation type foundry. ...

Quotes

Natural science does not consist in ratifying what others have said, but in seeking the causes of phenomena.


See also

The history of science in the Middle Ages refers to the discoveries in the field of natural philosophy throughout the Middle Ages - the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history. ... Not everyone listed here is Christian or a mystic, but all have contributed to the Christian understanding of connection to or direct experience of God. ... ALBERTUS MAGNUS COLLEGE In 1924, the Dominican Congregation of Saint Mary of the Springs purchased an estate in New Haven, Connecticut, in an effort to found a womens college. ... A Brazen Head (or Brass Head or Bronze Head) was a prophetic device attributed to many medieval scholars who were believed to be wizards. ...

References

  1. ^ Kennedy, D.J. (1913). "St. Albertus Magnus". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  2. ^ Paola Zambelli, "The Speculum Astronomiae and its Enigma" Dordrecht.
  3. ^ France: A Phaidon Cultural Guide, Phaidon Press, 1985, ISBN 0-7148-2353-8, p. 705
  4. ^ Ephraim Chambers. Cyclopaedia (1728). Androides.
  5. ^ The Concept of Anxiety, Princeton University Press, 1980, ISBN 0-691-02011-6, pp. 150-151
  • Attwater, Donald and Catherine Rachel John. The Penguin Dictionary of Saints. 3rd edition. New York: Penguin Books, 1993. ISBN 0-140-51312-4.

The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The Concept of Dread (or The Concept of Anxiety depending upon the translation) was a philosophical work written by Danish philosopher Søren Kierkegaard in 1844. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

Further reading

The Dictionary of Scientific Biography is a reference work consisting of extensive biographies of scientists from antiquity to modern times, excluding scientists who were alive when the Dictionary was first put out. ...

External links


The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (hereafter SEP) is a free online encyclopedia of philosophy run and maintained by Stanford University. ... The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language encyclopedia published in 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press. ...

This article is part of the Medieval Philosophers series
Augustine of Hippo | Boëthius | Johannes Scotus Eriugena | Rhazes | Roscelin | Avicenna | Algazel | Anselm of Canterbury | Bernard of Chartres | Peter Abélard | Gilbert de la Porrée | Hugh of St. Victor | Richard of St. Victor | Maimonides | Alexander of Hales | Averroës | Alain de Lille | Robert Grosseteste | Albertus Magnus | Roger Bacon | Bonaventure | Thomas Aquinas | Ramon Llull | Godfrey of Fontaines | Henry of Ghent | Giles of Rome | John Duns Scotus | William of Ockham | Jean Buridan | Nicole Oresme | George Gemistos Plethon | Johannes Bessarion | Francisco de Vitoria

This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... There are several persons called Boëthius: Philosophers: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius - to many scholars this is the Boëthius, a late-Roman writer best known for his works in philosophy and theology. ... J. Scotus Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... Rhazes-Treating a Patient (artist unknown) Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (born in Rayy, Iran, 864; died in Baghdad, Iraq, 930 AD) was a versatile Persian philosopher (hakim), who made fundamental and lasting contributions to the fields of medicine, chemistry (alchemy) and philosophy. ... Roscellinus, also called Roscelin or in latin Roscellinus Compendiensis and Rucelinus, (~1050 - ~1122) was a French philosopher and theologian, often regarded as the founder of Nominalism (see Scholasticism), born in Compiègne, France. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali (born 1058 in Tus, Khorasan province of Iran, died 1111, Tus) was a Persian Muslim theologian and philosopher, known as Algazel to the western medieval world. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Bernard of Chartres (Bernardus Carnotensis) was a twelfth-century French philosopher, scholar, and administrator. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079–April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Gilbert de la Porrée, frequently known as Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictavieiisis (1070 - September 4, 1154), scholastic logician and theologian, was born at Poitiers. ... Hugh of St. ... Richard of St. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Averroes Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis) (c. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... For other uses, see Bonaventure (disambiguation). ... Saint Thomas Aquinas (also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Ramon Llull. ... Godfrey of Fontaines was a scholastic philosopher and theologian; born near Liège, within the first half of the thirteenth century, he became a canon of his native diocese, and also of Paris and Cologne, and was elected, in 1300, to the See of Tournai, which he declined. ... Henry of Ghent (c. ... Giles of Rome (Latin Ægidius Romanus) (circa 1243-1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (c. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Nicolas Oresme (c. ... Georgius Gemistos ,or Plethon (or Pletho), (c. ... Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... Francisco de Vitoria (1492-1546) was a Renaissance theologian, founder of the tradition in philosophy known as the School of Salamanca, noted especially for his contributions to the theory of Just War. ... Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge&#8212;writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others&#8212;in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Albertus Magnus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1017 words)
Albertus is frequently mentioned by Dante, who made his doctrine of free will the basis of his ethical system.
Albertus was both a student and a teacher of alchemy and chemistry.
Magnus is recorded as having made a mechanical automaton in the form of a brass head that would answer questions put to it.
Pioneers of Psychology [2001 Tour] - School of Education & Psychology (1105 words)
Albertus distinguished the way to knowledge by revelation and faith from the way of philosophy and of science; the latter follows the authorities of the past according to their competence, but it also makes use of observation and proceeds by means of reason and intellect to the highest degrees of abstraction.
From 1254 to 1257 Albertus was provincial of “Teutonia,” the German province of the Dominicans.
Albertus must be regarded as unique in his time for having made accessible and available the Aristotelian knowledge of nature and for having enriched it by his own observations in all branches of the natural sciences.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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