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Encyclopedia > Albert Speer
Albert Speer
Albert Speer (Neurenberg)
Birth March 19, 1905
Mannheim, Germany
Death September 1, 1981 (aged 76)
London, England
Party National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)
Party and Political Positions
  • First Architect of the Third Reich
  • Minister for Armaments

Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer, commonly known as Albert Speer (listen ; March 19, 1905September 1, 1981), was an architect, author and high-ranking Nazi German government official, sometimes called "the first architect of the Third Reich". Albert Speer (born July 29, 1934 in Berlin) is a German architect and urban planner. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly, the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1920 and 1945. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links De-Albert_Speer. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Speer was Hitler's chief architect before becoming his Minister for Armaments during the war. He reformed Germany's war production to the extent that it continued to increase for over a year despite increasingly intensive Allied bombing. After the war, he was tried at Nuremberg and sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment for his role in the Third Reich. As "the Nazi who said sorry"[1], he was the only senior Nazi figure to admit guilt and express remorse. Following his release in 1966, he became an author, writing two bestselling autobiographical works, and a third about the Third Reich. His two autobiographical works, Inside the Third Reich and Spandau: the Secret Diaries detailed his often close personal relationship with German dictator Adolf Hitler, and have provided readers and historians with an unequalled personal view inside the workings of the Third Reich. Speer died of natural causes in 1981, in London, England. This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early years

Speer was born in Mannheim, Germany, the second of three sons of Albert and Lina Speer. Although Speer became an architect, he originally wanted to become a mathematician. Instead, he followed in the footsteps of his father and grandfather and studied architecture. He began his architectural studies at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; his decision to study locally instead of at one of the more prestigious institutes was dictated by the inflation of 1923. In 1924 when the inflation had stabilized, Speer transferred his studies to the more esteemed Technical University of Munich. In 1925 he transferred again, this time to the Technical University of Berlin. It was there that he was under the tutelage of Heinrich Tessenow. Speer had a high regard for Tessenow and when he passed his exams in 1927 he became Tessenow's assistant. His duties as assistant involved teaching seminar classes three days a week. Although Tessenow himself never agreed with Nazism, a number of his students did, and it was they who persuaded Speer to attend a Nazi Party rally in a Berlin beer-hall in December 1930. Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... The Universität Karlsruhe (TH) (also called Fridericiana / University of Karlsruhe) recently merged with Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe to form the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). ... Munich University of Technology, or Technical University of Munich (TUM) (in German: Technische Universität München, TUM), is a major German university located in Munich (and the towns of Garching and Freising outside of Munich). ... South Side of the main building Main building The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin, Germany. ... he licks jacks balls then massages his mums feet ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         The National Socialist German Workers Party, (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ...


Speer claims to have been apolitical as a young man; nevertheless, he did attend the rally. He was surprised to find Hitler dressed in a neat blue suit, rather than the brown uniform seen on Nazi Party posters. Speer claimed to have been quite affected, not only with Hitler's proposed solutions to the threat of Communism and his renunciation of the Treaty of Versailles, but also with the man himself. Several weeks later he attended another rally, though this one was presided over by Joseph Goebbels. Speer was disturbed by the way he had whipped the crowd into a frenzy, playing on their hopes. Although Goebbels' performance offended Speer, he could not shake the impressions Hitler made on him. The next day he joined the Nazi Party as member number 474,481. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ...


In the summer of 1922 he got to know Margarete 'Margret' Weber from Heidelberg (1905 - 1987). They married in Berlin on August 28, 1928 despite the fact that Speer's mother was against this relationship. Between 1934 and 1942 Margret gave birth to six children: Albert, Hilde, Fritz, Margarete, Arnold and Ernst. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Albert Speer (born July 29, 1934 in Berlin) is a German architect and urban planner. ...


Speer's first major commission as a Party member came in 1932 when Karl Hanke (whose villa Speer previously worked on) recommended him to Goebbels to help renovate the new District Headquarters in Berlin, and, later, to renovate Goebbels' Propaganda Ministry. Goebbels was impressed with his work and recommended him to Hitler, who assigned him to help Paul Troost renovate the Chancellery in Berlin. Speer's most notable work on this assignment was the addition of the famous balcony from which Hitler often presented himself to crowds that assembled below. Speer subsequently became a prominent member of Hitler's inner circle and a very close friend to him, winning a special place with Hitler that was unique amongst the Nazi leadership. Hitler, according to Speer, was very contemptuous towards anybody he viewed as part of the bureaucracy, and prized fellow artists like Speer with whom he felt a certain kinship, especially as Hitler himself had previously entertained architectural ambitions. Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 - 8 June 1945) was a Nazi Party official who served as Gauleiter of Lower Silesia from 1940 to 1945. ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... The Propagandaministerium () (or State Ministry for Public enlightenment and Propaganda) was the Ministry of propaganda in Nazi Germany. ... Paul Ludwig Troost Paul Ludwig Troost (August 17, 1878 to 21 March 1934) born in Elberfeld. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...


First architect of the Reich

Zeppelinfeld
Zeppelinfeld

When Troost died in 1934, Speer was chosen to replace him as the Party's chief architect. One of his first commissions after promotion was perhaps the most familiar of his designs: the Zeppelintribüne, the Nuremberg parade grounds seen in Leni Riefenstahl's propaganda masterpiece, Triumph of the Will. In his autobiography, Speer claimed that, upon seeing the original design, he made a derogatory remark to the effect that the parade ground would resemble a "rifle club" meet. He was then challenged to create a new design. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 684 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) *Description: Reichsparteitagsgelände (Area of the Reichsparteitage) in Nuremberg: Zeppelinfeld December 2004 *Source: Stefan Wagner, http://trumpkin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 684 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) *Description: Reichsparteitagsgelände (Area of the Reichsparteitage) in Nuremberg: Zeppelinfeld December 2004 *Source: Stefan Wagner, http://trumpkin. ... Nürnberg redirects here. ... Nazi party rally grounds (in German Reichsparteitagsgelände) is the name of a site in the southeast of Nuremberg (UGN: 49. ... Helene Bertha Amalie Leni Riefenstahl (August 22, 1902 – September 8, 2003) was a German film director, dancer and actress, and widely noted for her aesthetics and advances in film technique. ... Triumph of the Will (German: Triumph des Willens) is a propaganda film by the German filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl. ...


The grounds were based on ancient Doric architecture of the Pergamon Altar in Anatolia, but magnified to an enormous scale, capable of holding two hundred and forty thousand people. At the 1934 Party rally on the parade grounds, Speer surrounded the site with one hundred and thirty anti-aircraft searchlights. This created the effect of a "Cathedral of Light", (which referenced columns) or, as it was called by British Ambassador Sir Neville Henderson, a "cathedral of ice". Speer later described this as his greatest work. The Doric order was one of the orginal pokersthree orders or organizational systems of Ancient Greek or classical architecture; the other two canonical orders were the Ionic and the Corinthian. ... The front of the Pergamon Altar, as it is reconstructed in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Edisons classical searchlight cart. ... The Cathedral of Light was the the term used to describe the main aesthetic feature of the 1934 Nuremberg Rallies. ... For other meanings of the term, see column (disambiguation). ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... Sir Neville Henderson Sir Neville Henderson (1882-1942) British Ambassador to Germany (1937-39) PERHAPS ONE OF the least understood personalities central to the political history of the Second World War is Sir Nevile Meyrick Henderson (1882 – 1941). ...


Nuremberg was also to be the site of many more official Nazi buildings, most of which were never built; for example, the German Stadium would have held another four hundred thousand spectators as the site of the Aryan Games, a proposed replacement for the Olympic Games. While planning these buildings, Speer invented the theory of "ruin value." According to this theory, enthusiastically supported by Hitler, all new buildings would be constructed in such a way that they would leave aesthetically pleasing ruins thousands of years in the future. Such ruins would be a testament to the greatness of the Third Reich, just as ancient Greek or Roman ruins were symbols of the greatness of their civilisations. In practice, this theory manifested itself in his marked preference for monumental stone construction, rather than the use of steel frames and ferroconcrete. The Aryan Games were a proposed replacement for the Olympic Games by the National Socialist government, to be housed permanently in Nuremberg at the German Stadium that was designed, but never built, by Albert Speer. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Ruin value (German: Ruinenwert) is the concept that a building be designed such that if it eventually collapsed, it would leave behind aesthetically pleasing ruins that would last far longer without any maintenance at all. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ...


In 1937 Speer designed the German Pavilion for the 1937 international exposition in Paris. Speer's work was located directly across from the Soviet Pavilion and was designed to represent a massive defence against the onslaught of Communism. Both pavilions were awarded gold medals for their designs. The Exposition Internationale de Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (International Exposition dedicated to Art and Technology in Modern Life) was held in 1937 in Paris, France. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


Speer was also directed to make plans to rebuild Berlin, which was to become the capital of a "Greater Germany"—Welthauptstadt Germania. The first step in these plans was the Olympic Stadium for the 1936 Summer Olympics, designed by Werner March. Speer also designed the new Reich Chancellery, which included a vast hall designed to be twice as long as the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles. Hitler wanted him to build a third, even larger Chancellery, although it was never begun. The second Chancellery was damaged by the Battle of Berlin in 1945 and was eventually demolished by the Soviet occupiers after the war. Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Olympiastadion (Olympic Stadium) is a sports stadium in Berlin. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... Werner March was one of Adolph Hitlers architects, his most famouse work was Berlins olypmic stadium. ... Exterior view of the entrance of the New Reich Chancellery. ... For the room of this name there, see the item in the article Palace of Versailles. ... Hall of Mirrors redirects here. ... Combatants Soviet Union Poland Nazi Germany Commanders 1st Belorussian Front – Georgiy Zhukov 2nd Belorussian Front – Konstantin Rokossovskiy 1st Ukrainian Front – Ivan Konev Army Group Vistula – Gotthard Heinrici then Kurt von Tippelskirch[2] Army Group Centre – Ferdinand Schörner Berlin Defense Area – Helmuth Reymann then Helmuth Weidling #[3] Strength 2,500...


Almost none of the other buildings planned for Berlin were ever built. Berlin was to be reorganised along a central three-mile-(five km) long avenue. At the north end, Speer planned to build the Volkshalle—an enormous domed building, based on St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. The dome of the building would have been impractically large; it would be over 700 feet (210 m) high and 800 feet (240 m) in diameter, 17 times larger than the dome of St. Peter's. At the southern end of the avenue would be an arch based on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris, but again, much larger; it would be almost 400 feet (120 m) high, and the Arc de Triomphe would have been able to fit inside its opening. The outbreak of World War II in 1939 led to the abandonment of these plans. Model of Volkshalle The Volkshalle was a huge monumental building planned, but never built, by Adolf Hitler and his architect Albert Speer. ... For other uses, see Dome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arch (disambiguation). ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Part of the land for the boulevard was to be found by building two major railway stations, one just north and one just south of the boulevard. This would free up many of the tracks in between. However, according to Speer in The Spandau Diaries, 80,000 buildings would have to be destroyed to complete his plans.


While the north-south axis was not completed, an east-west axis, focused upon the Brandenburg Gate was completed and remains in Berlin today. While none of the buildings designed by Speer during the Nazi era still stands in Berlin, some lampposts remain. The Brandenburg Gate The Brandenburg Gate (German: Brandenburger Tor) is a former city gate and one of the main symbols of Berlin, Germany. ...


It has been alleged that Speer was responsible for the forced evictions of Jews from their houses to make room for his grand plans, and for re-housing only Aryans affected by this work. These allegations are, however, disputed. He was also listed as being present at the 1943 Posen Conference, a charge Speer later contested by saying that he had in fact left early. On October 6, 1943, SS-Reichsfuhrer Heinrich Himmler, Nazi Party officials, and Gauleiters attended a conference in Posen, Eastern Germany (now Poznan, Poland). ...


Speer did have an architectural rival: Hermann Giesler, whom Hitler also favoured. There were frequent clashes between the two in regard to architectural matters and in closeness to Hitler. Hermann Giesler (April 2, 1898, Siegen - January 20, 1987, Düsseldorf) was a German architect during the Nazi era, one of the two architects most favored and rewarded by Adolf Hitler (the other being Albert Speer). ...


Minister of Armaments

Hitler was always a strong supporter of Speer, in part because of Hitler's own frustrated artistic and architectural visions. A strong affinity developed between Hitler and the ambitious young architect early in their professional relationship. For Speer, serving as architect for the head of the German state and being given virtual carte blanche as to expenses, presented a tremendous opportunity. For Hitler, Speer seemed to be capable of translating Hitler's grandiose visions into tangible designs which expressed what Hitler felt were National Socialist principles. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ...


After Minister of Armaments and War Production Fritz Todt was killed in a plane crash in 1942, Hitler appointed Speer as his successor in all of his posts. Hitler's affinity for Speer and the architect's efficiency and avoidance of party squabbling are believed to have been considerations in Speer's promotion. In his autobiography, Speer recounts that the power-hungry but lazy Hermann Göring raced to Hitler's headquarters upon word of Todt's death, hoping to claim the office. Hitler instead presented Göring with the fait accompli of Speer's appointment. Fritz Todt in the uniform of a major general of the Luftwaffe Fritz Todt (September 4, 1891 – February 8, 1942) was an German engineer and senior Nazi figure, the founder of Organisation Todt. ... Hermann Wilhelm Göring ( ) (also Goering in English) (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, and commander of the Luftwaffe. ...


Faced with this new responsibility, Speer tried to put the German economy on a war footing comparable to that of the Allied nations, but found himself incessantly hindered by party politics and lack of cooperation from the Nazi hierarchy. Nevertheless, by slowly centralising almost all industry control and cutting through the dense bureaucracy, he succeeded in multiplying war production four times over the next two and a half years, and it reached its peak in 1944 during the height of the Allied strategic bombing campaign. Another big hurdle in his way was the Nazi policy of excluding women from factory work, a serious hindrance in war production and a problem not experienced by Germany's enemies, all of whom made use of the female workforce. To fill this gap, Speer made heavy use of foreign labour as well as forced labour, the latter mainly from the various types of prisoners in the Third Reich. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ...


Speer was considered one of the more "rational" members of the Nazi hierarchy, in contrast with Hitler, Göring, Goebbels, and Himmler. Speer's name was found on the list of members of a post-Hitler government envisioned by the conspirators behind the 1944 July 20 plot to kill Hitler. However, the list had a question mark and the annotation "if possible" by his name, which Speer credits with helping save his life from the extensive purges that followed the scheme's failure. By his own account, Speer considered assassinating Hitler in 1945 by releasing poison gas into the air intake vent on the Führerbunker, but the plan, such as it was, was frustrated for a number of reasons. Independent evidence for this is sparse. Some credit his revelation of this plan at the Nuremberg trials as being pivotal in sparing him the death sentence, which the Soviets had pushed for. Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


On 13 January, Speer gave a presentation to army corps commanders in a camp near Berlin. According to Speer, Allied bombing was not the biggest problem for German industry. He pointed out that German industry had produced 218,000 rifles in December 1944 alone, nearly double the monthly average in 1941. The production of automatic weapons was up by four times and tank production was up by nearly five times. In addition, the tanks produced were much heavier. [2] January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


Speer talked for over forty minutes reeling off production statistics. German industry's problem, according to Speer, was Germany's shortage of fuel. Speer did not mention to the corps commanders anything about the shortage of ammunition or the growing reliance on slave labour. [3]


Hitler continued to consider Speer trustworthy, though this trust waned near the war's end as Speer, at considerable risk, campaigned clandestinely to prevent the implementation of Hitler's Nero Decree. The Nero Decree was issued on 19 March and it promoted a scorched earth policy on both German soil and occupied territories. Speer worked in association with General Gotthard Heinrici, whose troops fighting in the east retreated to the American-held lines and surrendered there instead of following Hitler's orders to make what would have been a suicidal effort to hold off the Soviets from Berlin. By March 1945, Allied forces had penetrated deep within Germany and were poised to launch their final assault on the Third Reich. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... Gotthard Heinrici. ...


Speer even confessed to Hitler shortly before the dictator's suicide that he had disobeyed, and indeed actively hindered Hitler's "scorched earth" decree. According to Speer's autobiography, Speer visited the Führerbunker towards the end and stated gently but bluntly to Hitler that the war was lost and expressed his opposition to the systematic destruction of Germany while reaffirming his affection and faith in Hitler. This conversation, it is said, brought Hitler to tears. On 23 April, Speer left the Führerbunker. Now in disfavour, on 29 April, Speer was excluded from the new cabinet Hitler outlined in his final political testament. This document specified that Speer was to be replaced by his subordinate, Karl-Otto Saur. This is a reconstruction of the layout of the Führerbunker. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The last will and testament of Adolf Hitler was dictated by Hitler to his secretary Traudl Junge in his Berlin Führerbunker on April 29, 1945, the day he and Eva Braun married. ...


After the war

Nuremberg trials

Immediately after the war, there seemed to be little indication that Speer would be charged with war crimes. Speer travelled unprotected and openly participated in the so-called Flensburg government for weeks, in the presence of Allied officers. Upon request, he held a series of widely-attended lectures for officials of the Allied occupying powers on various topics, including mistakes made by the Nazi government in industrial and economic affairs (though he never spoke about slave labour) and the effectiveness of the Allied strategic bombing campaigns. Some journalists and spectators even expected Speer to be appointed by the occupying powers to help restore Germany's economy. He was taken to Versailles, to Eisenhower's then-headquarters. However, any such speculation ended when he was arrested and sent to Nuremberg for trial. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Flensburg government refers to the short-lived administration that attempted to rule Germany in May 1945 following the suicides of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Goebbels and the Fall of Berlin. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... A journalist is a person who practices journalism. ...


At the Nuremberg Trials, Speer was one of the few officials to express remorse. He was sentenced to 20 years' imprisonment, most of which he would serve at Spandau Prison, West Berlin, largely for his use of slave labour. For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ... Spandau Prison from the air Spandau Prison was a prison situated in the borough of Spandau in western Berlin, constructed in 1876 and demolished in 1987 after the death of the last prisoner. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


According to interviews after his imprisonment, as well as his memoirs, Speer adopted a "see no evil" attitude towards the Nazi atrocities. For example, he claimed to have learned of unspecified disturbing events at Auschwitz through his friend Karl Hanke. He then purposely avoided visiting the camp or trying to get more information about what was taking place. In his autobiography, he claims that he had no direct involvement or knowledge of the Holocaust, although he admits having blinded himself to its existence and expresses remorse for this. He certainly was aware, at least, of harsh conditions for the slave labour, and some critics believe that his books understate his role in the atrocities of the era. Moreover, documents uncovered by the Berlin historian Susanne Willems suggest that Speer knew a great deal more about the atrocities than he claimed to.[4] Auschwitz (Konzentrationslager Auschwitz) was the largest of the Nazi German concentration camps. ... Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 - 8 June 1945) was a Nazi Party official who served as Gauleiter of Lower Silesia from 1940 to 1945. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Speer's acknowledgement of guilt was nuanced. He acknowledged guilt for being a high official of a criminal government, without acknowledging guilt for any crimes committed by himself. His self-described crimes seem to be more acts of omission, including failure to make inquiry into the Holocaust, and failure to challenge Hitler. He painted himself as a nonpolitical technocrat. However, according to The Guardian, [1] Speer revealed in a letter he wrote in 1971 to Hélène Jeanty, the widow of a Belgian resistance leader, that he knew of Himmler's plans to exterminate all the Jews, in spite of his earlier claims to have left Himmler's Posen speech early. In the letter he says, "There is no doubt - I was present as Himmler announced on October 6, 1943, that all Jews would be killed".


One problem with assessments of Speer's complicity in the Holocaust comes from his status in post-war Germany—he became a symbol for people who were involved with the Nazi regime yet did not have (or claimed not to have had) any part in the regime's atrocities. As film director Heinrich Breloer remarked in the above-linked article: The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ...

[Speer created] a market for people who said, "Believe me, I didn't know anything about [the Holocaust]. Just look at the Führer's friend, he didn't know about it either".

Imprisonment

Main article: Spandau Prison

During his time in prison, Speer painstakingly documented his experiences in his secret prison diary, which was later released as Spandau: The Secret Diaries. He described his time in prison as consisting mainly of a mind-numbing and pedantically enforced daily routine; incessant petty personal rivalry between the seven prisoners; a pervasive and bloated prison bureaucracy; and, as three prisoners were released early due to ill-health, many false hopes of his own early release. Speer and most of the prisoners had established secret lines of communication to the outside world via sympathetic prison staff. Speer made full use of this by, amongst other things, writing innumerable letters to his family (which were restricted to one outgoing page per month under official regulation) and even having money spent on his behalf from a special bank account for a variety of benign purposes. Spandau Prison from the air Spandau Prison was a prison situated in the borough of Spandau in western Berlin, constructed in 1876 and demolished in 1987 after the death of the last prisoner. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about the sociological concept. ...


Speer, as recounted in his diary, made a deliberate effort to make as productive use of his time as possible. In the first decade, he wrote the first draft of his tell-all memoirs. He considered this to be his "duty" to history and his people as the sole surviving member of Hitler's inner circle, in possession of knowledge and a degree of objectivity that no one else had. As the prison directors both forbade the writing of a memoir and recorded each sheet of paper given to the prisoners, he wrote much of his memoir secretly on toilet paper, tobacco wrappings, and any other material he could get his hands on, and then had the pages systematically smuggled out. A memoir, as a literary genre, forms a sub-class of autobiography. ...


All the while Speer devoted much of his energy and time towards reading books from the prison's library, which was organised by fellow prisoner and ex-Grand Admiral Erich Raeder. The prisoners could also have books sent over from the local branch of the Berlin library, and, later, from the central library. Speer was, more so than the others, a voracious reader and he completed well over 500 books in the first three years alone.[5] His tastes ranged from Greek drama to famous plays to architectural books and journals, partly from which he collected information for a book he intended to write on the history and function of windows in architecture. German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... Erich Raeder. ...


Later, Speer took to the prison garden for enjoyment and work. Heretofore the garden was divided up into small personal plots for each prisoner with the produce of the garden being used in the prison kitchen. When regulations began to slacken in this regard, Speer was allowed to build an ambitious garden, complete with a meandering path, rock garden, and a wide variety of flowers. The garden was even, humourously, centred around a "north-south axis", which had been the core design element of Speer and Hitler's plan for a new Berlin. Speer then took up a "walking tour of the world" by ordering geography and travel books from the local library and walking laps in the prison garden visualising his journey. Meticulously calculating every metre travelled, he began in northern Germany, went through the Balkans, Persia, India, and Siberia, then crossed the Bering Strait and continued southwards, finally ending his sentence in central Mexico. A rock garden, also known as a rockery or an alpine garden, is a type of garden that features extensive use of rocks or stones, along with plants native to rocky or alpine environments. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05...


While Speer was incarcerated, his Nuremberg counsel, Dr. Hans Flachsner, remained as his attorney. His major work during this time was stalling the de-Nazification proceedings against Speer. While Speer could not have been subject to further incarceration, the property upon which his family survived during that time could have been confiscated. The proceedings were eventually ended by West Berlin Mayor and future Chancellor Willy Brandt. Flachsner would accompany Margarete Speer to Spandau to greet Speer on his release. Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ...


Release and later life

Speer's release from prison in 1966 was a worldwide media event. Abandoning plans to return to architecture (two proposed partners died shortly before his release) he then revised and published two autobiographical books based on the diary entries he had made in prison as well as a third about the SS, which was less well-received. His books, most notably Inside the Third Reich and The Spandau Diaries, provide a unique and personal look into the personalities of the Nazi era, and have become much valued by historians. Speer was aided in shaping the works by Joachim Fest and Wolf-Jobst Siedler from the publishing house Ullstein[6]. Speer died of a cerebral hemorrhage in London, England, on September 1, 1981—exactly 42 years after Germany invaded Poland. Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ... Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945. ... A cerebral hemorrhage is a bleed into the substance of the cerebrum. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


Speer himself appeared in the ITV television series The World at War which was first broadcast in 1973. Speer appeared in a number of episodes including the 12th episode entitled "Whirlwind", in which he admitted that he regarded the bombing of Germany by the RAF's Bomber Command as a second front. In a number of the other episodes he spoke at length of his relationship with Hitler and how he became Minister of War Armaments Production after Fritz Todt was killed in a plane crash. Speer revealed that he was meant to have been on the plane along with Todt, and was informed half an hour after the news was given to Hitler he was summoned to Hitler to take on all of Todt's offices. Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting... The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, including the events leading up to it and following in its wake. ...


He also revealed that, unlike most of the senior OKW commanders and Reichministers, he had direct access to Hitler. He also revealed that he was only informed of the goings on within the Concentration Camps by a Gauleiter. He also contributed Dudley Saward's Official Biography of Bomber Harris the Commander of Bomber Command by giving a number of interviews and access to his files which stated the effects of the bombing had not only on manufacturing but on how artillery pieces were being directed to the defence of Germany and not to the Eastern Front. Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris, and often, in the RAF, as Butcher Harris, was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of the Royal Air Force during the latter half of World War II. In 1942... Bomber Command is an organizational military unit, generally subordinate to the air force of a country. ...


Speer's daughter Hilde Schramm became a noted left-wing parliamentarian. Speer's eldest son, Albert, became a successful architect in his own right. Arnold Speer, Speer's second youngest son, born in 1940, became a community doctor. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Albert Speer (born July 29, 1934 in Berlin) is a German architect and urban planner. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


See also

Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945. ... This List of Adolf Hitler Books is an annotated bibliography using APA style citations of the many books related to Adolf Hitler. ... Germany pavilion at the Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne in Paris, 1937. ... Speer und Er (literally Speer and He, released as Speer and Hitler: The Devils Architect) is a three-part German docudrama starring Sebastian Koch as Albert Speer and Tobias Moretti as Adolf Hitler. ...

References

  • Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5

Antony Beevor (born on December 14, 1946) is a British historian, educated at Winchester College and Sandhurst. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ The title of a BBC2 documentary.
  2. ^ Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5, Page 9
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony. Berlin: The Downfall 1945, Penguin Books, 2002, ISBN 0-670-88695-5, Page 10
  4. ^ Kate Connolly, "{http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/05/11/wspeer11.xml Wartime reports debunk Speer as the good Nazi]," The Daily Telegraph, May 11, 2007. Retrieved August 16, 2007.
  5. ^ Fishman, Jack (1986). Long Knives and Short Memories: The Spandau Prison Story. Breakwater Books, pg 129. ISBN 0-920911-00-5. 
  6. ^ Siedler,Wolf Jobst Wir waren noch einmal davongekommen, Siedler, 2004

Resources

Works

  • Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich. New York and Toronto: Macmillan.  [Translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston.] Republished in paperback in 1997 by Simon & Schuster, ISBN 0-684-82949-5.
  • Speer, Albert (1976). Spandau: The Secret Diaries. New York and Toronto: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-699501-8.  [Translated from the German by Richard and Clara Winston.]
  • Speer, Albert (1981). Infiltration: How Heinrich Himmler Schemed to Build an SS Industrial Empire. Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-612800-4. 
  • Speer, Albert, et al (1995). Architektur. Arbeiten 1933-1942. Propyläen. ISBN 3-549-05446-7. 

Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945. ... Heinrich Luitpold Himmler ( ; 7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and the Nazi hierarchy. ...

Biographies

  • Joachim Fest, Ewald Osers (translator), Alexandra Dring (2002). Speer: The Final Verdict. Harcourt. ISBN 0-15-100556-7. 
  • van der Vat, Dan (1997). The Good Nazi: The Life and Lies of Albert Speer. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-81721-3. 
  • King, Henry T. (1997). The Two Worlds of Albert Speer: Reflections of a Nuremberg Prosecutor. University Press of America. ISBN 978-0761808725. 
  • Sereny, Gitta (1995). Albert Speer: His Battle With Truth. Knopf. ISBN 0-394-52915-4. 
  • Schmidt, Matthias (1984). Albert Speer: The End of a Myth. St Martins Press. ISBN 0-312-01709-X. 

Joachim C. Fest (December 8, 1926 – September 11, 2006) was a German journalist and author, best known in English-speaking countries for his work with Albert Speer while writing his memoirs and his biography of Adolf Hitler. ... Dan van der Vat is a journalist and historian of military, primarily naval, histories. ... Henry T. King Jr. ... Gitta Sereny (born March 13, 1921) is a Hungarian-born British biographer, historian and journalist whose writing focuses mainly on the Holocaust and abused children. ...

Movies

  • The Nuremberg Trial: Inside the Nazi Mind (2006) Nathaniel Parker as Albert Speer
  • Speer und Er (2005 miniseries) Sebastian Koch as Albert Speer, also titled Speer and Hitler: The Devil's Architect IMDB
  • Downfall (2005) Heino Ferch as Albert Speer
  • Nuremberg (2000) Herbert Knaup as Albert Speer
  • The Architect (1997) David Gwillim as Albert Speer
  • Inside the Third Reich (1982) Rutger Hauer as Albert Speer
  • War and Remembrance (1988) Geoffrey Whitehead as Albert Speer
  • The Bunker (1981) Richard Jordan as Albert Speer
  • The Death of Adolf Hitler (1973) Michael Lees as Albert Speer
  • Der letzte Akt (1955) Erland Erlandsen as Albert Speer
  • Episode five of The World at War (1973 documentary) Albert Speer as himself

Nathaniel Parker (born 18 May 1962) is a British actor most widely known as Inspector Thomas Lynley, in the BBC television series based on the novels by Elizabeth George. ... Speer und Er (literally Speer and He, released as Speer and Hitler: The Devils Architect) is a three-part German docudrama starring Sebastian Koch as Albert Speer and Tobias Moretti as Adolf Hitler. ... Sebastian Koch (born May 31, 1962 in Karlsruhe) is a German actor. ... Downfall (German: Der Untergang) is a 2004 German film depicting the final days of Adolf Hitler and Nazi Germany in 1945. ... Heino Ferch (b. ... Inside the Third Reich is a memoir written by Albert Speer, the Nazi Minister of Armaments from 1942 to 1945. ... Rutger Oelsen Hauer (IPA: [rʏtxɛr ulsɛn hʌuɛr]) (born in Breukelen, January 23, 1944) is a Dutch film actor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Geoffrey Whitehead is an English actor born 1 October 1939 in Sheffield. ... The Bunker is an account, written by American journalist James ODonnell, of the history of the Fuehrerbunker in early 1945, as well as the last days of Adolf Hitler. ... Richard Anson Jordan (July 19, 1938 – August 30, 1993) was an American stage, screen and film actor. ... An episode is a part of a dramatic work such as a serial television or radio program. ... The World at War is a 26-episode television documentary series on World War II, including the events leading up to it and following in its wake. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...

Novelisations/Plays

  • Albert Speer (2000) David Edgar [2]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Persondata
NAME Speer, Albert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Speer, Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION German architect and minister for armaments
DATE OF BIRTH March 19, 1905(1905-03-19)
PLACE OF BIRTH Mannheim, Germany
DATE OF DEATH September 1, 1981
PLACE OF DEATH London, England

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