FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston
Albert Sidney Johnston

Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. Considered by Confederate President Jefferson Davis to be the finest general in the Confederacy, he was killed early in the war at the Battle of Shiloh. Albert Sidney Johnston (19th century photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Albert Sidney Johnston (19th century photo) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was formed in February 1861 to defend the Confederate States of America, which had itself been formed that same year when seven southern states seceded from the United States (with four more to follow). ... A General is an officer of high military rank. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The President of the Confederate States was the Head of State of the short-lived republic of the Confederate States of America, which seceded from the United States. ... Jefferson Davis (June 3, 1808–December 6, 1889) was an American statesman and advocate for American slavery and, until he became President of the Confederate States of America, for States Rights. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408...

Contents

[edit]

Early life

Johnston was born in Washington, Kentucky, the youngest son of Dr. John and Abigail Harris Johnston. His father was a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. Although Albert Johnston was born in Kentucky, he lived much of his life in Texas, which he considered his home. He was educated at Transylvania University in Lexington and later secured an appointment to West Point. In 1826 he graduated eighth in his class from the United States Military Academy with a commission as a second lieutenant in the 2nd U.S. Infantry. He was assigned to posts in New York and Missouri and served in the Black Hawk War in 1832 as chief of staff to General Henry Atkinson. In 1829 he married Henrietta Preston. He resigned his commission in 1834 to return to Kentucky to care for his dying wife. They had one son, William Preston Johnston. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Salisbury is a town located in Litchfield County, Connecticut. ... Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Transylvania University is a private liberal arts college related by covenant to the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) located in Lexington, Kentucky with approximately 1,100 students. ... Nickname: Athens of the West Horse Capital of the World Location in the Commonwealth of Kentucky Coordinates: Country State Counties United States Kentucky Fayette Mayor Teresa Isaac (D) Area    - City 285. ... The United States Military Academy, also known as West Point, or simply USMA (or Army, for NCAA purposes), is a United States Army fort and military academy. ... The United States Military Academy, also known as West Point, or simply USMA (or Army, for NCAA purposes), is a United States Army fort and military academy. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  Ranked 27th  - Total 54,520 sq mi (141,205 km²)  - Width 285 miles (455 km)  - Length 330 miles (530 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St. ... Combatants United States Sauk Nation Strength 8,000 Miltia 1,500 Regulars volunteers? Indian allies ? 1,000 The majority were women and children Casualties 33 killed in action 39 non-combatants killed 450-600 The Black Hawk War was fought in 1832 in the Midwestern United States. ... Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ...

[edit]

Texas Army

In April 1834, Johnston took up farming in Texas, but enlisted as a private in the Texas Army during the Texas War of Independence against the Republic of Mexico in 1836. One month later, Johnston was promoted to major and the position of aide-de-camp to General Sam Houston. He was named Adjutant General as a colonel in the Republic of Texas Army on August 5, 1836. On January 31, 1837, he became Senior Brigadier General in command of the Texas Army. Official language(s) See: Languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 268,581 sq mi (695,622 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... A private is a military soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to Nato Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). ... The Texas Revolution was a war fought between Mexico and the people of the territory that was to become the Republic of Texas. ... Major is a military rank denoting an officer of mid-level command status. ... An aide-de-camp (French: camp assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. ... Sam Houston Samuel Houston (March 2, 1793 – July 26, 1863) was a 19th century American statesman, politician and soldier. ... An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Official language English (de facto) Spanish, French, German and Native American languages regionally Capital Washington-on-the-Brazos (1836) Harrisburg (1836) Galveston (1836) Velasco (1836) Columbia (1836) Houston (1837–1839) Austin (1839–1845) Largest city San Antonio de Béxar Presidents David G. Burnet, Sam Houston, Mirabeau B. Lamar, Anson... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... Charles Darwin 1836 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


On February 7, 1837, he fought in a duel with Texas Brig. Gen. Felix Huston, challenging each other for the command of the Texas Army; Johnston refused to fire on Huston and lost the position after he was wounded in the pelvis. The second president of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau B. Lamar, appointed him Secretary of War on December 22, 1838. Johnston was to provide the defense of the Texas border against Mexican invasion, and in 1839 conducted a campaign against Indians in northern Texas. In February 1840, he resigned and returned to Kentucky, where he married Eliza Griffin in 1843. They settled on a large plantation he named China Grove in Brazoria County, Texas. February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... | Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Felix Huston (1800–1857) was a lawyer, soldier, and the first commanding general of the Army of the Republic of Texas. ... Official language English (de facto) Spanish, French, German and Native American languages regionally Capital Washington-on-the-Brazos (1836) Harrisburg (1836) Galveston (1836) Velasco (1836) Columbia (1836) Houston (1837–1839) Austin (1839–1845) Largest city San Antonio de Béxar Presidents David G. Burnet, Sam Houston, Mirabeau B. Lamar, Anson... Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (August 16, 1798 – December 19, 1859) was the second president of the Republic of Texas. ... December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. ... Brazoria County is a county in the U.S. state of Texas located on the Gulf Coast within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown Metropolitan Area. ...

[edit]

U.S. Army

Johnston returned to the Texas Army during the Mexican-American War under General Zachary Taylor as a colonel of the 1st Texas Rifle Volunteers. The enlistments of his volunteers ran out just before the Battle of Monterrey. Johnston managed to convince a few volunteers to stay and fight as he himself served as the inspector general of volunteers and fought at the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista. Johnston remained on his plantation after the war until he was appointed by President Zachary Taylor to the U.S. Army as a major and was made a paymaster in December of 1849. He served in that role for more than five years, making six tours, and traveling more than 4,000 miles annually on the Indian frontier of Texas. He served on the Texas frontier and elsewhere in the West. In 1855 President Franklin Pierce appointed him colonel of the 2nd (now 5th) Cavalry, a new regiment, which he organized. As a key figure in the Utah War, he led U.S. troops who established a non-Mormon government in the formerly Mormon territory. He received a brevet promotion to brigadier general in 1857 for his service in Utah. He spent 1860 in Kentucky until December 21, when he sailed for California to take command of the Department of the Pacific. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... The Battle of Buena Vista was a land battle of the Mexican-American War fought on 23 February 1847 in Buena Vista, Coahuila, seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. ... This article is about the office President of the United States. ... Zachary Taylor (November 24, 1784 – July 9, 1850) was an American military leader and the twelfth President of the United States. ... Major is a military rank denoting an officer of mid-level command status. ... Franklin Pierce (November 23, 1804 – October 8, 1869) was an American politician and the 14th President of the United States, serving from 1853 to 1857. ... The Utah War was a 19th century armed conflict between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

[edit]

Civil War

At the outbreak of the Civil War, Johnston was the commander of the U.S. Army Department of the Pacific in California. He was approached by some Californians who urged him to take his forces east to join the Union against the Confederacy. He resigned his commission, April 9, 1861, as soon as he heard of the secession of Texas. He remained in California until June. After a rapid march through the deserts of Arizona and Texas, he reached Richmond, Virginia, on or about September 1, 1861. There Johnston was appointed a general by his friend, Jefferson Davis. On May 30, 1861, Johnston became the second highest ranking Confederate General (after the little-known Samuel Cooper) as commander of the Western Department. He raised the Army of Mississippi to defend Confederate lines from the Mississippi River to Kentucky and the Allegheny Mountains. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert Edward Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Department of the Pacific was a major command (Department) of the United States Army during the 19th century. ... The J.P. Gillis Flag. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (February 4, 1861–May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (April 3–April 10, 1865) Largest city New Orleans... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Flag Seal Nickname: River City Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra Location Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates , Government Country State County United States Virginia Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 62. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... General Samuel Cooper Samuel Cooper (June 12, 1798 – December 3, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and, although little-known today, the highest ranking Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... There were three organizations known as the Army of Mississippi in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the longest river in the United States; the second-longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Allegheny Mountains are a part of the Appalachian mountain range of the eastern United States. ...


Although the Confederate Army won a morale-boosting victory at First Bull Run in the East in 1861, matters in the West turned ugly by early 1862. Johnston's subordinate generals lost Fort Henry on February 6, 1862, and Fort Donelson on February 16, 1862, to Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant. Johnston has been faulted for poor judgment in selecting Gens. Tilghman and Floyd for those crucial positions and for not supervising adequate construction of the forts. And Union Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell captured the vital city of Nashville, Tennessee. Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard was sent west to join Johnston and they organized their forces at Corinth, Mississippi, planning to ambush Grant's forces at Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee. This article is in need of attention. ... First Battle of Bull Run Conflict American Civil War Date July 21, 1861 Place Fairfax County and Prince William County Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Bull Run, referred to as the First Battle of Manassas in the South, (July 21, 1861) was the first major land battle of... The Battle of Fort Henry was fought February 6, 1862, in western Tennessee, during the American Civil War. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Battle of Fort Donelson was fought February 12–16, 1862 in the American Civil War. ... February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant, April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American general and politician who was elected the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Lloyd Tilghman Lloyd Tilghman (1816–May 16, 1863) was a Confederate general in the American Civil War after graduating from West Point. ... John Buchanan Floyd (June 1, 1807–August 26, 1863), American politician, was born at Blacksburg, Virginia. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... Nickname: Music City Location in Davidson County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates: Country United States State Tennessee Counties Davidson County Founded: 1779 Incorporated: 1806 Mayor Bill Purcell (D) Area    - City 526. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Corinth is a city located in Alcorn County, Mississippi. ... Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee is a town in Hardin County, Tennessee. ...

[edit]

Shiloh

Monument to Johnston at the Shiloh National Military Park.
Monument to Johnston at the Shiloh National Military Park.

Johnston concentrated many of his forces from around the theater and launched a massive surprise attack against Grant at the Battle of Shiloh on April 6, 1862. As the Confederate forces overran the Union camps, Johnston seemed to be everywhere, personally leading and rallying troops up and down the line. At about 2:30 p.m., while leading one of those charges, he was wounded, taking a bullet behind his right knee. He did not think the wound serious at the time, and sent his personal physician to attend to some wounded Union soldiers instead. The bullet had in fact clipped his popliteal artery and his boot was filling up with blood. Within a few minutes Johnston was observed by his staff to be nearly fainting off of his horse, and asked him if he was wounded, to which he replied "Yes, and I fear seriously." It is possible that Johnston's duel in 1837 had caused nerve damage or numbness to that leg and that he did not feel the wound to his leg as a result. Johnston was taken to a small ravine, where he bled to death in minutes. Image File history File links Johnston_Shiloh_Monument. ... Image File history File links Johnston_Shiloh_Monument. ... Shiloh National Cemetery Shiloh National Military Park is a unit of the National Park Service in the town of Shiloh, about 9 miles (14 km) south of Savannah, Tennessee. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston† P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894) and Army of the Ohio (17,918) Army of Mississippi (44,699) Casualties 13,047 (1,754 killed, 8,408... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Arteries of the lower limb - posterior view. ...


It is probable that a Confederate soldier fired the fatal round. No Union soldiers were observed to have ever gotten behind Johnston during the fatal charge, while it is known that many Confederates were firing at the Union lines while Johnston charged well in advance of his soldiers. He was the highest-ranking casualty of the war and his death was a strong blow to the morale of the Confederacy. Jefferson Davis considered him the best general in the country; this was two months before the emergence of Robert E. Lee as their pre-eminent general. For the author of Inherit the Wind and other works, see Robert Edwin Lee. ...

[edit]

Epitaph

Johnson's tomb in the Texas State Cemetery.
Johnson's tomb in the Texas State Cemetery.

Irony exists in the date of Johnston's death, Sunday, April 6, 1862, the 32nd anniversary of the founding of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (The Mormons), against whom he led United States forces in 1856 during the Utah War, as the Mormons were deemed by the Buchanan Administration to be in rebellion against the United States. He thus died commanding a force that was also in rebellion against the United States. Image File history File links Albert_Sidney_Johnston_Tomb. ... Image File history File links Albert_Sidney_Johnston_Tomb. ... // The Texas State Cemetery is a cemetery located on about 22 acres (9 hectares) just east of downtown Austin, the capital of Texas. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Utah War was a 19th century armed conflict between Mormon settlers in Utah Territory and the United States federal government. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ...


Johnston was buried in New Orleans, Louisiana. In 1866, a joint resolution of the Texas Legislature was passed to have his body reinterred to the Texas State Cemetery in Austin (the re-interment occurred in 1867). Four decades later, the state appointed Elisbet Ney to design a monument and sculpture of him to be erected at his gravesite. Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City 350. ... The Texas Legislature is the central lawmaking body of the U.S. state of Texas. ... // The Texas State Cemetery is a cemetery located on about 22 acres (9 hectares) just east of downtown Austin, the capital of Texas. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Live Music Capital of the World Location Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Government County Travis County Mayor Will Wynn Geographical characteristics Area 669. ...


The Texas Historical Commission has erected a historical marker near the entrance of what was once his plantation. An adjacent marker was erected by the San Jacinto Chapter of the Daughters of The Republic of Texas and the Lee, Roberts, and Davis Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederate States of America. The Texas Historical Commission is an agency within the State of Texas dedicated to historic preservation. ... A plantation is an intentional planting of a crop, on a larger scale, usually for uses other than cereal production or pasture. ... The Daughters of the Republic of Texas (DRT) is a sororal association dedicated to perpetuating the memory of Texas pioneer families and soldiers of the Republic of Texas. ...

[edit]

References

  • Eicher, John H., & Eicher, David J.: Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
[edit]

External links

  • Albert Sidney Johnson at Find-A-Grave
[edit]

Further reading

  • Gott, Kendall D,, Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6.
  • Johnson, William Preston, The Life of Albert Sidney Johnston, New York, 1878.
  • Nofi, Albert A.; The Alamo and the Texas War for Independence; Da Capo Press; ISBN 0-306-81040-9.
  • Roland, Charles P., Albert Sidney Johnston: Soldier of Three Republics, Austin, 1964.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Albert Sidney Johnston (1235 words)
Johnston was born in Washington, Kentucky, the youngest son of Dr. John and Abigail Harris Johnston.
Johnston managed to convince a few volunteers to stay and fight as he himself served as the inspector general of volunteers and fought at the battles of Monterrey and Buena Vista.
Johnston remained on his plantation after the war until he was appointed by President Zachary Taylor to the U.S. Army as a major and was made a paymaster in December of 1849.
Albert Sidney Johnston - LoveToKnow 1911 (556 words)
ALBERT SIDNEY JOHNSTON (1803-1862), American Confederate general in the Civil War, was born at Washington, Mason county, Kentucky, on the 3rd of February 1803.
Johnston himself, who had entered upon the Civil War with the reputation of being the foremost soldier on either side, bore with fortitude the reproaches of his countrymen, and Davis loyally supported his old friend.
His SOH, William Preston Johnston (1831-1899), who served on the staff of General Johnston and subsequently on that of President Davis, was a distinguished professor and president of Tulane University.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m