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Encyclopedia > Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
Photographed by Oren J. Turner (1947)
Photographed by Oren J. Turner (1947)
Born March 14, 1879(1879-03-14)
Ulm, Württemberg, Germany
Died April 18, 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, USA
Citizenship German (1879–96, 1914–33)
Swiss (1901–55)
American (1940–55)
Ethnicity Jewish
Field Physics
Institutions Swiss Patent Office (Berne)
Univ. of Zürich
Charles Univ.
Prussian Acad. of Sciences
Kaiser Wilhelm Inst.
Univ. of Leiden
Inst. for Advanced Study
Alma mater ETH Zürich
Academic advisor   Alfred Kleiner
Known for General relativity
Special relativity
Brownian motion
Photoelectric effect
Mass-energy equivalence
Einstein field equations
Unified Field Theory
Bose–Einstein statistics
EPR paradox
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Copley Medal (1925)
Max Planck medal (1929)

Albert Einstein (German pronunciation ) (March 14, 1879April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass-energy equivalence, E = mc2. He was awarded the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."[1] A number of topics are named Einstein; most are related to the noted physicist Albert Einstein. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1024, 129 KB) Crop of Image:Albert Einstein 1947. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 90 km south-east of Stuttgart and 140 km north-west of Munich. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ... A patent office is a governmental or intergovernmental organisation which controls the issue of patents. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zurich. ... The Charles University of Prague (also simply University of Prague; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest, largest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... The Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: ) was an academy established in Berlin on July 11, 1700. ... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ... Leiden University in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, U.S.A., designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists and scholars in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the agendas of sponsorship. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Alfred Kleiner (April 24, 1849-July 3, 1916) was Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Zürich, and was Albert Einsteins doctoral advisor or Initially Einsteins advisor was in fact H. F. Weber, but they had a major fall out and Einstein switched to Kleiner. ... General relativity (GR) (aka general theory of relativity (GTR)) is the geometrical theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915/16. ... The special theory of relativity was proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in his article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Some three centuries earlier, Galileos principle of relativity had stated that all uniform motion was relative, and that there was no absolute and well-defined state of rest... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is in need of attention. ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambiguation). ... In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities and the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory. ... Image File history File links Nobel. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... The Copley Medal is a scientific award for work in any field of science, the highest award granted by the Royal Society of London. ... The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... Image File history File links Albert_Einstein_german. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... Two-dimensional analogy of space-time curvature described in General Relativity. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ...


Einstein's many contributions to physics include his special theory of relativity, which reconciled mechanics with electromagnetism, and his general theory of relativity which extended the principle of relativity to non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation. His other contributions include relativistic cosmology, capillary action, critical opalescence, classical problems of statistical mechanics and their application to quantum theory, an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules, atomic transition probabilities, the quantum theory of a monatomic gas, thermal properties of light with low radiation density (which laid the foundation for the photon theory), a theory of radiation including stimulated emission, the conception of a unified field theory, and the geometrization of physics. Special relativity (SR) or the special theory of relativity is the physical theory published in 1905 by Albert Einstein. ... Mechanics (Greek ) is the branch of physics concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effect of the bodies on their environment. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... General relativity (GR) or general relativity theory (GRT) is the theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Relativity: The Special and General Theory A principle of relativity is a criterion for judging physical theories, stating that they are inadequate if they do not prescribe the exact same laws of physics in certain similar situations. ... “Gravity” redirects here. ... Physical cosmology, as a branch of astrophysics, is the study of the large-scale structure of the universe and is concerned with fundamental questions about its formation and evolution. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Capillary action. ... Critical Opalescence is a phenomenon in liquids close to their critical point, in which a normally transparent liquid appears milky due to density fluctuations at all possible wavelengths. ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ... Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Fig. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... The transition rules (or selection rules) describe possible state transitions of a quantum mechanical system, expressed by changes of the quantum numbers. ... Probability is the chance that something is likely to happen or be the case. ... In physics and chemistry, monatomic is a combination of the words mono and atomic, and means single atom. ... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Radiation as used in physics, is energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... In optics, stimulated emission is the process by which, when perturbed by a photon, matter may lose energy resulting in the creation of another photon. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the branch of science concerned with the discovery and characterization of universal laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ...


Works by Albert Einstein include more than fifty scientific papers and also non-scientific books.[2][3] In 1999 Einstein was named Time magazine's "Person of the Century", and a poll of prominent physicists named him the greatest physicist of all time.[4] In popular culture the name "Einstein" has become synonymous with genius. . ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... TIME Magazines 100 most influential people of the 20th century (called the TIME 100 for short) is a list of the 20th centurys most influential politicians, artists, innovators, scientists and icons, compiled by TIME Magazine. ... Popular culture, sometimes called pop culture, consists of widespread cultural elements in any given society. ... A genius is a person of great intelligence. ...

Contents

Youth and schooling

Young Albert before the Einsteins moved from Germany to Italy.

Albert Einstein was born into a Jewish family in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. His father was Hermann Einstein, a salesman. His mother was Pauline Einstein (née Koch). Download high resolution version (1542x1364, 353 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (1542x1364, 353 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Albert Einstein Categories: U.S. history images ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 90 km south-east of Stuttgart and 140 km north-west of Munich. ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ...


Although Albert had early speech difficulties, he was a top student in elementary school (Rosenkranz 2005, p. 29).[5] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In 1880, the family moved to Munich, where his father and his uncle founded a company, Elektrotechnische Fabrik J. Einstein & Cie that manufactured electrical equipment, providing the first lighting for the Oktoberfest and cabling for the Munich suburb of Schwabing. The Einsteins were not observant of Jewish religious practices, and Albert attended a Catholic elementary school. At his mother's insistence, he took violin lessons, and although he disliked them and eventually quit, he would later take great pleasure in Mozart's violin sonatas. Munich (German: , pronounced  ; Austro-Bavarian: Minga [2]) is the capital of the German Federal State of Bavaria. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Schwabing is a neighborhood in the northern part of Munich, the capital of the German state of Bavaria. ... Catholic schools are education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... A violin sonata is a musical composition for solo violin, often (but not always) accompanied by a piano or other keyboard instrument, or by figured bass in the Baroque. ...


When Albert was five, his father showed him a pocket compass. Albert realized that something in empty space was moving the needle and later stated that this experience made "a deep and lasting impression".[6] As he grew, Albert built models and mechanical devices for fun, and began to show a talent for mathematics. Compass in a wooden box A compass (or mariners compass) is a navigational instrument for finding directions on the Earth. ... A physical model is used in various contexts to mean a physical representation of some thing. ... Wind turbines The scientific definition of a machine is any device that transmits or modifies energy. ...


In 1889, a family friend named Max Talmud (later: Talmey), a medical student,[7] introduced the ten-year-old Albert to key science and philosophy texts, including Kant's Critique of Pure Reason and Euclid's Elements (Einstein called it the "holy little geometry book").[7] From Euclid, Albert began to understand deductive reasoning (integral to theoretical physics), and by the age of twelve, he learned Euclidean geometry from a school booklet. He soon began to investigate calculus. Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher from Königsberg in East Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). ... Title page of the 1781 edition. ... Euclid (Greek: ), also known as Euclid of Alexandria, was a Hellenistic mathematician who flourished in Alexandria, Egypt, almost certainly during the reign of Ptolemy I (323–283 BC). ... The frontispiece of Sir Henry Billingsleys first English version of Euclids Elements, 1570 Euclids Elements (Greek: ) is a mathematical and geometric treatise, consisting of 13 books, written by the Hellenistic mathematician Euclid in Alexandria circa 300 BC. It comprises a collection of definitions, postulates (axioms), propositions (theorems... Deductive reasoning is the kind of reasoning in which the conclusion is necessitated by, or reached from, previously known facts (the premises). ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... Euclid Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria. ... Calculus (from Latin, pebble or little stone) is a mathematical subject that includes the study of limits, derivatives, integrals, and power series and constitutes a major part of modern university curriculum. ...


In his early teens, Albert attended the new and progressive Luitpold Gymnasium. His father intended for him to pursue electrical engineering, but Albert clashed with authorities and resented the school regimen. He later wrote that the spirit of learning and creative thought were lost in strict rote learning. The Luitpold Gymnasium is a secondary school in Munich, Germany. ... Electrical Engineers design power systems… … and complex electronic circuits. ... It has been suggested that Rote memory be merged into this article or section. ...


In 1894, when Einstein was fifteen, his father's business failed and the Einstein family moved to Italy, first to Milan and then, after a few months, to Pavia. During this time, Albert wrote his first "scientific work", "The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields".[8] Albert had been left behind in Munich to finish high school, but in the spring of 1895, he withdrew to join his family in Pavia, convincing the school to let him go by using a doctor's note. This article is about the city in Italy. ... Church San Michele in Pavia The Old Bridge (Ponte Vecchio) on the Ticino river is a symbol of Pavia Pavìa (the ancient Ticinum) (population 71,000) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, 35 km south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its... Alchemy, natural philosophy, and early modern physics proposed the existance of aether (also spelled ether, from the Latin word aether, meaning upper air [1]), a space-filling substance or field, thought to be necessary as a transmission medium. ... In physics, a magnetic field is an axial vector field that traces out solenoidal lines of force in and around closed electric circuits and bar magnets. ...


Rather than completing high school, Albert decided to apply directly to the ETH Zürich, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, Switzerland. Without a school certificate, he was required to take an entrance examination. He did not pass. Einstein wrote that it was in that same year, at age 16, that he first performed his famous thought experiment, visualizing traveling alongside a beam of light (Einstein 1979). ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ...


The Einsteins sent Albert to Aarau, Switzerland to finish secondary school. While lodging with the family of Professor Jost Winteler, he fell in love with the family's daughter, Sofia Marie-Jeanne Amanda Winteler, called "Marie". (Albert's sister, Maja, his confidant, later married Paul Winteler.)[9] In Aarau, Albert studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In 1896, he graduated at age 17, renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service (with his father's approval), and finally enrolled in the mathematics program at ETH. On February 21, 1901, he gained Swiss citizenship, which he never revoked.[10] Marie moved to Olsberg, Switzerland for a teaching post. Aarau Location within Switzerland Aarau is the capital of the Swiss canton of Aargau. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... Maxwells equations are the set of four equations, attributed to James Clerk Maxwell, that describe the behavior of both the electric and magnetic fields, as well as their interactions with matter. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Coat of arms of Olsberg Olsberg is a commune in Rheinfelden district in Aargau, Switzerland. ...


In 1896, Mileva Marić also enrolled at ETH, the only woman studying mathematics. During the next few years, Einstein and Marić's friendship developed into romance. Einstein's mother objected because she thought Marić too old, not Jewish and "physically defective".[11] Einstein and Marić had a daughter, Lieserl Einstein, born in early 1902.[12] Her fate is unknown. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Lieserl Einstein (late January, 1902 - September, 1903) was the first child of physicist Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić and, according to some sources, died in infancy. ...


In 1900, Einstein's friend Michele Besso introduced him to the work of Ernst Mach. The next year, Einstein published a paper in the prestigious Annalen der Physik on the capillary forces of a straw (Einstein 1901). He graduated from ETH with a teaching diploma.[13] Michele Angelo Besso (May 25, 1873 Riesbach - March 15, 1955 Genova) was a Swiss/Italian engineer, and a close friend of Albert Einstein during his years at the Federal Polytechnic Institute in Zurich[1], today the ETH Zurich, and then at the patent office in Bern. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... Capillary action, capillarity, or capillary motion is the ability of a substance (the standard reference is to a tube in plants but can be seen readily with porous paper) to draw a substance up against gravity. ...


The patent office

The 'Einsteinhaus' in Bern where Einstein lived with Mileva on the first floor during his Annus Mirabilis
The 'Einsteinhaus' in Bern where Einstein lived with Mileva on the first floor during his Annus Mirabilis

Following graduation, Einstein could not find a teaching post. After almost two years of searching, a former classmate's father helped him get a job in Bern, at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property,[14] the patent office, as an assistant examiner. His responsibility was evaluating patent applications for electromagnetic devices. Einstein occasionally corrected design errors while evaluating patent applications.[citation needed] In 1903, Einstein's position at the Swiss Patent Office was made permanent, although he was passed over for promotion until he "fully mastered machine technology".[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)own photograph Einsteins residence in his Annus MirabilisDoctorpete 19:10, 10 March 2007 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2112 × 2816 pixel, file size: 761 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)own photograph Einsteins residence in his Annus MirabilisDoctorpete 19:10, 10 March 2007 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... A patent clerk or patent examiner is an employee, usually a civil servant, working within a patent office and whose work is to examine patent applications as to whether they deserve a patent. ... A patent application is a request pending at a patent office for the grant of a patent for the invention described and claimed by that application. ...


Einstein's college friend, Michele Besso, also worked at the patent office. With friends they met in Bern, they formed a weekly discussion club on science and philosophy, jokingly named "The Olympia Academy". Their readings included Poincaré, Mach and Hume, who influenced Einstein's scientific and philosophical outlook.[16] Jules TuPac Henri Poincaré (April 29, 1854 – July 17, 1912) (IPA: [][1]) was one of Frances greatest mathematicians and theoretical physicists, and a philosopher of science. ... Ernst Mach Ernst Mach (February 18, 1838 – February 19, 1916) was an Austrian-Czech physicist and philosopher and is the namesake for the Mach number and the optical illusion known as Mach bands. ... see also: David Hume of Godscroft David Hume (April 26, 1711 – August 25, 1776)[1] was a Scottish philosopher, economist, and historian. ...


While this period at the patent office has often been cited as a waste of Einstein's talents,[17] or as a temporary job with no connection to his interests in physics,[18] the historian of science Peter Galison has argued that Einstein's work there was connected to his later interests. Much of that work related to questions about transmission of electric signals and electrical-mechanical synchronization of time: two technical problems of the day that show up conspicuously in the thought experiments that led Einstein to his radical conclusions about the nature of light and the fundamental connection between space and time.[15][16] Peter Galison is a professor of physics and the history of science at Harvard University. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ...


Einstein married Mileva Marić on January 6, 1903, and their relationship was, for a time, a personal and intellectual partnership. In a letter to her, Einstein wrote of Mileva as "a creature who is my equal and who is as strong and independent as I am."[19] There has been debate about whether Marić influenced Einstein's work; most historians do not think she made major contributions, however.[20][21][22] On May 14, 1904, Albert and Mileva's first son, Hans Albert Einstein, was born. Their second son, Eduard Einstein, was born on July 28, 1910. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Hans Albert Einstein (May 14, 1904 – July 26, 1973) was a Professor of hydraulic engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, and the first son of renowned physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955) and his first wife Mileva Marić (1875-1948). ... Eduard Einstein (July 28, 1910 – October 25, 1965) was the son of physicist Albert Einstein and Mileva Marić. Eduard suffered from schizophrenia and was essentially ignored by his father after being institutionalized. ... July 28 is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


The Annus Mirabilis

Albert Einstein, 1905
Albert Einstein, 1905

In 1905, while working in the patent office, Einstein published four times in the Annalen der Physik. These are the papers that history has come to call the Annus Mirabilis Papers: Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ... Albert Einstein, ca. ... Annalen der Physik is one of the best-known and oldest (it was founded in 1799) physics journals worldwide. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ...

  • His paper on the particulate nature of light put forward the idea that certain experimental results, notably the photoelectric effect, could be simply understood from the postulate that light interacts with matter as discrete "packets" (quanta) of energy, an idea that had been introduced by Max Planck in 1900 as a purely mathematical manipulation, and which seemed to contradict contemporary wave theories of light. This was the only work of Einstein's that he himself pronounced as "revolutionary". (Einstein 1905a)
  • His paper on Brownian motion explained the random movement of very small objects as direct evidence of molecular action, thus supporting the atomic theory. (Einstein 1905c)
  • His paper on the electrodynamics of moving bodies proposed the radical theory of special relativity, which showed that the independence of an observer's state of motion on the observed speed of light requires fundamental changes to the notion of simultaneity, with consequences such as clocks appearing to slow down and rulers to contract (in the direction of travel) when in motion. This paper also argued that the idea of a luminiferous aether—one of the leading theoretical entities in physics at the time—was superfluous. (Einstein 1905d)
  • In his paper on the equivalence of matter and energy (previously considered to be distinct concepts), Einstein deduced from his equations of special relativity what would later become the most famous expression in all of science: E = mc2, suggesting that tiny amounts of mass could be converted into huge amounts of energy. (Einstein 1905e)

All four papers are today recognized as tremendous achievements—and hence 1905 is known as Einstein's "Wonderful Year". At the time, however, they were not noticed by most physicists as being important, and many of those who did notice them rejected them outright. Some of this work—such as the theory of light quanta—would remain controversial for years.[23] (Pais 1982, pp. 382–386) A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... In physics quanta is the plural of quantum. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... Three different views of Brownian motion, with 32 steps, 256 steps, and 2048 steps denoted by progressively lighter colors. ... In chemistry and physics, atomic theory is a theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms, as opposed to obsolete beliefs that matter could be divided into any arbitrarily small quantity. ... The special theory of relativity was proposed in 1905 by Albert Einstein in his article On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies. Some three centuries earlier, Galileos principle of relativity had stated that all uniform motion was relative, and that there was no absolute and well-defined state of rest... A line showing the speed of light on a scale model of Earth and the Moon The speed of light in a vacuum is an important physical constant denoted by the letter c for constant or the Latin word celeritas meaning swiftness. It is the speed of all electromagnetic radiation... The relativity of simultaneity is the dependence of the notion of simultaneity on the observer. ... The luminiferous aether: it was hypothesised that the Earth moves through a medium of aether that carries light In the late 19th century luminiferous aether (light-bearing aether) was the term used to describe a medium for the propagation of light. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... 15ft sculpture of Einsteins 1905 E = mc² formula at the 2006 Walk of Ideas, Germany In physics, mass-energy equivalence is the concept that all mass has an energy equivalence, and all energy has a mass equivalence. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ...


At the age of 26, having studied under Alfred Kleiner, Professor of Experimental Physics, Einstein was awarded a PhD by the University of Zurich. His dissertation was entitled "A new determination of molecular dimensions." (Einstein 1905b) Alfred Kleiner (April 24, 1849-July 3, 1916) was Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Zürich, and was Albert Einsteins doctoral advisor or Initially Einsteins advisor was in fact H. F. Weber, but they had a major fall out and Einstein switched to Kleiner. ... Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated Ph. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zurich. ...


Light and general relativity

See also: History of general relativity and Relativity priority dispute

In 1906, the patent office promoted Einstein to Technical Examiner Second Class, but he was not giving up on academia. In 1908, he became a privatdozent at the University of Bern (Pais 1982, p. 522). In 1910, he wrote a paper on critical opalescence that described the cumulative effect of light scattered by individual molecules in the atmosphere, i.e. why the sky is blue (Levenson 2005). // Creation of General Relativity Early investigations The development of general relativity began in 1907 with the publication of an article by Albert Einstein on acceleration under special relativity. ... Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that did not include references to the work of others. ... Privatdozent (PD or Priv. ... The University of Berne is a university in the Swiss capital of Berne. ... Critical Opalescence is a phenomenon in liquids close to their critical point, in which a normally transparent liquid appears milky due to density fluctuations at all possible wavelengths. ...


During 1909, Einstein published "Über die Entwicklung unserer Anschauungen über das Wesen und die Konstitution der Strahlung" ("The Development of Our Views on the Composition and Essence of Radiation"), on the quantization of light. In this and in an earlier 1909 paper, Einstein showed that Max Planck's energy quanta must have well-defined momenta and act in some respects as independent, point-like particles. This paper introduced the photon concept (although the term itself was introduced by Gilbert N. Lewis in 1926) and inspired the notion of wave–particle duality in quantum mechanics. In physics, quantization is a procedure for constructing a quantum field theory starting from a classical field theory. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... In physics quanta is the plural of quantum. ... In classical mechanics, momentum (pl. ... A point particle is an idealized particle heavily used in physics. ... The word light is defined here as electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength; thus, X-rays, gamma rays, ultraviolet light, infrared radiation, microwaves, radio waves, and visible light are all forms of light. ... Lewis in the Berkeley Lab Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 23, 1875-March 23, 1946) was a famous American physical chemist. ... In physics and chemistry, wave-particle duality is a conceptualization that all objects in our universe exhibit properties of both waves and of particles. ... Fig. ...


In 1911, Einstein became an associate professor at the University of Zurich. However, shortly afterward, he accepted a full professorship at the Charles University of Prague. While in Prague, Einstein published a paper about the effects of gravity on light, specifically the gravitational redshift and the gravitational deflection of light. The paper appealed to astronomers to find ways of detecting the deflection during a solar eclipse.[24] German astronomer Erwin Freundlich publicized Einstein's challenge to scientists around the world (Crelinsten 2006). A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland, in the city of Zurich. ... Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; Czech: Univerzita Karlova; Latin: Universitas Carolina) is the oldest, largest and most prestigious Czech university and among the oldest universities in Europe, being founded in the late 1340s (for the exact year, see below). ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Einstein Tower in Potsdam Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (May 29, 1885 - July 24, 1964) [Scottish name:Finlay] was a German astronomer, a pupil of Felix Klein. ...


In 1912, Einstein returned to Switzerland to accept a professorship at his alma mater, the ETH. There he met mathematician Marcel Grossmann who introduced him to Riemannian geometry, and at the recommendation of Italian mathematician Tullio Levi-Civita, Einstein began exploring the usefulness of general covariance (essentially the use of tensors) for his gravitational theory. Although for a while Einstein thought that there were problems with that approach, he later returned to it and by late 1915 had published his general theory of relativity in the form that is still used today (Einstein 1915). This theory explains gravitation as distortion of the structure of spacetime by matter, affecting the inertial motion of other matter. Alma mater is Latin for nourishing mother. It was used in ancient Rome as a title for the mother goddess, and in Medieval Christianity for the Virgin Mary. ... Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ... Marcel Grossmann (born in Budapest on April 9, 1878 - died in Zurich on September 7, 1936) was a mathematician, a friend, and a classmate of Albert Einstein. ... In differential geometry, Riemannian geometry is the study of smooth manifolds with Riemannian metrics, i. ... Tullio Levi-Civita. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In mathematics, a tensor is (in an informal sense) a generalized linear quantity or geometrical entity that can be expressed as a multi-dimensional array relative to a choice of basis; however, as an object in and of itself, a tensor is independent of any chosen frame of reference. ... In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that combines space and time into a single construct called the space-time continuum. ... Inertia is the property of an object to remain at constant velocity unless acted upon by an outside force. ...


After many relocations, Mileva established a permanent home with the children in Zurich in 1914, just before the start of World War I. Einstein continued on alone to Germany, more precisely to Berlin, where he became a member of the Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften. As part of the arrangements for his new position, he also became a professor at the University of Berlin, although with a special clause freeing him from most teaching obligations. From 1914 to 1932 he was also director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for physics (Kant 2005). “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... The Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: ) was an academy established in Berlin on July 11, 1700. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der... Kaiser Wilhelm Institute (in German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft) was the name of a number of scientific institutes in Germany before World War II. After 1945 they were re-organised and renamed as Max Planck Institutes. ...


During World War I, the speeches and writings of Central Powers scientists were only available to Central Powers academics for national security reasons. Some of Einstein's work did reach the United Kingdom and the USA through the efforts of the Austrian Paul Ehrenfest and physicists in the Netherlands, especially 1902 Nobel Prize-winner Hendrik Lorentz and Willem de Sitter of the Leiden University. After the war ended, Einstein maintained his relationship with the Leiden University, accepting a contract as a buitengewoon hoogleraar; he travelled to Holland regularly to lecture there between 1920 and 1930.[25] European military alliances in 1914. ... Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ... Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (July 18, 1853, Arnhem – February 4, 1928, Haarlem) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and elucidation of the Zeeman effect. ... Willem de Sitter (May 6, 1872 – November 20, 1934) was a mathematician, physicist and astronomer. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: one who claims publicly to be an expert) varies. ...


In 1917, Einstein published an article in Physikalische Zeitschrift that proposed the possibility of stimulated emission, the physical technique that makes possible the laser (Einstein 1917b). He also published a paper introducing a new notion, a cosmological constant, into the general theory of relativity in an attempt to model the behavior of the entire universe (Einstein 1917a). In optics, stimulated emission is the process by which, when perturbed by a photon, matter may lose energy resulting in the creation of another photon. ... Experiment with a laser (likely an argon type) (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation. ... The cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ...


1917 was the year astronomers began taking Einstein up on his 1911 challenge from Prague. The Mount Wilson Observatory in California, USA, published a solar spectroscopic analysis that showed no gravitational redshift (Crelinsten 2006, pp. 103–108). In 1918, the Lick Observatory, also in California, announced that they too had disproven Einstein's prediction, although their findings were not published (Crelinsten 2006, pp. 114–119, 126–140). The Mount Wilson Observatory (MWO) is an astronomical observatory in Los Angeles County, California. ... The Lick Observatory is an astronomical observatory, owned and operated by the University of California. ...

One of the 1919 eclipse photographs taken during Arthur Eddington's expedition, which confirmed Einstein's predictions of the gravitational bending of light.
One of the 1919 eclipse photographs taken during Arthur Eddington's expedition, which confirmed Einstein's predictions of the gravitational bending of light.

However, in May 1919, a team led by British astronomer Arthur Eddington claimed to have confirmed Einstein's prediction of gravitational deflection of starlight by the Sun while photographing a solar eclipse in Sobral northern Brazil and Principe (Crelinsten 2006). On November 7, 1919, leading British newspaper The Times printed a banner headline that read: "Revolution in Science – New Theory of the Universe – Newtonian Ideas Overthrown".[26] In an interview Nobel laureate Max Born praised general relativity as the "greatest feat of human thinking about nature";[27] fellow laureate Paul Dirac was quoted saying it was "probably the greatest scientific discovery ever made" (Schmidhuber 2006). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x899, 314 KB) Positive (inverted) edition of Image:1919_eclipse_negative. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (700x899, 314 KB) Positive (inverted) edition of Image:1919_eclipse_negative. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... One of Sir Arthur Stanley Eddingtons papers announced Einsteins theory of general relativity to the English-speaking world. ... A gravitational lens is formed when the light from a very distant, bright source (such as a quasar) is bent around a massive object (such as a massive galaxy) between the source object and the observer. ... A general view of the citys downtown, as photographed from the seat of the city government A historical building in downtown Sobral Sobral is a city and municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, situated in the equatorial Atlantic about 300 and 250 kilometers (200 and 150 miles), respectively, off the northwestern coast of Gabon, constitute one of Africas smallest countries. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, OM, FRS (IPA: [dɪræk]) (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ...


In their excitement, the world media made Albert Einstein world-famous. Ironically, later examination of the photographs taken on the Eddington expedition showed that the experimental uncertainty was of about the same magnitude as the effect Eddington claimed to have demonstrated, and in 1962 a British expedition concluded that the method used was inherently unreliable.[26] The deflection of light during an eclipse has, however, been more accurately measured (and confirmed) by later observations.[28]


There was some resentment toward the newcomer Einstein's fame in the scientific community, notably among German physicists, who would later start the Deutsche Physik (German Physics) movement (Hentschel & Hentschel 1996, p. xxi).[29] Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ...


Having lived apart for five years, Einstein and Mileva divorced on February 14, 1919. On June 2 of that year, Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal, who had nursed him through an illness. Elsa was Albert's first cousin (maternally) and his second cousin (paternally). Together the Einsteins raised Margot and Ilse, Elsa's daughters from her first marriage.[30] Elsa Einstein (18 January 1876-20 December 1936) was the wife and cousin of Albert Einstein. ...


The Nobel Prize

Einstein, 1921. Age 42.
Einstein, 1921. Age 42.

In 1921 Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics, "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". This refers to his 1905 paper on the photoelectric effect: "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", which was well supported by the experimental evidence by that time. The presentation speech began by mentioning "his theory of relativity [which had] been the subject of lively debate in philosophical circles [and] also has astrophysical implications which are being rigorously examined at the present time." (Einstein 1923) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x969, 340 KB) Photograph of Albert Einstein, published in the USA in 1921. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x969, 340 KB) Photograph of Albert Einstein, published in the USA in 1921. ... Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995) accepting the Nobel Prize for his work on magnetohydrodynamics [1]. List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physics from 1901 to the present day. ...


Einstein travelled to New York City in the United States for the first time on April 2, 1921. When asked where he got his scientific ideas, Einstein explained that he believed scientific work best proceeds from an examination of physical reality and a search for underlying axioms, with consistent explanations that apply in all instances and avoid contradicting each other. He also recommended theories with visualizable results (Einstein 1954).[31] New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

See also: History of special relativity

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Unified field theory

Max Planck presents Einstein with the Max Planck medal, Berlin June 28, 1929
Max Planck presents Einstein with the Max Planck medal, Berlin June 28, 1929

Einstein's research after general relativity consisted primarily of a long series of attempts to generalize his theory of gravitation in order to unify and simplify the fundamental laws of physics, particularly gravitation and electromagnetism. In 1950, he described this "Unified Field Theory" in a Scientific American article entitled "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation" (Einstein 1950). This article is in need of attention. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 412 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1506 × 2191 pixel, file size: 582 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Max Planck presents Albert Einstein with the Max-Planck medal of the German Physical Society, June 28, 1929 in Berlin. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... The Max Planck medal is an award for extraordinary achievements in theoretical physics. ... June 28 is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A physical law, scientific law, or a law of nature is a scientific generalization based on empirical observations of physical behavior. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...


Although he continued to be lauded for his work in theoretical physics, Einstein became increasingly isolated in his research, and his attempts were ultimately unsuccessful. In his pursuit of a unification of the fundamental forces, he ignored mainstream developments in physics (and vice versa), most notably the strong and weak nuclear forces, which were not well understood until many years after Einstein's death. Einstein's goal of unifying the laws of physics under a single model survives in the current drive for the grand unification theory. The strong nuclear force or strong interaction (also called color force or colour force) is a fundamental force of nature which affects only quarks and antiquarks, and is mediated by gluons in a similar fashion to how the electromagnetic force is mediated by photons. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Unified field theory. ...


Collaboration and conflict

Bose–Einstein statistics

In 1924, Einstein received a statistical model from Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose which showed that light could be understood as a gas. Bose's statistics applied to some atoms as well as to the proposed light particles, and Einstein submitted his translation of Bose's paper to the Zeitschrift für Physik. Einstein also published his own articles describing the model and its implications, among them the Bose–Einstein condensate phenomenon that should appear at very low temperatures (Einstein 1924). It was not until 1995 that the first such condensate was produced experimentally by Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman using ultra-cooling equipment built at the NIST-JILA laboratory at the University of Colorado at Boulder.[32] Bose–Einstein statistics are now used to describe the behaviors of any assembly of "bosons". Einstein's sketches for this project may be seen in the Einstein Archive in the library of the Leiden University (Instituut-Lorentz 2005). Statistical mechanics is the application of probability theory, which includes mathematical tools for dealing with large populations, to the field of mechanics, which is concerned with the motion of particles or objects when subjected to a force. ... Satyendra Nath Bose Bengali: ) (January 1, 1894 – February 4, 1974) was a Indian physicist, specializing in mathematical physics. ... The Zeitschrift für Physik (Journal of Physics) was published from 1920 until 1997. ... ... Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995. ... Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is a Nobel-prize winning American physicist at the University of British Columbia who (with Eric Allin Cornell), in 1995, produced the first true Bose-Einstein condensate. ... Ultracold atoms is a term used to describe atoms that are maintained at temperatures close to 0 kelvin (Absolute Zero), where their quantum-mechanical properties become important. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is one of the leading physical science research institutes in the United States. ... The University of Colorado at Boulder (CU-Boulder, UCB officially[2]; Colorado and CU colloquially) is the flagship university of the University of Colorado System in Boulder, Colorado. ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambiguation). ... In particle physics, bosons, named after Satyendra Nath Bose, are particles having integer spin. ... Leiden University, located in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands[1]. It is a member of the Coimbra Group, the Europaeum and the League of European Research Universities. ...


Schrödinger gas model

Einstein suggested to Erwin Schrödinger an application of Max Planck's idea of treating energy levels for a gas as a whole rather than for individual molecules, and Schrödinger applied this in a paper using the Boltzmann distribution to derive the thermodynamic properties of a semiclassical ideal gas. Schrödinger urged Einstein to add his name as co-author, although Einstein declined the invitation.[33] Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (August 12, 1887 – January 4, 1961) was an Austrian physicist who achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1933. ... Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 – October 4, 1947 in Göttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ... A quantum mechanical system can only be in certain states, so that only certain energy levels are possible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... In physics, the Boltzmann distribution predicts the distribution function for the fractional number of particles Ni / N occupying a set of states i which each has energy Ei: where is the Boltzmann constant, T is temperature (assumed to be a sharply well-defined quantity), is the degeneracy, or number of... Thermodynamics (from the Greek θερμη, therme, meaning heat and δυναμις, dunamis, meaning power) is a branch of physics that studies the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by analyzing the collective motion of their particles using statistics. ... In physics, the adjective semiclassical has different precise meanings depending on the context. ... An ideal gas or perfect gas is a hypothetical gas consisting of identical particles of zero volume, with no intermolecular forces. ...


The Einstein refrigerator

In 1926, Einstein and his former student Leó Szilárd, a Hungarian physicist who later worked on the Manhattan Project and is credited with the discovery of the chain reaction, co-invented (and in 1930, patented) the Einstein refrigerator, revolutionary for having no moving parts and using only heat, not ice, as an input (Goettling 1998).[34] Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Bohr versus Einstein

Einstein and Niels Bohr. Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during their visit to Leiden in December 1925.
Einstein and Niels Bohr. Photo taken by Paul Ehrenfest during their visit to Leiden in December 1925.

In the 1920s, quantum mechanics developed into a more complete theory. Einstein was unhappy with the "Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum theory developed by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, wherein quantum phenomena are inherently probabilistic, with definite states resulting only upon interaction with classical systems. A public debate between Einstein and Bohr followed, lasting for many years (including during the Solvay Conferences). Einstein formulated gedanken experiments against the Copenhagen interpretation, which were all rebutted by Bohr. In a 1926 letter to Max Born, Einstein wrote: "I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice." (Einstein 1969)[35] Bohr told Born to tell Einstein: "Stop telling God what to do."[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1467x2123, 1676 KB) Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein Foto by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933) originally uploaded to de. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Paul Ehrenfest Paul Ehrenfest (Vienna, January 18, 1880 – Amsterdam, September 25, 1933) was an Austrian physicist and mathematician, who obtained Dutch citizenship on March 24, 1922. ... Fig. ... The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Classical Physics refers to the ideas and laws developed before Relativity and Quantum Theory. ... Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein at Paul Ehrenfests home in Leiden (December 1925) The Bohr-Einstein debates is a popular name given to what was actually a series of epistemological challenges presented by Albert Einstein against what has come to be called the standard or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum... The portrait of participants to the first Solvay Conference in 1911. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ...


Einstein was never satisfied by what he perceived to be quantum theory's intrinsically incomplete description of nature, and in 1935 he further explored the issue in collaboration with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, noting that the theory seems to require non-local interactions; this is known as the EPR paradox (Einstein 1935). The EPR gedanken experiment has since been performed, with results confirming quantum theory's predictions.[36] In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a thought experiment which demonstrates that the result of a measurement performed on one part of a quantum system can have an instantaneous effect on the result of a measurement performed on another part, regardless of the distance separating the two parts. ... Nathan Rosen (March 22, 1909 – December 18, 1995) was a physicist. ... A physical theory is said to exhibit nonlocality if, in that theory, it is not possible to treat widely separated systems as independent. ... In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities and the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory. ...


Einstein's disagreement with Bohr revolved around the idea of scientific determinism. For this reason the repercussions of the Einstein-Bohr debate have found their way into philosophical discourse as well. Determinism is the philosophical proposition that every event, including human cognition, decision and action, is causally determined by an unbroken chain of prior occurrences. ... Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein at Paul Ehrenfests home in Leiden (December 1925) The Bohr-Einstein debates is a popular name given to what was actually a series of epistemological challenges presented by Albert Einstein against what has come to be called the standard or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum...

See also: Bohr-Einstein debates

Niels Bohr with Albert Einstein at Paul Ehrenfests home in Leiden (December 1925) The Bohr-Einstein debates is a popular name given to what was actually a series of epistemological challenges presented by Albert Einstein against what has come to be called the standard or Copenhagen interpretation of quantum...

Religious views

The question of scientific determinism gave rise to questions about Einstein's position on theological determinism, and even whether or not he believed in God. In 1929, Einstein told Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein "I believe in Spinoza's God, who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind." (Brian 1996, p. 127) Theological determinism is the religious view that all events in the world were pre-ordained by God. ... Rabbi Dr. Herbert S. Goldstein, (1890-1970), was a prominent Jewish leader in the United States. ... Benedictus de Spinoza or Baruch de Spinoza (Hebrew: ברוך שפינוזה) (lived November 24, 1632 – February 21, 1677) was a Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish origin. ...


Einstein defined his religious views in a letter he wrote in response to those who claimed that he worshipped a Judeo-Christian god: "It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it."[37][38]


By his own definition, Einstein was a deeply religious person (Pais 1982, p. 319).[39] He published a paper in Nature in 1940 entitled Science and Religion which gave his views on the subject.[40] In this he says that: "a person who is religiously enlightened appears to me to be one who has, to the best of his ability, liberated himself from the fetters of his selfish desires and is preoccupied with thoughts, feelings and aspirations to which he clings because of their super-personal value ... regardless of whether any attempt is made to unite this content with a Divine Being, for otherwise it would not be possible to count Buddha and Spinoza as religious personalities. Accordingly a religious person is devout in the sense that he has no doubt of the significance of those super-personal objects and goals which neither require nor are capable of rational foundation ... In this sense religion is the age-old endeavour of mankind to become clearly and completely conscious of these values and goals, and constantly to strengthen their effects." He argues that conflicts between science and religion "have all sprung from fatal errors." However "even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other" there are "strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies" ... "science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind ... a legitimate conflict between science and religion cannot exist." However he makes it clear that he does not believe in a personal God, and suggests that "neither the rule of human nor Divine Will exists as an independent cause of natural events. To be sure, the doctrine of a personal God interfering with natural events could never be refuted ... by science, for [it] can always take refuge in those domains in which scientific knowledge has not yet been able to set foot." (Einstein 1940, pp. 605–607) Nature is one of the most prominent scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Media:Example. ... Baruch Spinoza Benedictus de Spinoza (November 24, 1632 - February 21, 1677), named Baruch Spinoza by his synagogue elders and known as Bento de Spinoza or Bento dEspiñoza in the community in which he grew up. ...


Einstein championed the work of psychologist Paul Diel,[41] which posited a biological and psychological, rather than theological or sociological, basis for morality.[42] Paul Diel (July 11, 1893 - January 5, 1972) was a French psychologist of Austrian descent who developed the method of introspective analysis and the psychology of motivation. ...


The most thorough exploration of Einstein's views on religion was made by his friend Max Jammer in the 1999 book Einstein and Religion (Jammer 1999). Max Jammer (born 1915 in Berlin, Germany) is an Israeli physicist and philosopher of physics. ...


Einstein was an Honorary Associate of the Rationalist Press Association beginning in 1934, and was an admirer of Ethical Culture (Ericson 2006). He served on the advisory board of the First Humanist Society of New York (See Stringer-Hye 1999 and Wilson 1995). The Rationalist Press Association is an organisation of the United Kingdom, founded on 26 May 1899 to promote freedom of thought and inquiry and the principles of rationalism, defined as the mental attitude which unreservedly accepts the supremacy of reason and aims at establishing a system of philosophy and ethics... The Ethical Culture Movement is a non-sectarian, ethico-religious and educational movement. ... In 1929 Charles Francis Potter founded the First Humanist Society of New York whose advisory board included Julian Huxley, John Dewey, Albert Einstein, and Thomas Mann. ...


Politics

Indian poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore with Einstein during their widely-publicized July 14, 1930 conversation

With increasing public demands, his involvement in political, humanitarian and academic projects in various countries and his new acquaintances with scholars and political figures from around the world, Einstein was less able to get the productive isolation that, according to biographer Ronald W. Clark, he needed in order to work (Clark 1971). Due to his fame and genius, Einstein found himself called on to give conclusive judgments on matters that had nothing to do with theoretical physics or mathematics. He was not timid, and he was aware of the world around him, with no illusion that ignoring politics would make world events fade away. His very visible position allowed him to speak and write frankly, even provocatively, at a time when many people of conscience could only flee to the underground or keep doubts about developments within their own movements to themselves for fear of internecine fighting. Einstein flouted the ascendant Nazi movement, tried to be a voice of moderation in the tumultuous formation of the State of Israel and braved anti-communist politics and resistance to the civil rights movement in the United States. He became honorary president of the League against Imperialism created in Brussels in 1927. Image File history File links Tagore-einstein2. ... Image File history File links Tagore-einstein2. ... The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. ... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... July 14 is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald William Clark (1916-1987) was a British author of biography and non-fiction. ... Members of the Dutch Eindhoven Resistance with troops of the US 101st Airborne Division in front of the Eindhoven cathedral during Operation Market Garden in September 1944. ... The League against Imperialism (French: Ligue contre limpérialisme et loppression coloniale) was founded in the Egmont Palace in Brussels, Belgium, on February 10, 1927, in presence of 175 delegates, among which 107 came from 37 countries under colonial rule. ...


Nazism

Albert Einstein wearing a kippah and holding a violin during a service in a Berlin Synagogue, 1930

Einstein was a cultural Zionist. In 1931, The Macmillan Company published About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein.[43] Querido Ferlag, an Amsterdam publishing house, collected eleven of Einstein's essays into a 1933 book entitled Mein Weltbild, translated to English as The World as I See It; Einstein's foreword dedicates the collection "to the Jews of Germany".[44] In the face of Germany's rising militarism Einstein wrote and spoke for peace (American Museum of Natural History 2002).[45] Image File history File links Einstein_inshul1930. ... Image File history File links Einstein_inshul1930. ... A kippah (Hebrew: , plural kippot; Yiddish: , sometimes called a yarmulka or a kepel) is a thin, slightly-rounded skullcap traditionally worn by observant Jewish men. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... A synagogue (from Ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish place of religious worship. ... Cultural Zionism is a strain of the concept of Zionism that values Jewish culture and history, including language and historical roots, rather than other Zionist ideas such as Political Zionism. ...


In January 1933, Adolf Hitler was elected Chancellor of Germany. One of the first actions of Hitler's administration was the "Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums" (the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service) which removed Jews and politically suspect government employees (including university professors) from their jobs, unless they had demonstrated their loyalty to Germany by serving in World War I. In December 1932, Einstein had prudently travelled to the USA to become a guest lecturer at Abraham Flexner's newly founded Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Einstein once again renounced his German citizenship and applied for permanent residency in the United States.[citation needed] Hitler redirects here. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... The Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service (in German: Gesetze zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums or short: Berufsbeamtengesetz), also known as Civil Service Law, Civil Service Restoration Act, and Law to Re-establish the Civil Service, was a law which was passed by the National Socialist regime on... Abraham Flexner (November 13, 1866-September 21, 1959) was an American educator. ... Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, U.S.A., designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists and scholars in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the agendas of sponsorship. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Permanent residency refers to a persons status such that the person is allowed to reside indefinitely within the country despite not having citizenship. ...

Albert Einstein receiving his certificate of American citizenship from Judge Phillip Forman.
Albert Einstein receiving his certificate of American citizenship from Judge Phillip Forman.

The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation's file on Einstein grew to 1,427 pages. Many of the documents in the file were sent to the FBI by concerned citizens, some objecting to his immigration and others asking the FBI to protect him (Federal Bureau of Investigation 2005). Einstein became an American citizen in 1940 although he also retained Swiss citizenship.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2524x1971, 1919 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albert Einstein Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2524x1971, 1919 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albert Einstein Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Judge Forman (r) awards Albert Einstein his certificate of American citizenship on October 1, 1940. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ), serving as both a federal criminal investigative body and a domestic intelligence agency. ...


The Einstein family bought a house in Princeton (where Elsa died in 1936), and Einstein remained an integral contributor to the Institute for Advanced Study until his death in 1955. During the 1930s and into World War II, Einstein wrote affidavits recommending United States visas for a huge number of Jews from Europe trying to flee persecution, raised money for Zionist organizations and was in part responsible for the formation, in 1933, of the International Rescue Committee (Princeton Online 1995).[46] Fuld Hall The Institute for Advanced Study is a private institution in Princeton Township, New Jersey, U.S.A., designed to foster pure cutting-edge research by scientists and scholars in a variety of fields without the complications of teaching or funding, or the agendas of sponsorship. ... An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant), and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiants signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. ... Entry visa valid in Schengen treaty countries. ... The International Rescue Committee was founded in 1933 at the request of Albert Einstein to assist opponents of Adolf Hitler. ...


Meanwhile, a campaign to eliminate Einstein's work from the German lexicon as unacceptable "Jewish physics" (Jüdische physik) was led by Nobel laureates Philipp Lenard and Johannes Stark.[citation needed] Deutsche Physik activists published pamphlets and even textbooks denigrating Einstein; instructors who taught his theories were blacklisted, including Nobel laureate Werner Heisenberg who had debated quantum probability with Bohr and Einstein. Einstein's scientific papers were among those destroyed in public book burnings on May 10, 1933.[citation needed] Deutsche Physik or Aryan Physics (literally: German Physics) was the name given to a reactionary movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... Philipp Eduard Anton von Lénárd, (June 7, 1862 in Preßburg, Austria-Hungary (today Bratislava, Slovakia)–May 20, 1947 in Messelhausen, Germany) was a Hungarian-German physicist and the winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1905 for his research on cathode rays and the discovery of... Johannes Stark (April 15, 1874 – June 21, 1957) was a prominent 20th century physicist, and a Physics Nobel Prize laureate. ... Deutsche Physik (literally: German Physics) or Aryan Physics was the name given to a nationalist movement in the German physics community in the early 1930s against the work of Albert Einstein, labeled Jewish Physics. ... A blacklist is a list or register of entities who, for one reason or another, are being denied a particular privilege, service, or mobility. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ...

In 1946 Einstein and Leó Szilárd recreate the writing of their 1939 letter to President Roosevelt.

In 1939, Leo Szilárd and Einstein wrote a letter to U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt warning that the Third Reich might be developing nuclear weapons based on their own research. Roosevelt formed a committee to investigate the matter and granted Enrico Fermi's University of Chicago neutron experiments $6,000, the first steps toward the Manhattan Project.[citation needed] According to chemist and author Linus Pauling, Einstein later expressed regret about the Szilárd-Einstein letter.[47] Within five years, the United States created its own nuclear weapons, and used them on the Japanese cities of Nagasaki and Hiroshima. source: http://ma. ... source: http://ma. ... Leó Szilárd (February 11, 1898 – May 30, 1964 Originally Szilárd Leó) was a Jewish Hungarian-American physicist who conceived the nuclear chain reaction and worked on the Manhattan Project. ... FDR redirects here. ... Many years later, Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd re-enact the signing of the Einstein-Szilárd letter to Roosevelt. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States, the longest-serving holder of the office and the only man to be elected President more than twice, was one of the central figures of 20th century history. ... Enrico Fermi (September 29, 1901 – November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, particle physics and statistical mechanics. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... This page is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  , long peninsula) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Zionism

Albert Einstein seen here with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel Chaim Weizmann, his wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, Menachem Ussishkin and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921.
Albert Einstein seen here with his wife Elsa Einstein and Zionist leaders, including future President of Israel Chaim Weizmann, his wife Dr. Vera Weizmann, Menachem Ussishkin and Ben-Zion Mossinson on arrival in New York City in 1921.

Despite his years of Zionist efforts, Einstein publicly stated reservations about the proposal to partition the British-supervised British Mandate of Palestine into independent Arab and Jewish countries. In a 1938 speech, "Our Debt to Zionism", he said: "I am afraid of the inner damage Judaism will sustain - especially from the development of a narrow nationalism within our own ranks, against which we have already had to fight strongly, even without a Jewish state." (Rowe & Schulmann 2007) The United Nations did divide the mandate, demarcating the borders of several new countries including the State of Israel, and war broke out immediately. Einstein was one of the authors of a 1948 letter to the New York Times criticizing Menachem Begin's Revisionist Herut (Freedom) Party for the Deir Yassin massacre (Einstein et al. 1948). Einstein served on the Board of Governors of The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, built in 1918.[48] In his Will of 1950, Einstein bequeathed literary rights to his writings to The Hebrew University, where many of his original documents are held in the Albert Einstein Archives (Albert Einstein Archives 2007). Image File history File links Einsteinwiezmann. ... Image File history File links Einsteinwiezmann. ... Elsa Einstein (18 January 1876-20 December 1936) was the wife and cousin of Albert Einstein. ... Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in... Dr. Vera Weizmann was born in 1881 in the town of Rostov, Russia. ... Israeli postal stamp commemorating Menachem Ussishkin Avraham Menachem Mendel Ussishkin (1863-1941) was a notable Zionist leader. ... Flag Britain unilaterally closed the territory east of the Jordan River (Transjordan) to Jewish settlement and organized Transjordan as an autonomous state in 1923. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...   (August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) (Hebrew: מְנַחֵם בְּגִין) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Herut (Hebrew: חרות Freedom) was the political party of the Revisionist Zionist movement in Israel. ... The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


When President Chaim Weizmann died in 1952, Einstein was asked to be Israel's second president but he declined. He wrote: "I am deeply moved by the offer from our State of Israel, and at once saddened and ashamed that I cannot accept it." (Princeton Online 1995) Chaim Weizmann and Harry S. Truman, May 25, 1948 Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים ויצמן) (also: Chaijim W., Haim W.) (November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected May 16, 1948, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in...


Cold War era

When he was a visible figure working against the rise of Nazism, Einstein had sought help and developed working relationships in both the West and what was to become the Soviet bloc. After World War II, enmity between the former allies became a very serious issue for people with international resumes. To make things worse, during the first days of McCarthyism Einstein was writing about a single world government; it was at this time that he wrote, "I do not know how the third World War will be fought, but I can tell you what the they will use in the Fourth–rocks!" (Calaprice 2005, p. 173)[49] In a 1949 Monthly Review article entitled "Why Socialism?" Albert Einstein described a chaotic capitalist society, a source of evil to be overcome, as the "predatory phase of human development" (Einstein 1949). With Albert Schweitzer and Bertrand Russell, Einstein lobbied to stop nuclear testing and future bombs. Days before his death, Einstein signed the Russell-Einstein Manifesto, which led to the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs.[50] During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... It has been suggested that World Federation be merged into this article or section. ... Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which investments, distribution, income, production and pricing of goods and services are determined through the operation of a free market. ... Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 - September 4, 1965), was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell OM FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician and advocate for social reform. ... The Russell-Einstein Manifesto was issued in London on July 9, 1955 by Bertrand Russell in the midst of the Cold War. ... Pugwash encounter and tour held at the National Accelerator Laboratory, now Fermilab, September 12, 1970. ...


Einstein has been quoted as saying "Racism is America's greatest disease."[citation needed] Einstein was a member of several civil rights groups, including the Princeton chapter of the NAACP. He served as co-chair with Paul Robeson of the American Crusade to End Lynching. When the aged W.E.B. DuBois was accused of being a communist spy, Einstein volunteered as a character witness and the case was dismissed shortly afterward. Einstein's friendship with activist Paul Robeson lasted 20 years.[51] The civil rights movement in the United States has been a long, primarily nonviolent struggle to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all citizens of United States. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, Communist sympathizer, Spingarn Medal winner, and Lenin Peace Prize laureate. ... The American Crusade Against Lynching was an organization, created in 1946 and headed by Paul Robeson, dedicated to eliminating lynching in the United States. ... W. E. B. Du Bois William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was a civil rights activist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar, and socialist. ... Paul LeRoy Bustill Robeson (April 9, 1898 – January 23, 1976) was a multi-lingual American actor, athlete, bass-baritone concert singer, writer, civil rights activist, Communist sympathizer, Spingarn Medal winner, and Lenin Peace Prize laureate. ...


In 1946, Einstein collaborated with Rabbi Israel Goldstein, Middlesex heir C. Ruggles Smith, and activist attorney George Alpert on the Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc., which was formed to create a Jewish-sponsored secular university, open to all students, on the grounds of the former Middlesex College in Waltham, Massachusetts. Middlesex was chosen in part because it was accessible from both Boston and New York City, Jewish cultural centers of the USA. Their vision was a university "deeply conscious both of the Hebraic tradition of Torah looking upon culture as a birthright, and of the American ideal of an educated democracy." (Reis 1998) The collaboration was stormy, however. Finally, when Einstein wanted to appoint British economist Harold J. Laski as the university's president, Alpert wrote that Laski was "a man utterly alien to American principles of democracy, tarred with the Communist brush." (Reis 1998) Einstein withdrew his support and barred the use of his name (New York Times 1947). The university opened in 1948 as Brandeis University. In 1953, Brandeis offered Einstein an honorary degree, but he declined (Reis 1998). Rabbi, in Judaism, means a religious ‘teacher’, or more literally, ‘great one’. The word Rabbi is derived from the Hebrew root word , rav, which in biblical Hebrew means ‘great’ or ‘distinguished (in knowledge)’. Sephardic and Yemenite Jews pronounce this word ribbī; the modern Israeli pronunciation rabbī is derived from a... Harold Joseph Laski (June 30, 1893, Manchester, England - March 24, 1950, London, England) was an English political scientist, economist, author, and lecturer, and served as the 1945-1946 chairman of the Labour Party. ... Brandeis University is a private university in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Although Einstein had long been sympathetic to the notion of vegetarianism, it was only near the start of 1954 that he adopted a strict vegetarian diet.[52] Vegetarianism is the practice of not consuming the flesh of any animal (including sea animals) with or without also eschewing other animal derivatives, such as dairy products or eggs[1]. Some vegetarians choose to also refrain from wearing clothing that has involved the death of animals, such as leather, silk...


Death

Albert Einstein laughing with Israeli diplomat, Abba Eban (left), 1952

On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurism.[53] He took a draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it. (Albert Einstein Archives 1955) He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered (O'Connor & Robertson 1997). Image File history File links EinsteinandAbbaEban. ... Image File history File links EinsteinandAbbaEban. ... Abba Eban (אבא אבן) (February 2, 1915 – November 17, 2002) was an Israeli diplomat and politician. ... An aortic aneurysm is a general term for any swelling (dilatation or aneurysm) of the aorta, usually representing an underlying weakness in the wall of the aorta at that location. ...


Before the cremation, Princeton Hospital pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein's brain for preservation, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent. Dr. Thomas Stoltz Harvey (born October 10, 1912) is a pathologist who conducted the autopsy on Albert Einstein in 1955. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


While travelling, Einstein had written daily to his wife Elsa and adopted stepdaughters, Margot and Ilse, and the letters were included in the papers bequeathed to The Hebrew University. Margot Einstein permitted the personal letters to be made available to the public, but requested that it not be done until twenty years after her death. Barbara Wolff, of The Hebrew University's Albert Einstein Archives, told the BBC that there are about 3,500 pages of private correspondence written between 1912 and 1955 (BBC 2006). The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The British Broadcasting Company Ltd was a British commercial company formed on October 18, 1922 by British and American electrical companies doing business in the United Kingdom. ...


The United States' National Academy of Sciences commissioned the Albert Einstein Memorial, a monumental bronze and marble sculpture by Robert Berks, dedicated in 1979 at its Washington, D.C. campus adjacent to the National Mall.[54] President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The Albert Einstein Memorial is a monumental bronze statue depicting Albert Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand. ... Robert Berks, an American sculptor, created hundreds of bronze sculptures and monuments including the Mary McLeod Bethune memorial and the Albert Einstein memorial in Washington, D.C. Another of his statues, that of the Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus, can be found in the Heritage Garden of the Chicago... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ...


Einstein bequeathed the royalties from use of his image to The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The Roger Richman Agency licences the use of his name and associated imagery, as agent for the Hebrew University (Roger Richman Agency 2007). This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Personality rights are generally considered to consist of two types of rights: the right to privacy, or to keep ones image and likeness from being exploited without permission or contractual compensation, and the right to publicity use of ones identity, which is similar to the use of a... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ... The Roger Richman Agency, Inc. ... A license or licence is a document or agreement giving permission to do something. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ...


Honors

See also: List of things named after Einstein
A 5 Israeli pound note from 1968 with the portrait of Einstein.
A 5 Israeli pound note from 1968 with the portrait of Einstein.
Albert Einstein, Person of the Century
Albert Einstein, Person of the Century

In 1999, Albert Einstein was named "Person of the Century" by Time magazine (Golden 2000), the Gallup Poll recorded him as the fourth most admired person of the 20th century[55] and according to The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Einstein is "the greatest scientist of the twentieth century and one of the supreme intellects of all time" (Hart 1978). The Albert Einstein Memorial, Washington DC at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein Higher-dimensional Einstein gravity Einstein Tower Einstein solid Einstein force Einsteins constant Einstein relation (kinetic theory) Stark-Einstein law Einstein-Hilbert action Einstein-Cartan... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x562, 490 KB) Summary 5 Israeli pounds banknote with the portrait of Albert Einstein - 1968. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1146x562, 490 KB) Summary 5 Israeli pounds banknote with the portrait of Albert Einstein - 1968. ... 1 lira coin (1971–9) from World Coin Gallery. ... Albert Einstein as Person of the Century on the cover of TIME Magazine (December 31, 1999 Vol. ... Albert Einstein as Person of the Century on the cover of TIME Magazine (December 31, 1999 Vol. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... A Gallup poll is an opinion poll frequently used by the mass media for representing public opinion. ... Gallups List of Widely Admired People, a poll of United States citizens to volunteer the names of the individuals whom they most admire, is a list compiled annually by The Gallup Organization. ...


A partial list of his memorials:

The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to the advancement of Physics. ... Physics has been the basis for understanding the physical world and nature as a whole. ... The Albert Einstein Memorial is a monumental bronze statue depicting Albert Einstein seated with manuscript papers in hand. ... Robert Berks, an American sculptor, created hundreds of bronze sculptures and monuments including the Mary McLeod Bethune memorial and the Albert Einstein memorial in Washington, D.C. Another of his statues, that of the Swedish botanist and physician Carolus Linnaeus, can be found in the Heritage Garden of the Chicago... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... An einstein is a unit used in irradiance and in photochemistry. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element for short, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... General Name, Symbol, Number einsteinium, Es, 99 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance unknown, probably silvery white or metallic gray Standard atomic weight (252) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f11 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 29, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase... 253 Mathilde, a C-type asteroid. ... 2001 Einstein is an asteroid discovered on March 5, 1973. ... NB: See discussion page about the accuracy of the information on this page. ... The Albert Einstein Peace Prize is given yearly by the Chicago-based Albert Einstein Peace Prize Foundation. ...

Einstein in popular culture

Albert Einstein, 1951. Arthur Sasse, photographer
Albert Einstein, 1951. Arthur Sasse, photographer

On Einstein's 72nd birthday in 1951, UPI photographer Arthur Sasse was trying to persuade him to smile for the camera, but having smiled for photographers many times that day, Einstein stuck out his tongue instead (Kupper 2000). Image File history File links Einstein_tongue. ... Image File history File links Einstein_tongue. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. UPI redirects here. ...


Albert Einstein has been the subject of or inspiration for many novels, films and plays, such as Yahoo Serious's intentionally inaccurate biography of Einstein as a Tasmanian in the film Young Einstein, Jean-Claude Carrier's 2005 French novel, Einstein S'il Vous Plait ("Please, Mr Einstein"), Nicolas Roeg's film Insignificance, Fred Schepisi's film I.Q. (where he was portrayed by Walter Matthau), Alan Lightman's collection of short stories Einstein's Dreams, and Steve Martin's comedic play Picasso at the Lapin Agile. He was the subject of Philip Glass's groundbreaking 1976 opera Einstein on the Beach and his humorous side is the subject of Ed Metzger's one-man play Albert Einstein: The Practical Bohemian. For other uses, see Yahoo. ... Young Einstein is an Australian comedy movie starring Yahoo Serious, released in 1988. ... Nicolas Jack Roeg, born on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known cinematographer and film director. ... Insignificance is a 1985 motion picture drama/comedy directed by Nicolas Roeg and adapted by Terry Johnson from his play. ... Frederick Alan Schepisi (born 26 December 1939) is an Australian film director and scriptwriter. ... I.Q. is a 1994 romantic comedy film directed by Fred Schepisi, starring Tim Robbins, Meg Ryan and Walter Matthau. ... Walter Matthau Walter Matthau (October 1, 1920 – July 1, 2000) was an Academy Award winning American comedy actor. ... Alan Lightman is a physicist, novelist, and essayist born in Memphis, Tennessee in 1948, son of Richard Lightman, a movie theater owner, and Jeanne Garretson, a dancing teacher and volunteer Braille typist. ... For the football player of the same name see Steve Martin (football player). ... Picasso at the Lapin Agile is a play written by Steve Martin in 1993. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. ... Einstein on the Beach is an opera scored and written by Philip Glass and designed and directed by Robert Wilson. ... Ed Metzger (born January 23, 1946) is an American actor and writer. ...


Einstein is a favorite model for depictions of mad scientists and absent-minded professors; his expressive face and distinctive hairstyle have been widely copied and exaggerated. Time magazine's Frederic Golden wrote that Einstein was "a cartoonist's dream come true." (Golden 2000) Caucasian, male, aging, crooked teeth, messy hair, lab coat, spectacles/goggles, dramatic posing, beaker with strange colored liquid — one popular stereotype of a mad scientist. ... The absent-minded professor is a stock character of popular fiction usually portrayed as an academic with important information, but whose focus on their learning leads them to ignore their surroundings. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ...


See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Creation of General Relativity Early investigations The development of general relativity began in 1907 with the publication of an article by Albert Einstein on acceleration under special relativity. ... A frame from a German relativity film produced in 1922, published in Scientific American. ... Albert Einstein presented the theories of Special Relativity and General Relativity in groundbreaking publications that did not include references to the work of others. ... The Albert Einstein Memorial, Washington DC at the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, DC. This is a list of things named after Albert Einstein Higher-dimensional Einstein gravity Einstein Tower Einstein solid Einstein force Einsteins constant Einstein relation (kinetic theory) Stark-Einstein law Einstein-Hilbert action Einstein-Cartan... A diagram illustrating the emission of electrons from a metal plate, requiring energy gained from an incoming photon to be more than the work function of the material. ... In quantum mechanics, the EPR paradox is a thought experiment which challenged long-held ideas about the relation between the observed values of physical quantities and the values that can be accounted for by a physical theory. ... In general relativity, the sticky bead argument is a simple thought experiment designed to show that gravitational radiation is indeed predicted by general relativity, and can have physical effects. ... Einstein, in 1905, when he wrote the Annus Mirabilis Papers The Annus Mirabilis Papers (from Latin, Annus mirabilis, for extraordinary year) are the papers of Albert Einstein published in the Annalen der Physik Scientific journal in 1905. ... In physics, theories of gravitation postulate mechanisms of interaction governing the movements of bodies with mass. ... For other topics related to Einstein see Einstein (disambig) In mathematics, especially in applications of linear algebra to physics, the Einstein notation or Einstein summation convention is a notational convention useful when dealing with coordinate equations or formulas. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Nobel Foundation. The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Retrieved on 2007-03-06.
  2. ^ These include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  3. ^ Nobel Foundation. Albert Einstein - Biography. from Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1967. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
  4. ^ "Einstein the greatest", BBC, November 29, 1999. 
  5. ^ Thomas Sowell used Einstein's name for a book on such children. Sowell, Thomas (2001). The Einstein Syndrome: Bright Children Who Talk Late. Basic Books, 89–150. ISBN 0-465-08140-1. 
  6. ^ Schilpp (Ed.), P. A. (1979). Albert Einstein - Autobiographical Notes. Open Court, 8–9. 
  7. ^ a b Dudley Herschbach, "Einstein as a Student," Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA, page 3, web: HarvardChem-Einstein-PDF: about Max Talmud visited on Thursdays for 6 years.
  8. ^ Mehra, Jagdish. Albert Einstein's first paper. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Einstein's nationalities at einstein-website.de. Retrieved on 4 October, 2006.
  11. ^ Einstein's wife. Retrieved on 8 October, 2006.
  12. ^ This conclusion is from Einstein's correspondence with Marić. Lieserl is first mentioned in a letter from Einstein to Marić (who was abroad at the time of Lieserl's birth) dated February 4, 1902 (Collected papers Vol. 1, document 134).
  13. ^ www.ssqq.com/archive/alberteinstein.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  14. ^ Now the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property. Retrieved on 16 October, 2006.. See also their FAQ about Einstein and the Institute.
  15. ^ a b Peter Galison, "Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time" Critical Inquiry 26, no. 2 (Winter 2000): 355–389.
  16. ^ a b Galison, Peter (2003). Einstein's Clocks, Poincaré's Maps: Empires of Time. New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 0393020010. 
  17. ^ See, for example, the discussion in the "Moonlighting in the Patent Office" section of Gary F. Moring, The Complete Idiot's Guide to Understanding Einstein (Alpha Books, 2004): 7.
  18. ^ E.g. (Pais 1982, p. 17)
  19. ^ Letter Einstein to Marić on October 3, 1900 (Collected Papers Vol. 1, document 79).
  20. ^ Alberto A Martínez. Arguing about Einstein's wife (April 2004) - Physics World - PhysicsWeb (See above). Retrieved on 21 November, 2005.
  21. ^ Allen Esterson. Mileva Marić: Einstein’s Wife. Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  22. ^ John Stachel. “Albert Einstein and Mileva Maric. A Collaboration That Failed to Develop” in: Creative Couples in the Sciences, H. M. Pycior et al. (ed). Retrieved on 2007-02-23.
  23. ^ On the reception of relativity theory around the world, and the different controversies it encountered, see the articles in Thomas F. Glick, ed., The Comparative Reception of Relativity (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1987), ISBN 9027724989.
  24. ^ Einstein, Albert (1911). "On the Influence of Gravity on the Propagation of Light". Annalen der Physik 35: 898–908.  (also in Collected Papers Vol. 3, document 23)
  25. ^ research.leidenuniv.nl/index.php3?m=36&c=67. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  26. ^ a b Andrzej, Stasiak (2003). "Myths in science". EMBO reports 4 (3): 236. DOI:10.1038/sj.embor.embor779. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  27. ^ "The genius of space and time", The Guardian, September 17, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-31. 
  28. ^ See the table in http://www.mathpages.com/rr/s6-03/6-03.htm
  29. ^ For a discussion of astronomers' attitudes and debates about relativity, see Jeffrey Crelinsten, Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity (Princeton University Press, 2006), esp. chapters 6, 9, 10 and 11.
  30. ^ www.einstein-website.de/biographies/einsteinelsa_content.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  31. ^ See Albert Einstein, "Geometry and Experience," (1921), reprinted in Ideas and Opinions.
  32. ^ www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/n01-04.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  33. ^ Moore, Walter (1989). Schrödinger: Life and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-43767-9. 
  34. ^ On November 11, 1930, U.S. Patent 1,781,541  was awarded to Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd for the refrigerator.
  35. ^ A reprint of this book was published by Edition Erbrich in 1982, ISBN 388682005X
  36. ^ Aspect, Alain; Dalibard, Jean; Roger, Gérard (1982). "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying analyzers". Physical Review Letters 49 (25): 1804-1807.  The first of many experimental tests relating to EPR.
  37. ^ Albert Einstein (1879-1955). Retrieved on 2007-05-21.
  38. ^ Helen Dukas and Banesh Hoffman (eds) (1981). Albert Einstein, The Human Side. Princeton University Press, 43. 
  39. ^ Commenting on the quotes from the Nature paper, Pais says "By his own definition, Einstein himself was, of course, a deeply religious person". c/f the title of Ch 2 of The God Delusion "A Deeply Religious non-believer"
  40. ^ Einstein, A. (1940). "Science and religion". Nature 146: 605–607. 
  41. ^ Toulhoat, Hervé (December 2006). "Paul Diel, pionnier de la psychologie des profondeurs et Albert Einstein" (in French). Chimie Paris (315): 12–15. “ ... kann Ihnen aber zu meiner grossen Freude sagen, dass ich die grosse Energie und Konsequenz Ihres Denkens aufrichtig bewundere. Es ist der erste mir zu Gesicht gekommene Versuch, die gesamte menschliche Geistesleben auf biologische Elementar-Phänomene Zurückzuführen inclusive der pathologischen Phänomene.” 
  42. ^ Diel, Paul (1986). The God-Symbol: Its History and its Significance. San Francisco: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-254805-0. 
  43. ^ ASIN: B00085M906
  44. ^ As of March '07, Ebay item number 320089472053 for an original, also available in reprint paperback from Filiquarian Publishing, LLC, ISBN 1599869659.
  45. ^ See the AMNH site's popup of translated letter from Freud, in the section "Freud and Einstein", regarding proposed joint presentation on "What can be done to rid mankind of the menace of war?"
  46. ^ The International Rescue Committee, to this day, gives support and shelter to refugees of social and political persecution: See http://www.theirc.org/ for more information.
  47. ^ "Scientist Tells of Einstein's A-bomb Regrets". The Philadelphia Bulletin, 13 May 1955.
  48. ^ www.huji.ac.il/huji/eng/aboutHU_history_e.htm. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  49. ^ Other versions of the quote exist.
  50. ^ Butcher, Sandra Ionno (May 2005). The Origins of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto. Council of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  51. ^ www.news.harvard.edu/gazette/2007/04.12/01-einstein.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  52. ^ www.ivu.org/history/northam20a/einstein.html. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  53. ^ www.medscape.com/viewarticle/436253. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  54. ^ siris-artinventories.si.edu/. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.
  55. ^ www.galluppoll.com/content/?ci=3367&pg=1. Retrieved on 2007-06-11.

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The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Sowell (born June 30, 1930), is an American economist, political writer, and commentator. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

By Albert Einstein

  • Einstein, Albert (1901), "Folgerungen aus den Capillaritätserscheinungen (Conclusions Drawn from the Phenomena of Capillarity)", Annalen der Physik 4: 513
  • Einstein, Albert (1905a), "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light", Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148. This annus mirabilis paper on the photoelectric effect was received by Annalen der Physik March 18.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905b), A new determination of molecular dimensions. This PhD thesis was completed April 30 and submitted July 20.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905c), "On the Motion—Required by the Molecular Kinetic Theory of Heat—of Small Particles Suspended in a Stationary Liquid", Annalen der Physik 17: 549–560. This annus mirabilis paper on Brownian motion was received May 11.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905d), "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies", Annalen der Physik 17: 891–921. This annus mirabilis paper on special relativity received June 30.
  • Einstein, Albert (1905e), "Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?", Annalen der Physik 18: 639–641. This annus mirabilis paper on mass-energy equivalence was received September 27.
  • Einstein, Albert (1915), "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation (The Field Equations of Gravitation)", Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften: 844–847
  • Einstein, Albert (1917a), "Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie (Cosmological Considerations in the General Theory of Relativity)", Koniglich Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften
  • Einstein, Albert (1917b), "Zur Quantentheorie der Strahlung (On the Quantum Mechanics of Radiation)", Physikalische Zeitschrift 18: 121–128
  • Einstein, Albert (July 11, 1923), "Fundamental Ideas and Problems of the Theory of Relativity", Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-03-25
  • Einstein, Albert (1924), "Quantentheorie des einatomigen idealen Gases (Quantum theory of monatomic ideal gases)", Sitzungsberichte der Preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Physikalisch—Mathematische Klasse: 261–267. First of a series of papers on this topic.
  • Einstein, Albert (1926), "Die Ursache der Mäanderbildung der Flussläufe und des sogenannten Baerschen Gesetzes", Die Naturwissenschaften: 223-224. On Baer's law and meanders in the courses of rivers.
  • Einstein, Albert; Boris Podolsky & Nathan Rosen (May 15, 1935), "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?", Physical Review 47 (10): 777–780
  • Einstein, Albert (1940), "On Science and Religion", Nature 146
  • Einstein, Albert, et al. (December 4, 1948), "To the editors", New York Times
  • Einstein, Albert (May 1949), "Why Socialism?", Monthly Review. Retrieved on 2006-01-16
  • Einstein, Albert (1950), "On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation", Scientific American CLXXXII (4): 13–17
  • Einstein, Albert (1954), Ideas and Opinions, New York: Random House, ISBN 0-517-00393-7
  • Einstein, Albert (1969), Albert Einstein, Hedwig und Max Born: Briefwechsel 1916–1955, Munich: Nymphenburger Verlagshandlung
  • Einstein, Albert (1979), Autobiographical Notes (Centennial ed.), Chicago: Open Court, ISBN 0-875-48352-6. The chasing a light beam thought experiment is described on pages 48–51.
  • Collected Papers: Stachel, John, Martin J. Klein, a. J. Kox, Michel Janssen, R. Schulmann, Diana Komos Buchwald and others (Eds.) (1987–2006). The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Vol 1–10. Princeton University Press.  Further information about the volumes published so far can be found on the webpages of the Einstein Papers Project.

About Albert Einstein

  • American Institute of Physics (1996), Einstein-Image and Impact. Retrieved on 2006-02-25
  • American Museum of Natural History (2002), Einstein's Revolution. Retrieved on 2007-03-14
  • BBC (2006), "Letters Reveal Einstein Love Life", BBC News, British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved on 2007-03-14
  • Beck, Anna (1987), The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 1: The Early Years, 1879–1902. (English translation supplement), Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-08475-6
  • Bodanis, David (June 2005), "Einstein the Nobody", Einstein's Big Idea, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2006-02-25
  • Bolles, Edmund Blair (2004), Einstein Defiant: Genius versus Genius in the Quantum Revolution, National Academy Press, ISBN 0-309-08998-0
  • Brian, Dennis (1996), Einstein: A Life, New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-11459-6
  • Butcher, Sandra Ionno (March 2005), "The Origins of the Russell-Einstein Manifesto", Pugwash History Series
  • Calaprice, Alice (2005), The new quotable Einstein, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-12075-7, at p. 173
  • Clark, Ronald W. (1971), Einstein: The Life and Times, Avon, ISBN 0-380-44123-3
  • Crelinsten, Jeffrey (2006), Einstein's Jury: The Race to Test Relativity, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-12310-3. Retrieved on 2007-03-13 Chapter 1 excerpted on Princeton University Press website
  • Albert Einstein Archives (April 1955), "Draft of projected Telecast Israel Independence Day, April 1955 (last statement ever written)", Einstein Archives Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-14
  • Albert Einstein Archives (2007), "History of the Estate of Albert Einstein", Albert Einstein Archives, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2007-03-25
  • Ericson, Edward L. (2006), "Chapter One", The Humanist Way: An Introduction to Ethical Humanist Religion, American Ethical Union. Retrieved on 2006-02-25
  • Esterson, Allen, "Mileva Marić: Einstein's Wife"
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation (2005), "Albert Einstein", FBI Freedom of Information Act Website, U.S. Federal Government, U.S. Department of Justice
  • Galison, Peter (Winter 2000), "Einstein's Clocks: The Question of Time", Critical Inquiry 26 (2): 355–389
  • Goettling, Gary (1998), "Einstein's Refrigerator", Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine Online, Georgia Tech Alumni Association. Retrieved on 2005-11-21
  • Golden, Frederic (Jan. 3, 2000), "Person of the Century: Albert Einstein", Time. Retrieved on 2006-02-25
  • Hart, Michael H. (1978), The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History, Citadel Press, ISBN 0-8065-1350-0, at p. 52
  • Hentschel, Klaus & Ann M. Hentschel (1996), Physics and National Socialism: An Anthology of Primary Sources, Birkhaeuser Verlag, ISBN 3764353120
  • Herschbach, Dudley (2005), "Einstein as a Student"
  • Highfield, Roger & Paul Carter (1993), The Private Lives of Albert Einstein, London, Boston: Faber and Faber, ISBN 0-571-17170-2 (US ed. ISBN 0-312-11047-2)
  • Holt, Jim (2005-02-28), "Time Bandits", The New Yorker. Retrieved on 2006-03-18
  • Instituut-Lorentz (2005), Einstein archive at the Instituut-Lorentz. Retrieved on 2005-11-21
  • Jammer, Max (1999), Einstein and Religion, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-00699-7
  • Kant, Horst (2005), "Albert Einstein and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics in Berlin", in Renn, Jürgen, Albert Einstein - Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 3527405747, at 166–169
  • Kupper, Hans-Josef (2000), "Various things about Albert Einstein"
  • Levenson, Thomas (2005), "Genius Among Geniuses", Einstein's Big Idea, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2006-02-25
  • Dan Levitt (Producer). (2003) Brilliant Minds: Secrets of the Cosmos [TV-Series]. Boston: Veriscope Pictures.
  • Martínez, Alberto A. (April 2004), "Arguing about Einstein's wife", Physics World. Retrieved on 2005-11-23
  • Mehra, Jagdish (2001), The Golden Age of Theoretical Physics, World Scientific, ISBN 978-981-02-4342-5 (set). Retrieved on 2007-03-04
  • New York Times (June 22, 1947), "Dr. Einstein Quits University Plan", The New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-03-14
  • Nobel Foundation (1921), "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921"
  • Nobel Foundation (1967), "Albert Einstein - Biography", Nobel Lectures, Physics 1901–1921, Amsterdam: Elsevier Publishing Company
  • O'Connor, J.J. & E.F. Robertson (1997), "Albert Einstein", The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St. Andrews
  • Oregon Public Broadcasting (2003), Einstein's Wife: The Life of Mileva Maric Einstein, Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved on 2006-11-8 This web site, companion to the controversial Geraldine Hilton documentary of the same name, is currently under review for historical accuracy. (See Getler, Michael (December 15, 2006), "Einstein’s Wife: The Relative Motion of ‘Facts’", PBS Ombudsman. Retrieved on 2007-03-25.)
  • Pais, Abraham (1982), Subtle is the Lord. The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-520438-7 This title is the definitive scientific biography.
  • Pais, Abraham (1994), Einstein Lived Here, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-853994-0 This book discusses non-science aspects of Einstein; marriages, affairs, illegitimate daughter, public image.
  • Pickover, Clifford A. (2005), Sex, Drugs, Einstein, and Elves: Sushi, Psychedelics, Parallel Universes, and the Quest for Transcendence, Smart Publications, ISBN 1-890572-17-9 Discusses the final disposition of Einstein's brain, hair, and eyes as well as the importance of Einstein and his work in the shaping of science and culture.
  • Princeton Online (1995), "Einstein in Princeton: Scientist, Humanitarian, Cultural Icon"
  • Reis, Arthur H., Jr (1998), "The Albert Einstein Involvement", Brandeis Review, 50th Anniversary Edition. Retrieved on 2007-03-25
  • Renn, Jürgen (2005), Albert Einstein - Chief Engineer of the Universe: One Hundred Authors for Einstein, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 3527405747
  • Renn, Jürgen (2006), Albert Einstein - Chief Engineer of the Universe: Einstein's Life and Work in Context and Documents of a Life's Pathway, Wiley-VCH, ISBN 3527405712
  • Robinson, Andrew (2005), Einstein: A Hundred Years of Relativity, Palazzo Editions, ISBN 0-9545103-4-8
  • Roger Richman Agency (2007), "Albert Einstein Licensing"
  • Rosenkranz, Ze'ev (2005), Albert Einstein — Derrière l'image, Editions NZZ, Zürich, ISBN 3-03823-182-7 Copies of many of Einstein's original personal documents.
  • Rowe, David E. & Robert Schulmann (2007), Einstein on Politics: His Private Thoughts and Public Stands on Nationalism, Zionism, War, Peace, and the Bomb, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691120943
  • Schmidhuber, Jürgen (2006), "ALBERT EINSTEIN (1879–1955) and the "Greatest Scientific Discovery Ever""
  • Smith, Peter D. (2000), Einstein (Life & Times Series), Haus Publishing, ISBN 1-904341-15-2
  • Sowell, Thomas (2001), The Einstein Syndrome: Bright Children Who Talk Late, Basic Books, ISBN 0-465-08140-1, at 89–150
  • Stachel, John (1996), "Albert Einstein and Mileva Maric: A Collaboration That Failed to Develop", in H.M. Pycior, N.G. Slack, P.G. Abir-Am (editors), Creative Couples in the Sciences, New Brunswick, New Jersey USA: Rutgers University Press, ISBN 0813521882
  • Stachel, John (1998-03-30), Einstein's Miraculous Year: Five Papers That Changed the Face of Physics, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-05938-1
  • Stern, Fritz (1999), Einstein's German World, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-05939-X
  • Stringer-Hye, Richard (1999), "Charles Francis Potter", Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography, Unitarian Universalist Historical Society
  • Thorne, Kip (1995), Black Holes and Time Warps: Einstein's Outrageous Legacy (Reprint edition ed.), W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-31276-3
  • Wilson, Edwin H. (1995), "Chapter 2: The Background of Religious Humanism", Genesis of a Humanist Manifesto, The Secular Web Library
  • Zackheim, Michele (1999), Einstein's Daughter: the Search for Lieserl, Riverhead, ISBN 1-57322-127-9

Baers law, named after Karl Ernst von Baer, says that in the northern hemisphere, erosion occurs mostly on the right banks of rivers, and in the southern hemisphere on the left banks. ... A meander is a bend in a river, also known as an oxbow loop. ... John Stachel (born 1928) is an American physicist and philosopher of science. ... The American Institute of Physics (AIP) is a professional body representing American physicists and publishing physics related journals. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... Edmund Blair Bolles (1942 - ) is an American humanist and author who argues that human freedom, and originality are real and natural, deriving their powers from modifications of animal memory systems. ... Ronald William Clark (1916-1987) was a British author of biography and non-fiction. ... Peter Galison is a professor of physics and the history of science at Harvard University. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... The cover of the 1992 edition. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... The Nobel Foundation was created by Lord Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, to manage his estate and award prizes for academic achievement in several areas: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace. ... Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ... Abraham (Bram) Pais (May 19, 1918, Amsterdam, The Netherlands — July 28, 2000, Copenhagen, Denmark) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian. ... Clifford A. Pickover is an author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ... Andrew Robinson. ... John Stachel (born 1928) is an American physicist and philosopher of science. ... Fritz Richard Stern (1926- ) is an American historian of German history, Jewish history, and historiography. ... Kip S. Thorne Professor Kip Stephen Thorne, Ph. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

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Persondata
NAME Einstein, Albert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Physicist
DATE OF BIRTH March 14, 1879
PLACE OF BIRTH Ulm, Baden-Württemberg, German Empire
DATE OF DEATH April 18, 1955
PLACE OF DEATH Princeton, New Jersey

March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ulm is a city in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the river Danube, about 90 km south-east of Stuttgart and 140 km north-west of Munich. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... April 18 is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Albert EINSTEIN : Biographie d'Albert EINSTEIN - JeSuisMort.com (2220 words)
Albert Einstein est né le 14 Mars 1879 à; Ulm, Wurtemberg, Allemagne, dans une famille juive peu pratiquante.
Einstein regrettera son geste toute sa vie et soutiendra jusqu’à sa mort l’action du Comité d’Urgence des savants atomistes, qui vise à limiter les ingérences de l’état dans la recherche scientifique.
Albert Einstein meurt le 18 Avril 1955 d’une rupture d’anévrisme.
Einstein-Albert: The Albert Einstein Resource Center (111 words)
Albert Einstein is credited with discovering the compound interest rule of 72.
Albert Einstein was offered the presidency of the State of Israel in 1952.
Albert Einstein was 76 years old when he died at 1:30 a.m.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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