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Encyclopedia > Albert Camus
Western Philosophy
20th century philosophy
Photograph of Albert Camus taken in 1957, part of the New York World-Telegram & Sun Newspaper Photograph Collection, Library of Congress
Name
Albert Camus
Birth November 7, 1913
Mondovi, Algeria
Death January 4, 1960 (aged 46)
Villeblevin, France
School/tradition Absurdism
 Nobel Prize in Literature (1957)
Main interests Ethics, Humanity, Justice, Love, Politics
Notable ideas "The absurd is the essential concept and the first truth"
"Always go too far, because that's where you'll find the truth."
"I rebel; therefore we exist."
Influenced by Karl Marx, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Franz Kafka, Søren Kierkegaard, Herman Melville, Friedrich Nietzsche, Jean-Paul Sartre, Simone Weil, Victor Hugo, Pascal Pia, George Orwell, André Gide
Influenced Thomas Merton, Jacques Monod, Jean-Paul Sartre, Orhan Pamuk, Mohsin Hamid

Albert Camus (IPA: [albɛʁ kamoo]) (November 7, 1913January 4, 1960) was a French-Algerian author and philosopher who won the Nobel prize in 1957. He is often associated with existentialism, but Camus refused this label. On the other hand, as he wrote in his essay The Rebel, his whole life was devoted to opposing the philosophy of nihilism. On the subject of his belief or not in God, he writes in the third volume of his notebooks: "I do not believe in God and I am not an atheist". Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Camus may mean: Albert Camus The Camus people of Kenya, living around Lake Baringo The Camus language, a Maa language spoken by the Camus Camus, County Galway, a Gaeltacht village in the west of Ireland Camus, Singer Songwiter This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the... The 20th century brought with it upheavals that produced a series of conflicting developments within philosophy over the basis of knowledge and the validity of various absolutes. ... Image File history File links Camus_NYWT&S.jpg‎ New York World-Telegram & Sun Collection staff photographs are in the public domain per the instrument of gift File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albert Camus ... Construction of the Thomas Jefferson Building, from July 8, 1888 to May 15, 1894. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dréan (Arabic الدرعان) is a small coastal town in Algeria, 25 km south of Annaba (), with a population of about 40,000. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Villeblevin monument to Albert Camus Villeblevin is a small French town and commune located in the Yonne département and the Bourgogne région. ... Absurdism is a philosophy stating that the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe will ultimately fail (and, hence, are absurd) because no such meaning exists, at least in relation to humanity. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: Фёдор Миха́йлович Достое́вский, pronounced , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821–February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and lasting effect... Kafka redirects here. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Pascal Pia, born Pierre Durand (August 15, 1903 - September 27, 1979), was a French writer, journalist, illustrator and scholar. ... Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ... Gide redirects here. ... Thomas Merton (January 31, 1915 – December 10, 1968) was one of the most influential Catholic authors of the 20th century. ... See also Jacques-Louis Monod, French-born composer and cousin of Jacques Monod. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Ferit Orhan Pamuk (born on June 7, 1952 in Istanbul) is a Nobel Prize-winning Turkish novelist. ... Mohsin Hamid (born 1971) is a Pakistani author. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the philosophical position. ...


His most important phrase for the future was: "All of us, among the ruins, are preparing a renaissance beyond the limits of nihilism. But few of us know it". Albert Camus founded in 1949 the Group for International Liaisons in the Revolutionary Union Movement, according to the book Albert Camus, une vie of Olivier Todd.


Camus preferred to be known as a man and a thinker, rather than as a member of a school or ideology. He preferred persons over ideas. In an interview in 1945, Camus rejected any ideological associations: “No, I am not an existentialist. Sartre and I are always surprised to see our names linked…”.[1] In his collection of essays The Nuptials he wrote that he was a son of Greece. Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


Camus was the second-youngest recipient of the Nobel Prize for Literature (after Rudyard Kipling) when he became the first African-born writer to receive the award, in 1957. He is also the shortest-lived of any literature laureate to date, having died in an automobile accident only three years after receiving the award. The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... This article is about the British author. ...

Contents

Early years

Albert Camus was born on November 7, 1913 in Mondovi, Algeria to a French-Algerian (pied-noir) settler family. His mother was of Spanish extraction and was half-deaf. His father, Lucien, died in the Battle of the Marne in 1914 during the First World War, while serving as a member of the Zouave infantry regiment. Camus lived in poor conditions during his childhood in the Belcourt section of Algiers. In 1923, he was accepted into the lycée and eventually to the University of Algiers. However, he contracted tuberculosis in 1930, which put an end to his football activities (he had been a goalkeeper for the university team) and forced him to make his studies a part-time pursuit. He took odd jobs including private tutor, car parts clerk and work for the Meteorological Institute. He completed his licence de philosophie (BA) in 1935; in May of 1936, he successfully presented his thesis on Plotinus, Néo-Platonisme et Pensée Chrétienne, for his diplôme d'études supérieures (roughly equivalent to an M.A. by thesis). Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Combatants France United Kingdom German Empire Commanders Joseph Joffre John French Helmuth von Moltke Karl von Bülow Alexander von Kluck Strength 1,071,000 1,485,000 Casualties Approximately 263,000: 250,000 French casualties (80,000 dead) 13,000 British casualties (1,700 dead) Approximately 250,000 total... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A French zouave from 1888 wearing white summer trousers instead of the usual red. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... In France, secondary education is divided into two schools: the collège (IPA: ) (somewhat comparable to U.S. junior high school) for the first four years directly following primary school; the lycée (IPA: ) (comparable to a U.S. high school) for the next three years. ... The University of Algiers Benyoucef Benkhedda (Arabic جــامــــــعة الجـــــــزائر بن يوسف بن خـدة) is a university located in Algiers, Algeria. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... “Soccer” redirects here. ... A football goalkeeper leaves the ground to parry a shot on goal In many team sports, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player that is charged with directly preventing the opposite team from scoring by defending the goal. ... A B.A. issued from the University of Tennessee. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ...

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20th century · Contemporary French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... French literature of the 18th century spans the period from the death of Louis XIV of France, through the Régence (during the minority of Louis XV) and the reigns of Louis XV of France and Louis XVI of France to the start of the French Revolution. ... French literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

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Camus joined the French Communist Party in the Spring of 1935, apparently because of concerns about the political situation in Spain (which eventually resulted in the Spanish Civil War) rather than in support for Marxist-Leninist doctrine[citation needed]. In 1936, the independence-minded Algerian Communist Party (PCA) was founded. Camus joined the activities of the Algerian People's Party (Le Parti du Peuple Algérien), which got him into trouble with his Communist party comrades. As a result, he was denounced as a Trotskyite and expelled from the party in 1937. Camus went on to be associated with the French anarchist movement. The anarchist Andre Prudhommeaux first introduced him at a meeting in 1948 of the Cercle des Etudiants Anarchistes (Anarchist Student Circle) as a sympathiser who was familiar with anarchist thought. Camus went on to write for anarchist publications such as Le Libertaire, La révolution Proletarienne and Solidaridad Obrera (the organ of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT). Camus also stood with the anarchists when they expressed support for the uprising of 1953 in East Germany. He again stood with the anarchists in 1956, first with the workers’ uprising in Poznan, Poland, and then later in the year with the Hungarian Revolution. This does not cite any references or sources. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... PCA banner Algerian Communist Party (in French: Parti Communiste Algérien) was a communist party in Algeria. ... The Algerian Peoples Party (French, Parti du Peuple Algerien, PPA), was a successor organization of the North African Star (Étoile Nord-Africaine), led by veteran Algerian nationalist Messali Hadj. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Andre Prudhommeaux (1902–1968) was a French anarchist bookstore owner whose shop in Paris specialized in social history and was a place for many debates and discussions. ... Anarcho-syndicalist flag. ... The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour or CNT), founded in Barcelona, Spain, in 1910, was at one time that countrys largest labour union. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... The Poznan is also a breed of horse. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian...


In 1934, he married Simone Hie, a morphine addict, but the marriage ended due to infidelity on both sides. In 1935, he founded Théâtre du Travail — "Worker's Theatre" — (renamed Théâtre de l'Equipe ("Team's Theatre") in 1937), which survived until 1939. From 1937 to 1939 he wrote for a socialist paper, Alger-Républicain, and his work included an account of the peasants who lived in Kabylie in poor conditions, which apparently cost him his job. From 1939 to 1940, he briefly wrote for a similar paper, Soir-Republicain. He was rejected by the French army because of his tuberculosis. This article is about the drug. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Location of Kabylie Largest city Béjaïa Government Not an administrative unit Area  -  Total 44 000 km²   sq mi  Population  -   estimate 7000000[1] (2004)  -  Density 170 /km²   /sq mi Great Kabylie in 1857 Kabylie or Kabylia (Kabyle: Tamurt n Leqbayel) is a cultural region in the north of Algeria. ...


In 1940, Camus married Francine Faure, a pianist and mathematician. Although he loved Francine, he had argued passionately against the institution of marriage, dismissing it as unnatural. Even after Francine gave birth to twins, Catherine and Jean, on September 5, 1945, he continued to joke wearily to friends that he was not cut out for marriage. Francine suffered numerous infidelities, particularly a public affair with the Spanish actress Maria Casares. In the same year Camus began to work for Paris-Soir magazine. In the first stage of World War II, the so-called Phony War stage, Camus was a pacifist. However, he was in Paris to witness how the Wehrmacht took over. On December 15, 1941, Camus witnessed the execution of Gabriel Péri, an event that Camus later said crystallized his revolt against the Germans. Afterwards he moved to Bordeaux alongside the rest of the staff of Paris-Soir. In the same year he finished his first books, The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus. He returned briefly to Oran, Algeria in 1942. Francine Faure, a noted pianist[1] and mathematician, is perhaps best known as the second wife of Albert Camus. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... María Casares, born Maria Victoria Casares Quiroga, (21 November 1922 - 22 November 1996) is a French actress of Spanish origin and one of the most distinguished stars of the French stage. ... Paris-Soir was a large-circulation daily newspaper in Paris, France from 1923-1944. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... British Ministry of Home Security Poster of a type that was common during the Phony War The Phony War, or in Winston Churchills words the Twilight War, was a phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Gabriel Péri (Peri) (1902, Toulon—December 15, 1941, Fort Mont-Valérien) was a prominent French Communist journalist and politician. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... Sisyphus by Titian, 1549 The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. ... View of Oran Coat of arms of Oran Oran (Arabic:, pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ...


Literary career

During the war Camus joined the French Resistance cell Combat, which published an underground newspaper of the same name. This group worked against the Nazis, and in it Camus assumed the nom de guerre "Beauchard". Camus became the paper's editor in 1943, and when the Allies liberated Paris, Camus reported on the last of the fighting. He was, however, one of the few French editors to publicly express opposition to the use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima soon after the event on August 8, 1945. He eventually resigned from Combat in 1947, when it became a commercial paper. It was then that Camus became acquainted with Jean-Paul Sartre. The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... Combat (French for fight) was a French newspaper created during the Second World War. ... For other uses, see Alias. ... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


After the war, Camus began frequenting the Café de Flore on the Boulevard Saint-Germain in Paris with Sartre. Camus also toured the United States to lecture about French thinking. Although he leaned left politically, his strong criticisms of Communist doctrine did not win him any friends in the Communist parties and eventually also alienated Sartre. Café de Flore sits just off the Boulevard Saint-Germain, on the Rue Bonaparte, in Paris, France. ... Boulevard Saint-Germain at the corner of Rue de Buci Les Deux Magots Bell tower of Saint-Germain-des-Prés Abbey Church The Boulevard Saint-Germain is a major street in Paris on the Left Bank (south side) of the Seine river. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Left wing redirects here. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ...


In 1949 his tuberculosis returned and he lived in seclusion for two years. In 1951 he published The Rebel, a philosophical analysis of rebellion and revolution which made clear his rejection of communism. The book upset many of his colleagues and contemporaries in France and led to the final split with Sartre. The dour reception depressed him and he began instead to translate plays. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Camus' first significant contribution to philosophy was his idea of the absurd, the result of our desire for clarity and meaning within a world and condition that offers neither, which he explained in The Myth of Sisyphus and incorporated into many of his other works, such as The Stranger and The Plague. Despite the split from his “study partner,” Sartre, some still argue that Camus falls into the existentialist camp. However, he rejected that label himself in his essay Enigma and elsewhere (see: The Lyrical and Critical Essays of Albert Camus). The current confusion may still arise as many recent applications of existentialism have much in common with many of Camus' practical ideas (see: Resistance, Rebellion, and Death). However, the personal understanding he had of the world (e.g. "a benign indifference," in The Stranger), and every vision he had for its progress (i.e. vanquishing the "adolescent furies" of history and society, in The Rebel) undoubtedly sets him apart. Sisyphus by Titian, 1549 The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In the 1950s Camus devoted his efforts to human rights. In 1952 he resigned from his work for UNESCO when the UN accepted Spain as a member under the leadership of General Franco. In 1953 he criticized Soviet methods to crush a workers' strike in East Berlin. In 1956 he protested against similar methods in Poland (protests in Poznań) and the Soviet repression of the Hungarian revolution in October. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... “Franco” redirects here. ... CCCP redirects here. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina PoznaÅ„ Established 8th century City Rights 1253 Government  - Mayor Ryszard Grobelny Area  - City 261. ...

The monument to Camus built in the small town of Villeblevin, France where he died in an automobile accident on January 4, 1960
The monument to Camus built in the small town of Villeblevin, France where he died in an automobile accident on January 4, 1960

He maintained his pacifism and resistance to capital punishment anywhere in the world. One of his most significant contributions to the movement against capital punishment was an essay collaboration with Arthur Koestler, the writer, intellectual and founder of the League Against Capital Punishment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 270 KB) The monument to the French writer and philosopher Albert Camus (1913-1960), built in the small town of Villeblevin (France) where he found death in a car crash on January 4, 1960. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 270 KB) The monument to the French writer and philosopher Albert Camus (1913-1960), built in the small town of Villeblevin (France) where he found death in a car crash on January 4, 1960. ... The Villeblevin monument to Albert Camus Villeblevin is a small French town and commune located in the Yonne département and the Bourgogne région. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... Arthur Koestler (September 5, 1905, Budapest – March 3, 1983, London) was a Hungarian polymath who became a naturalized British subject. ...

The bronze plaque on the monument to Camus, built in the small town of Villeblevin, France. The plaque reads: "From the Yonne area's local council, in tribute to the writer Albert Camus who was watched over in the Villeblevin town hall in the night of January 4 – 5 January 1960."
The bronze plaque on the monument to Camus, built in the small town of Villeblevin, France. The plaque reads: "From the Yonne area's local council, in tribute to the writer Albert Camus who was watched over in the Villeblevin town hall in the night of January 45 January 1960."

When the Algerian War began in 1954 it presented a moral dilemma for Camus. He identified with pied-noirs, and defended the French government on the grounds that the revolt in Algeria was really an integral part of the 'new Arab imperialism' led by Egypt and an 'anti-Western' offensive orchestrated by Russia to 'encircle Europe' and 'isolate the United States'.[2] Although favouring greater Algerian autonomy or even federation, though not full-scale independence, he believed that the pied-noirs and Arabs could co-exist. During the war he advocated civil truce that would spare the civilians, which was rejected by both sides who regarded it as foolish. Behind the scenes, he began to work clandestinely for imprisoned Algerians who faced the death penalty. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 191 KB) Summary The bronze plaque on the monument to the French writer and philosopher Albert Camus (1913-1960), built in the small town of Villeblevin (France) where he found death in a car crash on January 4, 1960. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 191 KB) Summary The bronze plaque on the monument to the French writer and philosopher Albert Camus (1913-1960), built in the small town of Villeblevin (France) where he found death in a car crash on January 4, 1960. ... The Villeblevin monument to Albert Camus Villeblevin is a small French town and commune located in the Yonne département and the Bourgogne région. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Paul Cherrière (1954-55) Henri Lorillot (1955-56... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... A map displaying todays federations. ...


From 1955 to 1956 Camus wrote for L'Express. In 1957 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature, officially not for his novel The Fall, published the previous year, but for his writings against capital punishment in the essay Réflexions sur la Guillotine. When he spoke to students at the University of Stockholm, he defended his apparent inactivity in the Algerian question and stated that he was worried what could happen to his mother who still lived in Algeria. This led to further ostracism by French left-wing intellectuals. LExpress is Frances first weekly news magazine. ... Nobel Prize in Literature medal. ... The Fall (La Chute) is a novel by Albert Camus, first published in 1956. ... Stockholm University Stockholm University, or Stockholms universitet, is a state university in Stockholm, Sweden. ...


The Revolutionary Union Movement and the European Union

In 1949 Camus founded the Group for International Liaisons in the Revolutionary Union Movement (according to the book Albert Camus, une vie by Olivier Todd). With George Orwell, he opposed totalitarian regimes in the East and the West. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ...


As he wrote in “L'Homme révolté” (in the chapter about The Thought on Midday) he was a follower of the ancient Greek “Solar Tradition” (la pensée solaire). So, not only he was the leader of the French resistance movemet “Combat” but he also set up in 1947-8 the Revolutionary Union Movement (Groupes de liaison internationale - GLI) which was formed in 1949 and can be described as a trade union movement in the context of revolutionary syndicalism (Syndicalisme révolutionnaire). For more, see the book : Alfred Rosmer et le mouvement révolutionnaire internationale by Christian Gras). GLI is an abbreviation for: Grand luxe injection, used on some automobiles. ...


His colleagues were Nicolas Lazarévitch, Louis Mercier, Roger Lapeyre, Paul Chauvet, Auguste Largentier, Jean de Boë (see the article: "Nicolas Lazarévitch, Itinéraire d'un syndicaliste révolutionnaire" by Sylvain Boulouque in the review Communisme, n° 61, 2000). His main aim was to express the positive side of Surrealism and Existentialism, rejecting the negativity and the nihilism of Andre Breton and Jean-Paul Sartre. Andr Breton (February 18, 1896 - September 28, 1966) was a French writer, poet, and Surrealist theoretician. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher and pioneer, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ...


In 1944 Camus founded the “French Committee for the European Federation" (Comite Francais pour la Federation Europeene -CFFE) declaring that Europe “can only evolve along the path of economic progress, democracy and peace if the nation states become a federation”.


From 1943, Albert Camus had correspondence with Altiero Spinelli who founded the European Federalist Movement in Milan (see Ventotene Manifesto and the book “Unire l'Europa, superare gli stati”, Altiero Spinelli nel Partito d'Azione del Nord Italia e in Francia dal 1944 al 1945-annexed a letter by Altiero Spinelli to Albert Camus). Altiero Spinelli (1907-1986) was an Italian citizen and lifelong advocate of European federalism. ...


In 22-25 March, 1945, the first conference of the European Federalist Movement was organised in Paris with the participation of Albert Camus, George Orwell, Emmanuel Mounier, Lewis Mumford, André Philip, Daniel Mayer, François Bondy and Altiero Spinelli (see the book “The Biography of Europe” by Pan Drakopoulos). This specific branch of the European Federalist Movement disintegrated in 1957 after the domination of Winston Churchill's ideas about the European integration. Emmanuel Mounier (philosophe français 1905-1950) Mounier was the guiding spirit in the French personalist movement, and founder and director of Esprit, the magazine which is the organ of the movement. ... Lewis Mumford (October 19, 1895 – January 26, 1990) was an American historian of technology and science. ... Daniel Mayer (1909-1996) was a member of the French Socialist Party. ... Altiero Spinelli (1907-1986) was an Italian citizen and lifelong advocate of European federalism. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


Camus and Orwell

3 essays by Dr. Miho Takashima in the International Journal of Humanities (“Revolt and Equilibrium: A Comparative Study of Nineteen Eighty-Four and L'Homme Révolté, the Views and Struggles of Orwell and Camus”, “Art and Representation: A Comparative Study of George Orwell and Albert Camus on their Literary Works” and “George Orwell and Albert Camus: A Comparative Study – Their Views and Dilemmas in the Politics of the 1930s and 40s”) explore the relation between the work of the French writer Albert Camus and the English writer George Orwell. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 [1] [2] – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist. ...


Takashima argues that Orwell – perhaps intentionally, in order to warn the intellectual elite - compromised with “Big Brother”, while Camus confronted with “Plague”. This is observed not only in the comparison between “1984” and “The Man in Revolt” but, especially, in Camus' play “The State of Siege”[3]. This theatrical play was written together with the novel The Plague and the essay The Rebel/Man in Revolt. It is the work which - according to Camus himself - represents him best and is a response to George Orwell's 1984. The hero, Diego, opposes the totalitarian dictator nameed Plague, and dies in order to set a Spanish town free from the Inquisition. Big Brother as portrayed in the 1954 BBC Television adaptation of Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... The State of Siege is a theatrical play by Albert Camus (orig. ...


“L’ Etat de Siege’’ ("The State of Siege") is a work against totalitarianism, written in the same epoch when Camus' idol, the English writer George Orwell, wrote 1984. The play includes an allegorical reference to the end of Orwell's novel (where the hero, Winston Smith, makes a compromise with Big Brother).


The original title of L' Etat de Siege was THE HOLY INQUISITION IN CADIX. In the French edition of the book, Camus has included a remarkable essay under the title "Why Spain?". In this polemical text, he answers his Catholic Christian friend Gabriel Marcel who criticised him for setting the plot in Spain. Here Camus expresses his opposition to the totalitarian regimes of the West, and to the behaviour of the Vatican and the Pope during World War II. The most important phrase of this essay is "Why Guernica, Gabriel Marcel?". Gabriel Honoré Marcel (December 7, 1889 Paris – October 8, 1973 Paris) was a French philosopher, a leading Christian existentialist, and the author of about 30 plays. ...


The Greek journalist Christos Papachristopoulos theorises that this play is based on Aeschylus' lost tragedy, Prometheus the Fire-Bringer - Προμηθεύς Πυρφόρος (see NationMaster Encyclopedia).


Albert Camus' Death

Camus died on January 4, 1960 in an automobile accident near Sens, in a place named "Le Grand Fossard" in the small town of Villeblevin. In his coat pocket lay an unused train ticket. It is possible that he had planned to travel by train, but decided to go by car instead.[4] is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Sens (disambiguation). ...

Albert Camus' gravestone
Albert Camus' gravestone

The driver of the Facel Vega car, Michel Gallimard — his publisher and close friend — also perished in the accident. Camus was interred in the Lourmarin Cemetery, Lourmarin, Vaucluse, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2614 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2614 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Facel logo Facel Vega was a French builder of luxury cars. ... Lourmarin is a town and commune of the Vaucluse département, in southern France. ... The Vaucluse is a département in the southeast of France. ... (Région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Vaucluse Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Statistics Land area1 31,400 km² Population (Ranked 3rd)  - January 1, 2006 est. ...


He was survived by his twin children, Catherine and Jean, who hold the copyrights to his work.


After his death, two of Camus' works were published posthumously. The first, entitled A Happy Death published in 1970, featured a character named Meursault, as in The Stranger, but there is some debate as to the relationship between the two stories. The second posthumous publication was an unfinished novel, The First Man, that Camus was writing before he died. The novel was an autobiographical work about his childhood in Algeria and was published in 1995. In many ways this work can be seen as a first sketch for Camuss renowned early novel, The Outsider, but it can also be viewed as a candid self-portrait, drawing on Camuss memories of his youth, travels and early relationships. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... The First Man is an incomplete novel by Albert Camus. ... For music albums named Autobiography, see Greek eauton = self, bios = life and graphein = write) is a form of biography, the writing of a life story. ...


Summary of Absurdism

Many writers have written on the Absurd, each with his or her own interpretation of what the Absurd actually is and their own ideas on the importance of the Absurd. For example, Sartre recognizes the absurdity of individual experience, while Kierkegaard explains that the absurdity of certain religious truths prevent us from reaching God rationally. Camus was not the originator of Absurdism and regretted the continued reference to him as a philosopher of the absurd. He shows less and less interest in the Absurd shortly after publishing Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus''). To distinguish Camus' ideas of the Absurd from those of other philosophers, people sometimes refer to the Paradox of the Absurd, when referring to Camus' Absurd. Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Søren Kierkegaard Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (May 5, 1813 - November 11, 1855), a 19th century Danish philosopher, has achieved general recognition as the first existentialist philosopher, though some new research shows this may be a more difficult connection than previously thought. ... Absurdism is a philosophy stating that the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe will ultimately fail (and, hence, are absurd) because no such meaning exists, at least in relation to humanity. ...


His early thoughts on the Absurd appeared in his first collection of essays, L'Envers et l'endroit (The Two Sides Of The Coin) in 1937. Absurd themes appeared with more sophistication in his second collection of essays, Noces (Nuptials), in 1938. In these essays Camus does not offer a philosophical account of the Absurd, or even a definition; rather he reflects on the experience of the Absurd. In 1942 he published the story of a man living an Absurd life as L'Étranger (The Stranger), and in the same year released Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus), a literary essay on the Absurd. He had also written a play about a Roman Emperor, Caligula, pursuing an Absurd logic. However, the play was not performed until 1945. The turning point in Camus' attitude to the Absurd occurs in a collection of four letters to an anonymous German friend, written between July 1943 and July 1944. The first was published in the Revue Libre in 1943, the second in the Cahiers de Libération in 1944, and the third in the newspaper Libertés, in 1945. All four letters have been published as Lettres à un ami allemand (Letters to a German Friend) in 1945, and have appeared in the collection Resistance, Rebellion, and Death. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... The Stranger may mean: The Stranger (album), by Billy Joel The Stranger (novel), by Albert Camus The Stranger (1946 movie), directed by Orson Welles The Stranger (1967 movie), based on Camus novel and directed by Luchino Visconti The Stranger (newspaper), an alternative weekly newspaper in Seattle, Washington The Stranger (Myst... Sisyphus by Titian, 1549 The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Resistance, Rebellion, and Death was a 1961 book collecting essays written by Albert Camus and selected by the author prior to his death in 1960. ...


Camus' ideas on the Absurd

In his essays Camus presented the reader with dualisms: happiness and sadness, dark and light, life and death, etc. His aim was to emphasize the fact that happiness is fleeting and that the human condition is one of mortality. He did this not to be morbid, but to reflect a greater appreciation for life and happiness. In Le Mythe, this dualism becomes a paradox: We value our lives and existence so greatly, but at the same time we know we will eventually die, and ultimately our endeavours are meaningless. While we can live with a dualism (I can accept periods of unhappiness, because I know I will also experience happiness to come), we cannot live with the paradox (I think my life is of great importance, but I also think it is meaningless). In Le Mythe, Camus was interested in how we experience the Absurd and how we live with it. Our life must have meaning for us to value it. If we accept that life has no meaning and therefore no value, should we kill ourselves?


Meursault, the Absurdist hero of L'Étranger, is a murderer who is executed for his crime. Caligula ends up admitting his Absurd logic was wrong and is killed by an assassination he has deliberately brought about. However, while Camus possibly suggests that Caligula's Absurd reasoning is wrong, the play's anti-hero does get the last word, as the author similarly exalts Meursault's final moments.


Camus' understanding of the Absurd promotes public debate; his various offerings entice us to think about the Absurd and offer our own contribution. Concepts such as cooperation, joint effort and solidarity are of key importance to Camus.


Camus made a significant contribution to a viewpoint of the Absurd, and always rejected nihilism as a valid response. This article is about the philosophical position. ...

"If nothing had any meaning, you would be right. But there is something that still has a meaning." Second Letter to a German Friend, December 1943.

It then follows that existentialism tends to view human beings as subjects in an indifferent, objective, often ambiguous, and "absurd" universe, in which meaning is not provided by the natural order, but rather can be created, however provisionally and unstably, by human beings' actions and interpretations. Absurdism is a philosophy stating that the efforts of humanity to find meaning in the universe will ultimately fail (and, hence, are absurd) because no such meaning exists, at least in relation to humanity. ...


Opposition to totalitarianism

Throughout his life, Camus spoke out against and actively opposed totalitarianism in its many forms.[5] Early on, Camus was active within the French Resistance to the German occupation of France during World War II, even directing the famous Resistance journal, Combat. On the French collaboration with Nazi occupiers he wrote: The Croix de Lorraine, the symbol of the resistance chosen by de Gaulle French Resistance is the name used for resistance movements during World War II which fought the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy regime. ... National Socialism redirects here. ...

Now the only moral value is courage, which is useful here for judging the puppets and chatterboxes who pretend to speak in the name of the people…[cite this quote]

Camus' well-known falling out with Sartre is linked to this opposition to totalitarianism. Camus detected a reflexive totalitarianism in the mass politics espoused by Sartre in the name of radical Marxism. This was apparent in his work L'Homme Révolté (The Rebel) which not only was an assault on the Soviet police state, but also questioned the very nature of mass revolutionary politics. Camus continued to speak out against the atrocities of the Soviet Union, a sentiment captured in his 1957 speech, The Blood of the Hungarians, commemorating the anniversary of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, an uprising crushed in a bloody assault by the Red Army. Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Totalitarianism is a term employed by some political scientists, especially those in the field of comparative politics, to describe modern regimes in which the state regulates nearly every aspect of public and private behavior. ... Jean Paul Sartre Jean-Paul Sartre (June 21, 1905–April 15, 1980) was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist, novelist and critic. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wikisource If the page can be edited into an encyclopedic article, rather than merely a copy of the source text, please do so and remove this message. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official...


Camus and Solidarity

The Stranger and Solidarity

Albert Camus characterizes his justification of the absurd through the experiences of a protagonist who simply does not conform to the system. His inherent honesty disturbs the status quo; Meursault’s inability to lie cannot seamlessly integrate him within society and in turn threatens the simple fabrics of human mannerisms expected of a structurally ordered society. Consequently, the punishment for his crime is not decided on the basis of murder, but rather for the startling indifference towards his mother’s recent demise. Even after a conflicting spiritual discussion with a pastor inciting Meursault to consider a possible path towards redemption, the latter still refuses to take upon salvation and symbolizes his ultimatum by embracing the “gentle indifference of the world;” an act which only furthers his solidarity with a society incapable of realizing his seemingly inhumane and misanthropic behavior.


The Plague and Solidarity

The plague is an undeniable part of life. It is omnipresent, just like death was always an impeding factor in The Stranger. Albert Camus once again questions the meaning of the moral concepts justifying humanity and human suffering within a religious framework. For Camus, the rationale behind Christian doctrine is useless; as mortal beings, we cannot successfully rationalize the impending and inescapable death sentence forced upon every human. The plague, which befalls upon Oran, is a concrete and tangible facilitator of death. Ultimately, the plague enables people to understand that their individual suffering is meaningless. As the epidimic “evolves” within the seasons, so do the citizens of Oran, who instead of willfully giving up to a disease they have no control over, decide to fight against their impending death, thus unwillingly creating optimism in the midst of hopelessness. This is where Camus channels his thoughts behind the importance of solidarity: although the plague is still primarily an agent of death, it provides the uncanny opportunity for people to realize that individual suffering is absurd. In the midst of complete suffering, the challenging response adopted by the majority of the citizens of Oran demonstrates an inexplicable humanistic connection between distraught and distant characters. Only by taking the choice to fight an irreversible epidemic are people able to create the ever-lacking meaning to a life destined for execution the moment of its creation.


Bibliography

Camus in 1957

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 871 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 493 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (717 × 871 pixel, file size: 94 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Novels

  • The Stranger (L'Étranger, often translated as The Outsider) (1942)
  • The Plague (La Peste) (1947)
  • The Fall (La Chute) (1956)
  • A Happy Death (La Mort heureuse) (written 1936-1938, published posthumously 1971)
  • The First Man (Le premier homme) (incomplete, published posthumously 1995)

The Stranger, or The Outsider, (from the French L’Étranger, 1942) is a novel by Albert Camus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Fall (La Chute) is a novel by Albert Camus, first published in 1956. ... In many ways this work can be seen as a first sketch for Camuss renowned early novel, The Outsider, but it can also be viewed as a candid self-portrait, drawing on Camuss memories of his youth, travels and early relationships. ... The First Man is an incomplete novel by Albert Camus. ...

Short stories

Exile and the Kingdom is a collection of novellas by French existentialist-writer Albert Camus. ...

Non-fiction

  • Betwixt and Between (L'envers et l'endroit, also translated as The Wrong Side and the Right Side) (Collection, 1937)
  • Nuptials (Noces) (1938)
  • The Myth of Sisyphus (Le Mythe de Sisyphe) (1942)
  • The Rebel (L'Homme révolté) (1951)
  • Notebooks 1935-1942 (Carnets, mai 1935 — fevrier 1942) (1962)
  • Notebooks 1943-1951 (1965)

Betwixt and Between is a work of non-fiction by Albert Camus. ... Sisyphus by Titian, 1549 The Myth of Sisyphus is a philosophical essay by Albert Camus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Essays

  • Create Dangerously (Essay on Realism and Artistic Creation) (1957)
  • The Ancient Greek Tragedy (Parnassos lecture in Greece) (1956)
  • The Crisis of Man (Lecture on Columbia University) (1946)
  • Why Spain? (Essay for the theatrical play L' Etat de Siege) (1948)
  • Reflections on the Guillotine (Réflexions sur la guillotine) (Extended essay, 1957)
  • Neither Victims Nor Executioners (Combat) (1946)

// Reflections on the guillotine is an extended essay Written by Albert Camus. ... Neither Victims Nor Executioners (French: ) was a series of essays by Albert Camus that were serialized in Combat, the daily newspaper of the French Resistance, in November 1946. ...

Plays

Caligula is a play by Albert Camus. ... William Cuthbert Faulkner (September 25, 1897 – July 6, 1962) was an American novelist and poet whose works feature his native state of Mississippi. ... The Misunderstanding (French: Le Malentendu) is a play written in 1943 in occupied Paris by Albert Camus. ... The State of Siege is a theatrical play by Albert Camus (orig. ... The Just Assassins (original French title: Les Justes, a more literal translation would be The Just Ones) is a 1949 play by existentialist writer and philosopher Albert Camus. ... The Possessed ( in French Les Possédés) is a play written by Albert Camus in 1959. ... Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... For the theatrical adaptation by Albert Camus, see The Possessed (play). ...

Collections

  • Resistance, Rebellion, and Death (1961) - a collection of essays selected by the author.
  • Lyrical and Critical Essays (1970)
  • Youthful Writings (1976)
  • Between Hell and Reason: Essays from the Resistance Newspaper "Combat", 1944-1947 (1991)
  • Camus at "Combat": Writing 1944-1947 (2005)

Resistance, Rebellion, and Death was a 1961 book collecting essays written by Albert Camus and selected by the author prior to his death in 1960. ...

Cultural influences

Film

Several of Camus' works have been adapted into movies. The Stranger has been adapted into an Italian 1967 movie by Luchino Visconti, and also to a 2001 Turkish adaptation titled Yazgi (Fate) by Zeki Demirkubuz. The Plague was adapted to a 1992 film titled La Peste by Luis Puenzo and set in modern day America. The Stranger (Lo Straniero in its original Italian) is a 1967 movie by Italian director Luchino Visconti, based on Albert Camus novel LÉtranger. ... Luchino Visconti. ... Zeki Demirkubuz (born October 1, 1964 in Isparta, Turkey) is a contemporary Turkish film director, screenwriter and producer. ... Luis Adalberto Puezo (born February 19, 1946 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) is a film director, producer and screenplay writer. ...


Music

Quite a few musical artists refer to Camus and his work in their music. The post-punk band The Fall took their name from Camus' novel The Fall. These also include an album by Jeff Martin(Exile and the Kingdom, 2006) and songs by Gentle Giant ("A Cry for Everyone", 1972), The Cure ("Killing an Arab", 1978), Tuxedomoon ("The Stranger", 1979), The Magnetic Fields ("I Don't Want To Get Over You", 1999), The Manic Street Preachers ("The Masses Against The Classes", 2000), JJ72 ("Algeria", 2000), Suede ("Obsessions", 2002), Streetlight Manifesto ("Here's To Life", 2003), A Perfect Circle ("A Stranger" and "The Outsider", 2003), Angela McCluskey ("Know it All", 2004), Joanna Newsom ("This Side of the Blue", 2004), Tarkio ("Neapolitan Bridesmaid", 2006), The Independence, ("20-Ought-Almost-Talkin' Blues"), 2008 Post punk generally refers to the particularly fertile and creative period following the initial punk rock explosion. During the first wave of punk, roughly spanning 1976-1983, bands such as The Sex Pistols, The Clash, The Ramones and The Damned began to challenge the current styles and conventions of rock... This article is about the band. ... The Fall (La Chute) is a novel by Albert Camus, first published in 1956. ... Jeff Martin was the guitarist, vocalist, and main producer of the Canadian rock band The Tea Party. ... Exile and the Kingdom (2006) is the debut solo album from Canadian singer/songwriter Jeff Martin. ... Gentle Giant were a British progressive rock band, one of the most experimental of the 1970s. ... Octopus is an album by British progressive rock band Gentle Giant, released in 1972. ... This article is about the band. ... Killing an Arab was the first single by The Cure. ... Tuxedomoon is an experimental avant-garde post-punk New Wave group formed in San Francisco, California in 1977 by Blaine L. Reininger and Steven Brown, two students of electronic music at San Francisco City College. ... The Magnetic Fields is a band led by the New York City singer-songwriter Stephin Merritt. ... 69 Love Songs is a three-volume concept album by The Magnetic Fields. ... The Manic Street Preachers are a Welsh rock band, one of the biggest in Britain for a period in the late 1990s, known for their early wild exploits; the mysterious disappearance and alleged suicide of Richey James Edwards (Richey James, as he preferred to be known); and for a progression... The Masses Against The Classes was a limited-edition single released by Manic Street Preachers in January 2000 (see 2000 in music), following the success of their year end concert at Cardiffs Millennium Stadium the month before. ... JJ72 is a rock music group, formed in Dublin, Ireland, in the late 90s by lead singer Mark Greaney and drummer Fergal Matthews. ... Suede (or The London Suede in the U.S.) were a popular and influential English rock band of the 1990s that helped start the Britpop musical movement of the decade. ... Obsessions is the second single off the album A New Morning by Suede, released on November 18, 2002 on Columbia Records. ... Streetlight Manifesto is an American ska punk band from East Brunswick Township, New Jersey. ... Everything Goes Numb is the first full length album by musical group Streetlight Manifesto. ... A Perfect Circle (often referred to as APC) was an alternative rock supergroup, formed by guitarist Billy Howerdel. ... Thirteenth Step is the second studio album by the American rock band A Perfect Circle. ... The Outsider is a song from A Perfect Circles second album, Thirteenth Step. ... Joanna Newsom (born January 18, 1982) is an American harpist, pianist, harpsichordist, singer and songwriter from Nevada City, California. ... The Milk-Eyed Mender is the debut album by American singer-songwriter and self-described harper Joanna Newsom, released on March 23, 2004 on the Drag City label (see 2004 in music). ... Tarkio was the former band of Colin Meloy prior to his forming The Decemberists. ... Omnibus is a 2006 compilation of songs from the Montana band Tarkio. ...


Further reading

  • Camus (1959) by Germaine Brée (ISBN 1-122-01570-4)
  • Camus (1966) by Adele King (ISBN 0-050-01423-4)
  • Camus: vida e obra (1970) by Vicente de Paulo Barretto.
  • Albert Camus: A Biography (1997) by Herbert R. Lottman (ISBN 3-927258-06-7)
  • Albert Camus and the Minister (2000) by Howard E. Mumma (ISBN 1-55725-246-7)
  • Albert Camus, The Artist in the Arena (1965) by Emmett Parker (OCLC 342770)
  • Albert Camus, A Study of His Work (1957) by Philip Malcolm Waller Thody (OCLC 342101)
  • Albert Camus: A Life (2000) by Olivier Todd (ISBN 0-7867-0739-9)
  • Albert Camus. Kunst und Moral by Heiner Wittmann (ISBN 3-631-39525-6)
  • Ethics and Creativity in the Political thought of Simone Weil and Albert Camus 2004 by Dr. John Randolph LeBlanc (ISBN 978-0-7734-6567-1)

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

References

  1. ^ Les Nouvelles litteraires, November 15, 1945
  2. ^ Actuelles III: Chroniques Algeriennes, 1939–58
  3. ^ NationMaster Encyclopedia
  4. ^ KIAD MA in Fine Art: a student run seminar
  5. ^ Interview with Catherine Camus

is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Albert Camus
Persondata
NAME Camus, Albert
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Algerian-French author and philosopher
DATE OF BIRTH November 7, 1913(1913-11-07)
PLACE OF BIRTH Mondovi, Algeria
DATE OF DEATH January 4, 1960
PLACE OF DEATH Villeblevin, France
is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Dréan (Arabic الدرعان) is a small coastal town in Algeria, 25 km south of Annaba (), with a population of about 40,000. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Villeblevin monument to Albert Camus Villeblevin is a small French town and commune located in the Yonne département and the Bourgogne région. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Albert Camus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2966 words)
Albert Camus (pronounced [albɛʁ kamy]) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a French author and philosopher and one of the principal luminaries of absurdism.
Albert Camus was born in Mondovi, Algeria to a French Algerian (pied noir) settler family.
Camus was interred in the Lourmarin Cemetery, Lourmarin, Vaucluse, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France.
Albert Camus - Wikipedia (2915 words)
Camus bestand und pendelte hinfort zwischen der ärmlichen Welt von Belcourt und dem bürgerlichen Milieu der Schule, wo er seine Herkunft vor den Klassenkameraden versteckte und sich seiner Mutter schämte, die nicht nur Analphabetin, sondern auch leicht hör- und sprechbehindert war.
Albert Camus zählte sich selbst nicht zu den Vertretern des Existenzialismus.
Dies erscheint gerechtfertigt, da insbesondere Camus Sicht der "Revolte" von der existentialistischen Philosophie abweicht, was schließlich auch zum Bruch mit Sartre führte.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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