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Encyclopedia > Albert Ayler
Albert Ayler
Background information
Birth name Albert Ayler
Born July 13, 1936(1936-07-13)
Origin Cleveland Heights, Ohio
Died November 1970
Genre(s) Free jazz
Avant-garde jazz
Occupation(s) bandleader
Instrument(s) tenor saxophone, soprano saxophone
Years active 19521970
Label(s) Bird Notes
Debut
ESP-Disk
Impulse!

Albert Ayler (July 13, 1936November 1970) was an American avant-garde jazz saxophonist, singer and composer. is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Cleveland Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Avant-jazz (also known as avant-garde jazz) is a style of music and improvisation that combines elements of avant-garde art music composition with elements of traditional jazz. ... A bandleader is the director of a band of musicians. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The tenor saxophone is a medium-sized member of the saxophone family, a group of instruments invented by Adolphe Sax. ... The soprano saxophone is a variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the music industry, a record label is a brand and a trademark associated with the marketing of music recordings and music videos. ... ESP-Disk is a New York-based label, owned and operated by Bernard Stollman. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Look up November in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... The saxophone (colloquially referred to as sax) is a conical-bored instrument of the woodwind family. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ...

Contents

Overview

Albert Ayler was the most primal of the free jazz musicians of the 1960s; John Litweiler wrote that "never before or since has there been such naked aggression in jazz" [1] He possessed a deep blistering tone—achieved by using the stiffest plastic reeds he could find on his tenor saxophone—and a broad, pathos-filled vibrato that came right out of church music. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Vibrato is a musical effect where the pitch or frequency of a note or sound is quickly and repeatedly raised and lowered over a small distance for the duration of that note or sound. ... Christian music is music created by or adapted for the Christian church. ...


His trio and quartet records of 1964, like Spiritual Unity and The Hilversum Session, show him advancing the improvisational notions of John Coltrane and Ornette Coleman into abstract realms where timbre, not harmony and melody, are the music's backbone. His ecstatic music of 1965 and 1966, like "Spirits Rejoice" and "Truth is Marching In" has been compared by critics to the sound of a Salvation Army brass band, and involved simple, march-like themes which alternated with wild group improvisations and took jazz back to its pre-Louis Armstrong roots. Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Spiritual Unity is an album by the American jazz saxophonist Albert Ayler (1936-1970). ... “Coltrane” redirects here. ... Ornette Coleman (born March 9, 1930) is an American saxophonist, violinist, trumpeter and composer. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... A brass band a musical group consisting mostly or entirely of brass instruments, often with a percussion section. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ...


Life

Born in Cleveland Heights, Ohio, Ayler was first taught alto saxophone by his father Edward with whom he played duets in church. He later studied at the Academy of Music in Cleveland with jazz saxophonist Benny Miller. As a teen Ayler played with such skill that he was known around Cleveland as "Little Bird," [2] after virtuoso saxophonist Charlie Parker, who was nicknamed "Bird." Cleveland Heights is a city located in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. ... Charles Bird Parker, Jr. ...


Early career

In 1952, at the age of 16, Ayler began playing bar-walking, honking, R&B-style tenor with blues singer and harmonica player Little Walter, spending two summer vacations with Walter's band. After graduating from high school, Ayler joined the United States Army, where he jammed with other enlisted musicians, including tenor saxophonist Stanley Turrentine. He also played in the regiment band. In 1959 he was stationed in France, where he was further exposed to the martial music that would be a core influence on his later work. After his discharge from the army, Ayler kicked around Los Angeles and Cleveland trying to find work, but his increasingly iconoclastic playing, which had moved away from traditional harmony, was not welcomed by traditionalists. Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stanley William Turrentine (April 5, 1934 – September 12, 2000) was an American jazz tenor saxophonist. ...


He relocated to Sweden in 1962 where his recording career began, leading Swedish and Danish groups on radio sessions, and jamming as an unpaid member of Cecil Taylor's band in the winter of 1962-1963. (Long-rumored tapes of Ayler performing with Taylor's group have finally surfaced as part of a ten-CD set released in late 2004 by Revenant Records. [1]). The album My Name is Albert Ayler is a session of standards recorded for a Copenhagen radio station with local musicians including Niels-Henning Orsted Pederson and drummer Ronnie Gardiner, with Ayler playing tenor and soprano on tracks like "Summertime". Cecil Percival Taylor (born March 15 or March 25, 1929 in New York City) is an American pianist and poet. ... Revenant Records is a record label based in Austin, Texas which concentrates on folk and blues. ... Niels-Henning Ørsted Pedersen (IPA: , May 27, 1946 – April 19, 2005) was a Danish jazz bassist known for his impressive technique and an approach that could be considered an extension of the innovative work of Scott LaFaro. ...


Ayler, Peacock, Murray - Spiritual Unity

Ayler returned to the US and settled in New York assembling an influential trio with double bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray, recording his breakthrough album Spiritual Unity, for ESP-Disk Records, 30 minutes of intense free improvisation. Embraced by New York jazz leaders like Eric Dolphy, who reportedly called him the best player he'd ever seen, Ayler found respect and an audience. He influenced the gestating new generation of jazz players, as well as veterans like John Coltrane. In 1964 he toured Europe, with the trio augmented with trumpeter Don Cherry, recorded and released as The Hilversum Session. Gary Peacock (born 12 May 1935 in Burley, Idaho) is an American jazz double-bassist. ... Sunny Murray is one of the pioneers of the free jazz style of drumming. ... Spiritual Unity is an album by the American jazz saxophonist Albert Ayler (1936-1970). ... ESP-Disk is a New York-based label, owned and operated by Bernard Stollman. ... Eric Allan Dolphy (June 20, 1928 – June 29, 1964) was a jazz musician who played alto saxophone, flute and bass clarinet. ... “Coltrane” redirects here. ... Don Cherry (November 18, 1936–October 19, 1995) was an innovative jazz trumpeter probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman. ...


Energy music 1965

Ayler's trio created a definitive free jazz sound. Murray rarely if ever laid down a steady, rhythmic pulse, and Ayler's solos were downright pentecostal. But the trio was still recognizably in the jazz tradition. Ayler's next series of groups, with trumpeter brother Donald, were a radical departure. Beginning with the album Bells, a live concert at New York Town Hall with Donald Ayler, Charles Tyler, Lewis Worrell and Sunny Murray, Ayler turned to performances that were chains of marching band- or mariachi-style themes alternating with overblowing and multiphonic freely improvised group solos, a wild and unique sound that took jazz back to its pre-Louis Armstrong roots of collective improvisation. The new sound was consolidated in the studio album Spirits Rejoice recorded by the same group at Judson Hall in New York. Ayler, in a 1970 interview, calls his later styles "energy music," contrasting with the "space bebop" played by Coltrane and initially by Ayler himself. This approach continued with The Village Concerts and with Ayler on the books ESP had established itself as a leading label for free jazz. Donald Ayler (born October 5, 1942 in Cleveland Heights, Ohio) is a jazz trumpeter and younger brother to saxophonist Albert Ayler. ... Admiral Sir Charles Tyler, GCB (1760 - 28 September 1835) was a British admiral who gained fame during the Napoleonic Wars as one of the Nelsonic Band of Brothers and a naval officer of great reputation and success who fought at the battles of Copenhagen and Trafalgar. ... An American college marching band on the field (University of Texas) A marching band is a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement â€“ usually some type of marching â€“ with their musical performance. ... Mariachi is a type of musical group, originally from Mexico. ... Free improvisation or free music is improvised music without any rules beyond the taste or inclination of the musician(s) involved; in many cases the musicians make an active effort to avoiding overt references to recognizable musical genres. ... Louis[1] Armstrong[2] (4 August 1901[3] – July 6, 1971), nicknamed Satchmo[4] and Pops, was an American jazz musician. ...


In 1966 Ayler was signed to Impulse Records at the urging of John Coltrane, the label's star attraction at that time. But even on Impulse Ayler's radically different music never found a sizable audience. In 1967, Coltrane died. Ayler was one of several musicians to perform at Coltrane's funeral. An amateur recording of this performance exists, but is of very low quality. Later in 1967, Albert's brother Donald Ayler had what he termed a nervous breakdown. In a letter to The Cricket, a Newark, New Jersey] music magazine edited by Amiri Baraka and Larry Neal, Albert reported that he had seen a strange object in the sky and come to believe that he and his brother "had the right seal of God almighty in our forehead."[3] Although it is reasonable to assume the Aylers had explored or were exploring psychedelic drugs like LSD, there is no evidence this significantly influenced their mental stability. Impulse! Records is a United States based jazz record label, originally launched in the early 1960s by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... For other uses, see Funeral (disambiguation). ... Amiri Baraka was born Everett LeRoi Jones on October 7, 1934 in Newark, New Jersey. ... Larry Neal was born September 5, 1937 in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Lysergic acid diethylamide, commonly called LSD, LSD-25, or acid. ...


Cries of love - The final years

For the next two and half years Ayler turned to recording music not too far removed from rock and roll, often with utopian, hippie lyrics provided by his live-in girlfriend Mary Maria Parks. Ayler drew on his very early career, incorporating doses of R&B, with funky, electric rhythm sections and extra horns (including Scottish highland bagpipe) on some songs. 1967's Love Cry was a step in this direction, studio recordings of Ayler concert staples such as "Ghosts" and "Bells" with less free-improv and more time spent on the themes. For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ... Singer at a modern Hippie movement in Russia Hippie (sometimes spelled hippy) refers to a member of a subgroup of the counterculture that began in the United States during the early 1960s, becoming an established social group by 1965, and expanding to other countries before declining in the mid-1970s. ... Rhythm and blues (or R & B) is a musical marketing term introduced in the United States in the late 1940s by Billboard magazine. ... In a symphony orchestra the horn section is the group of musicians who play the horn (sometimes referred to as the French horn). ... Pipe Major The Great Highland Bagpipe (Gaelic : A Phìob Mhòr) is probably the best-known variety of bagpipe. ...


Next came the r'n'b album New Grass, reviled by his fans and generally considered to be the worst of his work. Following its commercial failure, Ayler unsuccessfully attempted to bridge his earlier "space bebop" recordings and the sound of New Grass on his last studio album Music Is The Healing Force Of The Universe, featuring rock musicians such as Henry Vestine of Canned Heat alongside jazz-men like pianist Bobby Few. Canned Heat album cover Canned Heat is a blues-rock band that formed in Los Angeles in 1965. ... Canned Heat is a blues-rock/boogie band that formed in Los Angeles in 1965. ...


In July 1970 Ayler returned to the free jazz idiom for a group of shows in France but the band he was able to assemble (Cal Cobb, bassist Steve Tintweiss and drummer Alan Blairman), was amateurish and, apart from Cobb, not nearly of the caliber of his earlier groups.


Death

Ayler disappeared on November 5, 1970, and he was found dead in New York City's East River on November 25, a presumed suicide. For some time afterwards, rumors circulated that Ayler had been murdered, possibly due to his involvement in the black power movement. Later, however, Parks would say that Albert had been depressed and feeling guilty, blaming himself for his brother's problems. She stated that, just before his death, he had several times threatened to kill himself, smashed one of his saxophones over their television set after she tried to dissuade him, then took the Statue of Liberty ferry and jumped off as it neared Liberty Island. He is buried in Cleveland, Ohio.[4] is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Liberty Island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloes Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty. ...


Influence

Ayler remains something of a cult artist. "Ghosts"—with its bouncy, sing-song melody (rather reminiscent of a nursery rhyme)—is probably his best known tune, and is something of a free jazz standard, having been covered by Lester Bowie, Gary Windo, Eugene Chadbourne, Joe McPhee, John Tchicai and Ken Vandermark, among others. The saxophonist Mars Williams led a group called Witches and Devils, which was not only named after an Ayler song, but which covered several of his songs. Peter Brötzmann's "Die Like A Dog Quartet" is a group loosely dedicated to Ayler. A record called Little Birds Have Fast Hearts references Ayler's youthful nickname. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A nursery rhyme is a traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Jazz standard refers to a tune that is widely known, performed, and recorded among jazz musicians. ... Lester Bowie (11 October 1941–8 November 1999) was a jazz trumpet player and composer. ... Gary Windo (born November 7, 1941 in Brighton; died July 25, 1992 in New York City) was a jazz tenor saxophonist. ... Eugene Chadbourne (January 4, 1954 in Mount Vernon, NY) is a USA composer, improvisor, guitarist and banjoist. ... Empty Bottle, Chicago, November 4, 2004; photo courtesy Seth Tisue Joe McPhee (born November 3, 1939) is an American jazz multi-instrumentalist born in Miami, Florida, a player of tenor and soprano saxophone, the trumpet, flugelhorn and valve trombone. ... John Martin Tchicai (born April 28, 1936) is a Danish jazz saxophonist. ... Ken Vandermark (born September 22, 1964 in Warwick, Rhode Island) is an American jazz saxophone and clarinet player. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Peter Brötzmann (born March 6, 1941) is a German free jazz saxophonist. ...


In 2005, guitarist Marc Ribot (who has occasionally performed Ayler's songs for some years) released an album dedicated to the ethic of collective improvisation, entitled Spiritual Unity in honor of Ayler's 1964 album of the same name. On his 1969 album Folkjokeopus, English guitarist/singer-songwriter Roy Harper, dedicated the song "One for All" ("One for Al") to Albert Ayler "who I knew and loved during my time in Copenhagen". Harper considered Ayler to be "one of the leading jazzmen of the age". [5]. In the Folkejokeopus liner notes Harper states, "In many ways he (Ayler) was the king". The bassist Jair-Rohm Parker Wells produced "Meditations on Albert Ayler" with Tony Bianco on drums and Luther Thomas on alto sax. This live trio improvisation was produced for and released by Ayler Records on Ayler's 71st birthday. For the UK magazine, see Guitarist (magazine). ... Marc Ribot (born 1954) is a Jewish American guitarist, composer and occasional singer from Newark, New Jersey. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... For the UK magazine, see Guitarist (magazine). ... The term singer-songwriter refers to performers who both write and sing their own material. ... Roy Harper (born June 12, 1941), is an English rock singer-songwriter / guitarist who specialises in folk music. ... Liner notes are the booklets which come inserted into the compact disc jewel case or any sound recording container. ... Jair-Rohm Parker Wells (October 13, 1958) is an American free jazz bassist, composer and conceptualist. ... Luther Thomas is an alto saxophonist and multi-instrumentalist from St. ... Ayler Records is a Swedish record label which specializes in free jazz recordings. ...


Film

In 2005, the Swedish film-maker Kasper Collin released a documentary film about Ayler's life called My Name Is Albert Ayler [2]. The film includes detailed interviews with Ayler's father Edward and brother Donald, as well as the only live concert footage of Ayler known to exist (of concerts in Sweden and France).


Discography

Year of recording, original album title, original record label and country of origin.(p) indicates posthumous release.

  • 1962: Something Different!!!!! (aka The First Recordings Vol. 1) (Bird Notes) (Sweden)
  • 1962: The First Recordings, Vol. 2 (Bird Notes) (Sweden)
  • 1963: My name is Albert Ayler (Debut) (Denmark)
  • 1964: Spirits (aka Witches & Devils) (Debut) (Denmark)
  • 1964: Swing low sweet spiritual (Osmosis) (Holland) (p) (CD release: Goin' Home (Black Lion))
  • 1964: Prophecy [live] (ESP/Base) (Italy) (p)
  • 1964: Albert Smiles With Sunny [live] (In Respect] (Germany) (p) (CD 1: Prophecy, CD 2: extra material from same concert, subsequently included on Holy Ghost)
  • 1964: Spiritual Unity (ESP Disk) (US)
  • 1964: New York Eye And Ear Control (ESP) (US)
  • 1964: Albert Ayler [live] (Philology) (Italy) (p) (CD release: Live In Europe 1964-1966 (Landscape) (France). 1964 tracks included on The Copenhagen Tapes, 1966 tracks included on Holy Ghost)
  • 1964: The Copenhagen tapes [live] (Ayler Records) (Sweden) (p)
  • 1964: Ghosts (aka Vibrations) (Debut) (Denmark)
  • 1964: The Hilversum Session (Osmosis Records/Coppens Records) (Holland) (p) -
  • 1965: Bells (ESP) (US) Live at New York Town Hall
  • 1965: Spirits rejoice (ESP) (US)

There is a box-set available of The Complete ESP-Disk Recordings Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Spiritual Unity is an album by the American jazz saxophonist Albert Ayler (1936-1970). ... ESP-Disk is a New York-based label, owned and operated by Bernard Stollman. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... New York Eye and Ear Control is an album of group improvisations recorded by an augmented version of Albert Aylers group to provide the soundtrack for Michael Snows film of the same name. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Ayler Records is a Swedish record label which specializes in free jazz recordings. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ...

  • 1965: Sonny's Time Now (Jihad) (US)
  • 1966: At Slug's saloon, vol. 1 & 2 [live] (ESP/Base) (Italy) (p)
  • 1966: Lörrach / Paris 1966 [live] (hat HUT) (Switzerland) (p)
  • 1966: In Greenwich Village [live] (Impulse! Records) (US)
  • 1966: The Village Concerts [live] (Impulse! Records) (US) (p) (CD release of In Greenwich Village and The Village Concerts as Live In Greenwich Village: The Complete Impulse Recordings (Impulse! Records))
  • 1967: Love cry (Impulse! Records) (US)
  • 1968: New grass (Impulse! Records) (US)
  • 1969: Music is the healing force of the universe (Impulse! Records) (US)
  • 1969: The last album (Impulse! Records) (US) (p)
  • 1970: Nuits de la Fondation Maeght Vol. 1 & 2 [live] (Shandar) (France) (p)
  • 1970: Albert Ayler Quintet 1970 [live] (Blu Jazz) (Italy) (p) (re-released as Live On The Riviera (ESP) (US))
  • 1960-1970: Holy Ghost (Revenant) (US) (p) (10 disc box set featuring Ayler’s first and last recordings, plus other previously unreleased material.)

Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Impulse! Records is an American based jazz record label, originally launched in 1960 by Creed Taylor as a subsidiary of ABC-Paramount Records in New York City. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nuits de La Fondation Maeght, Vol. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ Litweiler, John (1984). The Freedom Principle: Jazz After 1958. Da Capo, 159. ISBN 0-306-80377-1. 
  2. ^ Litweiler, John (1984). The Freedom Principle: Jazz After 1958. Da Capo, 153. ISBN 0-306-80377-1. 
  3. ^ Ayler, Albert (1969), "To Mr Jones - I had a Vision", The Cricket: 27
  4. ^ "Albert Ayler" by Jeff Schwarz, Chapter 6
  5. ^ Roy Harper site

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Albert Ayler - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1289 words)
Albert Ayler (July 13, 1936–November 1970) was an American jazz saxophonist, singer and composer.
Albert Ayler was the most primal of the free jazz musicians of the 1960s.
Ayler was one of several musicians to perform at Coltrane's funeral.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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