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Encyclopedia > Albania
Republika e Shqipërisë
Republic of Albania
Flag of Albania Emblem of Albania
Flag Emblem
Motto
Ti Shqipëri më jep nder më jep emrin shqipëtar
Anthem
Rreth flamurit të përbashkuar
("United Around the Flag")
Location of  Albania  (orange)

on the European continent  (white)  —  [ Legend] Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... General info: State emblem of Albania Size: 1. ... The flag of Albania used from 1946 to 1992 The flag of Albania used from 1939 to 1943 during World War II Axis Occupation Albanian Kingdom Flag (1928-1939) Principality of Albania (1914) officially until 1920 The national flag of Albania is a red flag with a black two-headed... The Emblem of Albania is an adaptation of the Flag of Albania. ... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Himni i Flamurit is the national anthem of Albania. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Albania Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries Maps of Albania ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Capital Tiranё
41°20′N, 19°48′E
Largest city Tiranë
Official languages Albanian (Shqip)
Demonym Albanian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Bamir Topi
 -  Prime Minister Sali Berisha
Independence from the Ottoman Empire 
 -  Date November 28, 1912 
Area
 -  Total 28 748 km² (139th)
11,100 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.7
Population
 -  2007 estimate 3,600,523[5] (130th)
 -  Density 134 /km² (63)
318.6 /sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $19.818 billion[1] (112th)
 -  Per capita $6,259 (100th)
Gini? (2002) 28.2 (low
HDI (2004) 0.784 (medium) (73rd)
Currency Lek (ALL)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Internet TLD .al
Calling code +355

The Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, IPA [ɾɛˈpubliˌka ɛ ˌʃʨipəˈɾiːs] or simply Shqipëria) is a Balkan country in Southeastern Europe. It borders Montenegro to the north, the Serbian province of Kosovo to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south. It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the west and a coast on the Ionian Sea to the southwest. This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 823. ... average temperature and precipitations in Tirana Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of Albania. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by about 7-8 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosova, but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy and in... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... // 1. ... Bamir Myrteza Topi (born April 24, 1957 in Tirana) is the President of the Republic of Albania, a post he took on July 24, 2007. ... List of Prime Ministers of Albania Ismail Qemali (1912-1913) Myfit Libohova (1913-1914) Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1914) Esat Pashë Toptani (1914) Abdullah Rushdi (1914-1918) Turhan Pasha Përmeti (1918-1920) Sulejman Bej Delvina (1920) Ilias Bej Vrioni (1920-1921) Pandeli Evangjeli (1921) Hasan Bej Prishtina (1921) Omer... Sali Berisha and George W. Bush   (born October 15, 1944) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... Gross domestic product (by purchasing power parity) in 2006 The Purchasing power parity (PPP) theory was developed by Gustav Cassel in 1920. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita for the year 2006. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (2004). ... Coloured world map indicating Human Development Index (2006) (colour-blind compliant map) This is a list of countries by Human Development Index as included in the United Nations Development Programmes Human Development Report 2006, compiled on the basis of 2004 data. ... Lek is the currency used in Albania. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... Though DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Time zones of Europe: Pale colours indicate countries without daylight saving Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .al is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Albania. ... A telephone number is a sequence of decimal digits (0-9) that is used for identifying a destination telephone line in a telephone network. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Anthem Oj, svijetla majska zoro Oh, Bright Dawn of May Montenegro() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Podgorica Official languages Serbian (Ijekavian dialect)1 Demonym Montenegrin Government Republic  -  President Filip Vujanović  -  Prime Minister Željko Å turanović Independence due to the dissolution of Serbia and Montenegro   -  Declared June 3, 2006... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 812   -  Kingdom established 1217   -  Empire established 1346   -  Independence lost to... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Ionian Sea. ...


Albania has played a relevant role in managing inter-ethnic tensions in southeastern Europe and is a potential candidate for membership in the European Union and NATO. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... EU member states and candidates There are currently 25 member states in the European Union. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Albania

This article briefly outlines each period in the history of Albania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ...

Antiquity

Albania, in the southeastern corner of Europe, has been populated since prehistoric times and was settled by the Illyrians,[2], possible ancestors of present-day Albanians[3]. Situated where it is and surrounded by powerful, warring empires, Albania has seen a lot of violence throughout its history. Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians and Ottomans swept through, leaving their mark and their ruins. Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Venice is known for its waterways and gondolas Gondola. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29...

Bato is one of few leaders of the Illyrian uprising against the Romans in 6 A.D.

Archaeological research shows that the lands that are today inhabited by Albanians were first populated in the Paleolithic Age (Stone Age). The first areas settled were those with favourable climatic and geographic conditions. In Albania, the earliest settlements have been discovered in the Gajtan cavern (Shkodra), in Konispol, at Mount Dajti, and at Saranda. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the Old Stone Age) was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ... Konispol (Albanian: Konispoli) is the southernmost town in Albania. ... Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ...


Fragments of Cyclopean structures, of the Cyclopean-Pelasgian period, were discovered at Kretsunitsa, Arinishta, and other sites of the district of Gjirokastra. The walls, partly Cyclopean, of an ancient city (perhaps Byllis) are visible at Gradishti on the picturesque Viosa River. Few traces remain of the once celebrated Dyrrhachium (today Durrës). Central and Northern Albania abound in unexplored remains of the Illyrian period. The traces of the early Illyrian civilization lie still covered under the dust and ashes of nearly thirty centuries. Cyclopean is a descriptor applied to the characteristic wall-building method of the Mycenaean culture. ... Gjirokastër (Photo by Marc Morell) Gjirokastër (Albanian: Gjirokastër or Gjirokastra, Greek: Argyrokastron or Girokastron) is a city in southern Albania at 40. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ...


The rediscovered city of Butrint is probably more significant today than it was when Julius Caesar used it as a provisions depot for his troops during his campaigns in the 1st century BC. It was considered an unimportant outpost,overshadowed by the likes of Apollonia and Durrës.In 2000, the Albanian government established Butrint National Park, which draws about 70,000 visitors annually and is Albania's second World Heritage site. Cultural performances are held in the huge amphitheater. Remains of a theatre and part of the agora (Photo by Marc Morell) Remains of the 6th-century baptistery Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is a city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... Julius Caesar [1] (Latin pronunciation ; English pronunciation ; July 12 or July 13, 100 BC or 102 BC – March 15, 44 BC), was a Roman military and political leader and one of the most influential men in world history. ... There have been several places called Apollonia: An ancient Greek city in Illyria near to the sea and the river Vjosa, 12 km from Fier, Albania. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


Pelasgians

The Bronze Age is characterized with shifting demographics. Stockbreeding people came from the east around the mid 3000s BC to the early 2000s BC. This population is believed to be the ancient Pelasgians, which have been mentioned frequently by ancient writers such as Homer, Herodotus, and Thucydides.[4][5][6] The differentiation of populations by ethnicity began during the Bronze Age. Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian in the fifth century BC, writes about the Pelasgians that continued to live in Greece. Ancient writers references to the Pelasgians are confusing, however, with some writers stating that Pelasgians had spoken a "barbaric" or "non Hellenic” language, while others maintained that they were Greek-speaking. A theory dating back to the seventeenth century attempted to connect the pre-Indo-European Pelasgian language with Albanian. Today, however, Albanian is universally classified as an Indo-European language by linguists. See Origin of the Albanians for a discussion of the theories surrounding the origin of the Albanians and the Albanian language. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ... Homer (Greek: ) is the name given to the supposed unitary author of the early Greek poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... The Pelasgian language is the unclassified language of the ancient Pelasgians. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... Albani (Albanoi), tribe in ancient Illyria, from Alexander G. Findlays Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849 See also:Albania (toponym). ...


The Kingdom of Illyria (1225-167 B.C.)

Statue of Illyrian soldiers in Dyrrachium(Durrës).

In its beginning, the kingdom of Illyria comprised the actual territories of modern Albania but in the course of its development, it extended all along the eastern littoral of the Adriatic Sea. Scodra (Albanian:Shkodra)was its capital, just as she is now the capital of Northern and Central Albania. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Shkodër (Albanian: Shkodër or Shkodra, Serbian Skadar, Latin Scutari, German Skutari) is a city located in North West Albania, in the District of Shkodër and it is the capital of the County of Shkodër. ...


The earliest known king of Illyria was Hylli (Albanian:Ylli;Star) who is recorded to have died in the year 1225 B. C. The kingdom, however, reached the zenith of its expansion and development in the fourth century B. C., when King Bardhyllus (Albanian:Bardhyli:White Star), one of the most prominent of the Illyrian kings, united under his scepter the kingdoms of Illyria, Molossia and a good part of Macedonia. But its decay began under the same ruler as a result of the attacks made on it by Philip of Macedon, father of Alexander the Great. Bardhyllus was an Illyrian king who ruled from 385 to 358 BC and founded the Bardhyllus Dynasty. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1][2] Megas Alexandros; July 20 356 BC – June 10 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, was an Ancient Greek king of Macedon (336–323 BC). ...


The Illyrians created and developed their culture, language and anthropological features in the western part of the Balkans, where ancient writers mention them in their works. The regions that the Illyrians inhabited are expansive. They include the entire western peninsula, north to central Europe, and east around the Lyhind Lake (Ohrid Lake). Other Illyrian tribes also migrated and developed in Italy. Among them were the Messapii and Iapyges. The name 'Illyria' is mentioned in works since the fifth century BC while some tribe names are mentioned as early as the twelfth century BC by Homer. The ethnic formation of the Illyrians, however, is much older. Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Lake Ohrid Lake Ohrid (Albanian: Liqeni i Ohrit; Macedonian: Ohridsko Ezero) straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern region of the Republic of Macedonia and eastern Albania, covering an area of 340 sq km (130 sq mi). ... The Messapii were an ancient tribe that inhabited, in historical times, the south-eastern peninsula or heel of Italy, known variously in ancient times as Calabria, Messapia and Iapygia. ... The Iapyges were an Indo-European people akin to the Messapii who inhabited the heel of Italy before being absorbed by the Romans. ...


The beginning of Illyrian origins in by the fifteenth century BC, from the mid-Bronze Age, when Illyrian ethnic features began to form. By the Iron Age, the Illyrians were fully distinct and had inherited their developing anthropological features and language from the Neolithic and Bronze Ages. The old theory that the Illyrians came from Central Europe during the seventh to ninth centuries has been disproved by studies performed following World War II. The fact that graves with urns, characteristic of Central Europe, are not found in Illyrian settlements severely damages the theory. Central European influence on the Illyrians is a result of cultural exchanges and movement of artisans.[7] Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ...


In the first decades under Byzantine rule (until 461), Illyria suffered the devastation of raids by Visigoths, Huns, and Ostrogoths. Not long after these barbarian invaders swept through the Balkans, the Slavs appeared. Between the 6th and 8th centuries they settled in Illyrian territories and proceeded to assimilate Illyrian tribes in much of what is now Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Serbia.The tribes of southern Illyria, however including modern Albania averted assimilation and preserved their native tongue. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


Greek Colonies - Hellenistic Era

Apollonia,It was founded in 588 BC

From the 8th to the 6th century BC the Greeks founded a string of colonies on Illyrian soil, two of the most prominent of which were Epidamnus (modern Durrës) and Apollonia (near modern Vlorë). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ... There have been several places called Apollonia: An ancient Greek city in Illyria near to the sea and the river Vjosa, 12 km from Fier, Albania. ... Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ...


Roughly parallel with the rise of Greek colonies,Illyrian tribes began to evolve politically from relatively small and simple entities into larger and more complex ones. At first they formed temporary alliances with one another for defensive or offensive purposes, then federations and, still later, kingdoms.


Under the rule of King Glaukia, the Illyrian state strengthened rapidly. In 355 BC war broke out against Alexander of Macedonia to free the eastern territories and in the meantime Apollonia is freed from the Macedonian subjugation. Glaukia's successors -- Monun and Mytyl -- strengthen the Illyrian state economically and mint both bronze and silver coins. Soon after the mid-3d century BC, under the reign of Pleurat and Agron, the Illyrian state starts to prosper again. Alexander the Great (Greek: ),[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of, if not the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of the known world before his death; he is regarded as... There have been several places called Apollonia: An ancient Greek city in Illyria near to the sea and the river Vjosa, 12 km from Fier, Albania. ... Agron has several meanings: A youth in Greek mythology, Agron and his two sisters were from Cos, a Mediterranean island. ...


In 231 BC they enter into alliance with Acarnania and apparently turn out to be the most powerful force in the Balkans. Acarnania was a region of ancient central western Greece that lay along the Ionian Sea, west of Aetolia, with the Achelous River for a boundary, and north of the gulf of Calydon, which is the entrance to the Gulf of Corinth. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Roman and Byzantine Era

Prætorian Guard
Prætorian Guard

It was the Romans who destroyed Illyrian autonomy through military defeat in 165 BC. Roman Albania was traversed by the Via Egnatia, the Roman road that linked east with west and Rome with the far eastern reaches of its empire. After being conquered by the Roman Empire, Illyria was reorganized as a Roman province. Illyricum was later divided into the provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia, the lands comprising modern-day Albania. Image File history File links Praetorian_GuardSoldiers_basrelief_med. ... Image File history File links Praetorian_GuardSoldiers_basrelief_med. ... Ancient Via Egnatia route Via Egnatia (Greek: Εγνατία Οδός) was a road constructed by the Romans around 146 BC. It was named after Gnaeus Egnatius, proconsul of Macedonia, who ordered its construction. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ...


There are,two outstanding features of Roman influence:


In the first place, the Albanian language borrowed a great number of words, mostly religious and liturgical terms, owing to the fact that Albania was at first attached to the See of Rome, though the religion of Jesus was preached to the Albanians by St. Paul himself during a visit he made to Durazzo (Albanian:Durrës). Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by about 7-8 million people, primarily in Albania and Kosova, but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy and in... The name Saint Paul may refer to one of several possible meanings or references, though it is most commonly used to refer to the Biblical Paul of Tarsus. ... Durrës (Photo by Marc Morell) Durrës (Albanian: Durrës or Durrësi) is the most ancient city of Albania and one of the most economically important as the biggest port city. ...


In the second place, the Albanians had more than their share in the election of the Roman Emperors during the turbulent period of the Empire, by virtue of the fact that the notorious Prætorian Guard, the emperor-making power, consisted mainly of Illyrian troops. The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ...


After the fall of the Roman Empire, Albania was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire, administered from Constantinople. Albania was under Byzantine rule until the fourteenth century AD when the Ottoman Turks began to make incursions into the Empire. The Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453 and by 1460 almost all former Byzantine territories were in the hands of the Turks. Map of Constantinople. ...


Ottoman Era

Statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg. Skanderbeg is considered the national hero of Albania.

The Ottoman Turks expanded their empire from Anatolia to the Balkans in the 14th century. By the 15th century, the Turks has brought under subjection nearly all of the Balkan Peninsula except for a small coastal strip which is included in present-day Albania. The Albanians' resistance to the Turks in the mid-15th century won them acclaim all over Europe. Albania became a symbol of resistance to the Ottoman Turks but suffered an almost continuous state of warfare.[8] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1933 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 558 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1800 × 1933 pixel, file size: 294 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg. ... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ...


One of the most successful resistance against the invading Ottomans, was led by Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg from 1443 to 1468. After the death of Skanderbeg, resistance continued until 1478, although with only moderate success. The loyalties and alliances created and nurtured by Skanderbeg faltered and fell apart, and the Ottomans conquered the territory of Albania shortly after the fall of Kruje's castle. Albania then became part of the Ottoman Empire. They would remain a part of the Ottoman Empire as the provinces of İşkodra, Manastır and Yanya until 1912. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Nickname: Motto: Bitola, babam Bitola Location of the city of Bitola (red) within the Republic of Macedonia Coordinates: , Government  - Mayor Vlademir Taleski Area  - City 422. ... This article is about the Greek city. ...


Effects of the Balkan Wars

After the Second Balkan War, the Ottomans were removed from Albania and there was a possibility of some of the lands being absorbed by Serbia and the southern tip by Greece. This decision angered the Italians, who did not want Serbia to have an extended coastline, and it also angered the Austro-Hungarians, who did not want a powerful Serbia on their southern border. Despite Serbian, Montenegrin, and Greek occupation forces on the ground, and under immense pressure from Austria-Hungary, it was decided that the country should not be divided but instead consolidated into the Principality of Albania. However the Austro - Italian project was not successful. Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Flag Anthem: Ubavoj nam Crnoj Gori, Onamo, namo! The Kingdom of Montenegro in 1913 Capital Cetinje Language(s) Serbian Religion Eastern Orthodox Government Monarchy King Nicholas I Historical era World War I  - Established 28 August, 1910  - Disestablished 26 November, 1918 Currency Montenegrin perper The Kingdom of Montenegro (Serbian: Краљевина Црнe Горe... Flag Anthem Himni i Flamurit Capital Durrës Language(s) Albanian Government Principality Prince  - 1914 William Prime Minister  - 1914 Essad Pasha History  - Independence May, 1913  - Established February 21, 1914  - Disestablished March 7, 1914 The Principality of Albania was a short lived monarchy in the Balkans established on February 21, 1914. ...


Monarchy

From 1925, the country was ruled by President Ahmet Zogu who, in 1928, declared himself King Zog I, the first Albanian monarch since Gjergj Kastriot Skenderbej. Styling himself a European king, he married Hungarian noblewoman Geraldine Apponyi de Nagy-Apponyi. His reign ended when the Italian fascists invaded Albania in April 7 1939. The communists took power after the Second World War. After the fall of the communist government, his son Leka, Crown Prince of Albania and the royal family returned to Albania on June 28, 2002. Zog I, Skanderbeg III of Albania (born Ahmet Zogolli, later changed to Ahmet Zogu) (October 8, 1895 – April 9, 1961) was King of Albania from 1928 to 1939. ... Countess Geraldine Margit Virginia Olga Mária Apponyi de Nagy-Appony (6 August 1915—22 October 2002) was the Queen consort of King Zog I, of the Zogu dynasty of Albania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


World War II

Albania was one of the first countries occupied by the Axis in World War II. Mussolini invaded and occupied Albania, while the world was focused on the German actions in Czechoslovakia and Poland. As Hitler began his aggressions, the Italian dictator set his eyes on Albania across the Adriatic from Italy. Despite some resistance, especially at Durrës, Italy invaded Albania on 7 April 1939 and took control of the country. On April 12, the Albanian parliament voted to unite the country with Italy. Victor Emmanuel III took the Albanian crown, and the Italians set up a fascist government under Shefqet Verlaci and soon absorbed Albania's military and diplomatic service into Italy's. April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mussolini, in October 1940, used his Albanian base to launch an attack on Greece. Mussolini never discussed the attack with Hitler (Mussolini announced it when Hitler arrived on a visit. "Führer, we are on the march." ). During WWII, Albanian nationalist groups, including Communist partisans, fought against the Italians and subsequently the Germans. When the Germans withdrew in November 1944, the Communists seized control of Albania. The partially French-educated Enver Hoxha became the leader of the country by virtue of his position as secretary general of the Party of Labor (the Albanian Communist Party). The Communist Party was created on November 8, 1941 with the help of other Bolshevik Communist Parties. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


The Holocaust in Albania

Albania is unique in that it is the only European country occupied by the Nazis that ended World War II with a larger Jewish population than before the War. The Albanian response to the Holocaust is especially notable because it was Europe's only largely Muslim country. Even so only a Jewish family of six was deported and killed during the Nazi occupation of Albania [9]. Not only did the Albanians protect their own Jews, but they provided refuge for Jews from neighboring countries. The Albanians refused to compile and hand over lists of Jews. Instead they provided the Jewish families with fake documents and helped them disperse in the Albanian population[10]. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination...


The role of Albanians in the Holocaust has become a factor in the current issue over the independence of Kosovo. One pro-Serbian[citation needed] [11] author, Carl Savitch, writes that Italian forces in Albania rejected the Final Solution as “the German disease” and did not enforce anti-Jewish measures. This is why Albanian Jews were “rescued” in Albania, not because of anything the Albanians did themselves. Yad Vashem maintains it was both the policy of the occupying Italian authorities and the Albanian population that protected the Jews in Albania proper. [12]. Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... An exterior view of the Yad Vashem Holocaust memorial museum in Jerusalem. ...


There was no history of ideological anti-Semitism in Albania, Greece or Bulgaria. So, Albania was not unique in this regard. The small number of Jews in Albania also played a key role in the possibility to protect them all. During the Italian occupation, they were able to disperse and blend in with the general population. However, the role of Albanian population on saving Jews is undeniable. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ...


The People's Republic of Albania(Socialist Republic)

From 1944 to 1991, Albania became a People's Republic and was a one-party state in which Enver Hoxha ruled with an iron hand. In 1961 he broke with Albania’s closest ally, the Soviet Union, because he believed Khrushchev had abandoned the teachings of Stalin. Subsequently, Albania’s closest ally was the People’s Republic of China. However, when the PRC established diplomatic relations with the U.S. in 1978, Hoxha denounced the Chinese as well and decided to pursue a policy of self-reliance. The result was not only extreme isolation but also absolute financial ruin for Albania. An example of this may be drawn from the construction between 1974 and 1986 of approximately 700,000 reinforced concrete bunkers to defend against an anticipated multi-front attack. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (958 × 1296 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Enver Hoxha File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 443 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (958 × 1296 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Enver Hoxha File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up peoples republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314...


Upon Hoxha’s death in 1985, Ramiz Alia succeeded him as Party and state leader. Alia was Hoxha’s protégé, but was less repressive than the former leader and began to allow some reforms. This process was accelerated by news of the changes in the other Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe. There are statistics which show that during this period about 6000 Albanian citizens were executed for political reasons [citation needed]Despite this, the quality of life improved as both life expectancy and literacy showed large gains and economic growth continued until the mid 1970s.[citation needed] Ramiz Alia (born October 18, 1925) was the leader of Albania from 1985 to 1992. ...


The Return of Capitalism

The first massive anti-communist protests took place in July 1990. Shortly afterwards, the communist regime under Ramiz Alia carried out some cosmetic changes in the economy. At the end of 1990, after strong student protests and independent syndicated movements, the regime accepted a multiparty system. The first multiparty general elections were held on March 31, 1991 and the Communist Party (PPSH) won the majority. Opposition parties accused the government of manipulation and called for new elections, which were held on March 22, 1992 and resulted in a coalition (composed of the Democratic Party, the Social-Democrats, and the Republican Party) coming to power.


In the general elections of June 1996 the Democratic Party won an absolute majority and the results [citation needed], winning over 85% of parliamentary seats. In 1997 widespread riots erupted after the International Monetary Fund forced the state to liberalize banking practices. Many citizens, naive to the workings of a market economy, put their entire savings into pyramid schemes. In a short while, $2 billion (80% of the country's GDP) had been moved into the hands of just a few pyramid scheme owners, causing severe economic troubles and civic unrest. Police stations and military bases were looted of millions of Kalashnikovs and other weapons. Anarchy prevailed,[13] and militia and even less-organized armed citizens controlled many cities. Naturally, American military advisers left the country for their own safety. The government of Aleksander Meksi resigned and a government of national unity was built. In response to the anarchy[citation needed], the Socialist Party won the early elections of 1997 and Berisha resigned the Presidency. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... A pyramid scheme is a business model that involves the exchange of money primarily for enrolling other people into the scheme, usually without any product or service being delivered. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... Aleksander Gabriel Meksi (born 1939) was the prime minister of Albania from April 13, 1992 to March 11, 1997. ... A grand coalition is a coalition government in a parliamentary system where political parties representing a vast majority of the parliament unite in a coalition. ...


However, stability was far from being restored in the years after the 1997 riots. The power feuds raging inside the Socialist Party led to a series of short-lived Socialist governments. The country was flooded with refugees from neighboring Kosovo in 1998 and 1999 during the Kosovo War. In June 2002, a compromise candidate, Alfred Moisiu, a former general, was elected to succeed President Rexhep Meidani. Parliamentary elections in July 2005 brought Sali Berisha, as leader of the Democratic Party, back to power, mostly owing to Socialist infighting and a series of corruption scandals plaguing the government of Fatos Nano.[citation needed] The 1997 Albanian insurrection was an uprising sparked by anti-IMF protests[citation needed], which resulted in a state of anarchy[citation needed]. http://libcom. ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë, Serbian: , transliterated ; also , transliterated ) is a region in southern Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...   (born December 1, 1929, in Shkodër) is the former President of the Republic of Albania, a post he held from July 24, 2002 to July 24, 2007. ... Rexhep Qemal Meidani (born on August 17, 1944, in Tirana, Albania) is an Albanian politician. ... Sali Berisha and George W. Bush   (born October 15, 1944) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania. ... Fatos Thanas Nano (born September 16, 1952 in Tirana) is a Member of the Albanian Parliament, representing Sarandë constituency. ...


The Euro-Atlantic integration of Albania has been the ultimate goal of the post-communist governments. Albania's EU membership bid has been set as a priority by the European Commission. On 2006 Albania signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU, thus completing the first major step towards joining the bloc[citation needed]. Albania, along with Croatia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, hopes to receive an invitation to join NATO in 2008.[14] A European Union Association Agreement (Association Agreement) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


The workforce of Albania has continued to migrate to Greece, Italy, Germany, other parts of Europe, and North America. However, the migration flux is slowly decreasing, as more and more opportunities are emerging in Albania itself as its economy steadily develops.[15]


Counties and districts

Counties of Albania

Albania is divided into twelve counties (Albanian: official qark/qarku, but often prefekturë/prefektura), sometimes translated as prefecture). Each county is subdivided into several districts: Image File history File links AlbaniaNumberedPrefectures. ... Image File history File links AlbaniaNumberedPrefectures. ... Albania is divided into 12 counties (Albanian: official qark/qarku, but often prefekturë/prefektura), sometimes translated as prefecture) each of which contains several districts (sometimes translated as subprefectures). ... Albania is divided into 36 districts, or rrethe. ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ...

County Districts Capital
1 Berat Berat, Kuçovë, Skrapar Berat
2 Dibër Bulqizë, Dibër, Mat Peshkopi
3 Durrës Durrës, Krujë Durrës
4 Elbasan Elbasan, Gramsh, Librazhd, Peqin Elbasan
5 Fier Fier, Lushnjë, Mallakastër Fier
6 Gjirokastër Gjirokastër, Përmet, Tepelenë Gjirokastër
7 Korçë Devoll, Kolonjë, Korçë, Pogradec Korçë
8 Kukës Has, Kukës, Tropojë Kukës
9 Lezhë Kurbin, Lezhë, Mirditë Lezhë
10 Shkodër Malësi e Madhe, Pukë, Shkodër Shkodër
11 Tirana Kavajë, Tirana Tirana
12 Vlorë Delvinë, Sarandë, Vlorë Vlorë

The County of Berat (Albanian: Qarku i Beratit) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Berat (Albanian: Rrethi i Beratit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Kuçovë (Albanian: Rrethi i Kuçovës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Skrapar (Albanian: Rrethi i Skraparit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Berat (Albanian: Berat or Berati, Greek: ) is a town located in south-central Albania at . ... The County of Dibër (Albanian: Qarku i Dibrës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Bulqizë (Albanian: Rrethi i Bulqizës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Map showing Dibër within Albania The District of Dibër (Albanian: Rrethi i Dibrës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Mat (Albanian: Rrethi i Matit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Peshkopi (Albanian: Peshkopi or Peshkopia) is a city in northeast Albania, in the district and county of Dibër. ... The County of Durrës (Albanian: Qarku i Durrësit) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Durrës (Albanian: Rrethi i Durrësit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Krujë (Albanian: Rrethi i Krujës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... The County of Elbasan (Albanian: Qarku i Elbasanit) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Elbasan (Albanian: Rrethi i Elbasanit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Gramsh (Albanian: Rrethi i Gramshit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Librazhd (Albanian: Rrethi i Librazhdit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Peqin (Albanian: Rrethi i Peqinit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ... The County of Fier (Albanian: Qarku i Fierit) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... -1... The District of Lushnjë (Albanian: Rrethi i Lushnjës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Mallakastër (Albanian: Rrethi i Mallakastrës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The County of Gjirokastër (Albanian: Qarku i Gjirokastrës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Gjirokastër (Albanian: Rrethi i Gjirokastrës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Përmet (Albanian: Rrethi i Përmetit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Tepelenë (Albanian: Rrethi i Tepelenës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Gjirokastër, as seen from the Citadel. ... The County of Korçë (Albanian: Qarku i Korçës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Devoll (Albanian: Rrethi i Devollit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania and derives its name from the Devoll river flowing through the valley. ... The District of Kolonjë (Albanian: Rrethi i Kolonjës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Korçë (Albanian: Rrethi i Korçës), is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Pogradec (Albanian: Rrethi i Pogradecit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Korçë (Albanian: Korçë or Korça, Greek: Κορυτσά Koritsá , Italian: Corizza, South Slavic: Корча, Korcha or Корче, Korče, Aromanian: Curceaua, Turkish: Görice) is a major city in south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Greece. ... The County of Kukës (Albanian: Qarku i Kukësit) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Has (Albanian: Rrethi i Hasit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Kukës (Albanian: Rrethi i Kukësit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Tropojë (Albanian: Rrethi i Tropojës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Kukës (Albanian: Kukës or Kukësi) is a town in Albania located at 42. ... The County of Lezhë (Albanian: Qarku i Lezhës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Kurbin (Albanian: Rrethi i Kurbinit) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Lezhë (Albanian: Rrethi i Lezhës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Mirditë (Albanian: Rrethi i Mirditës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Lezhë (Albanian: Lezhë or Lezha, Turkish: LeÅŸ) is a city in northwest Albania, in the district and county with the same name. ... The County of Shkodër (Albanian: Qarku i Shkodrës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The Malësia e Madhe District (Albanian: Rrethi i Malësi e Madhe) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Pukë (Albanian: Rrethi i Pukës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Shkodër (Albanian: Rrethi i Shkodrës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... The County of Tirana (Albanian: Qarku i Tiranës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Kavajë (Albanian: Rrethi i Kavajës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... The District of Tirana (Albanian: Rrethi i Tiranës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... The County of Vlorë (Albanian: Qarku i Vlorës) is one of the 12 counties of Albania. ... The District of Delvinë (Albanian: Rrethi i Delvinës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Lake Butrint and the village of Ksamil south of Sarandë seen from the Greek island Corfu The District of Sarandë (Albanian: Rrethi i Sarandës) (Greek: Αγιοι Σαραντα/Aghioi Saranta) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania, found in southern Albania, in the County of Vlorë at around 39. ... The District of Vlorë (Albanian: Rrethi i Vlorës) is one of the thirty-six districts of Albania. ... Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ...

Geography

One of the many typical beautiful beaches in Albania
One of the many typical beautiful beaches in Albania
Main article: Geography of Albania

Albania has a total area of 28,750 square kilometers. Its coastline is 362 kilometres long and stretches on the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea. The lowlands of the west face the Adriatic Sea. The 70% of the country that is mountainous is rugged and often inaccessible. The highest mountain is Korab situated in the district of Dibra, reaching up to 2,753 metres (9,032 ft). Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Albania has a total area of 28,750 square kilometers. ... The Korab Mountain range Korab Mountain landscape Mount Korab is the highest mountain of both Albania and Republic of Macedonia at the border of the two states. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


The country has a continental climate at its high altitude regions with cold winters and hot summers. Besides the capital city of Tirana, which has 800,000 inhabitants, the principal cities are Durrës, Elbasan, Shkodër, Gjirokastër, Vlorë, Korçë and Kukës. Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... View of Durrës Durrës (Greek: Δυρράχιον dyrakhion, Επίδαμνος epidamnos, Latin: Dyrrhachium, Italian: Durazzo, Turkish: Dıraç, Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian: Драч) is the most ancient and one of the most economically important cities of Albania. ... Elbasan (Albanian: Elbasan or Elbasani) is a city in central Albania. ... Ãœsküdar, a district of Istanbul, was also known as Scutari. ... Gjirokastër, as seen from the Citadel. ... Vlorë(Albanian: Vlorë or Vlora, (locally) Vlonë or Vlona, Italian: , Greek: , Turkish: ) is the second largest port city of Albania, after Durrës, with a population of about 85,000 (2003 estimate). ... Korçë (Albanian: Korçë or Korça, Greek: Κορυτσά Koritsá , Italian: Corizza, South Slavic: Корча, Korcha or Корче, Korče, Aromanian: Curceaua, Turkish: Görice) is a major city in south-eastern Albania, located at near the border with Greece. ... Kukës (Albanian: Kukës or Kukësi) is a town in Albania located at 42. ...


In Albanian grammar, a word can have indefinite and definite forms, and this also applies to city names: both Tiranë and Tirana, Shkodër and Shkodra are used.


Demographics

Albanian people

As of July 2007 est, Albania's population of 3,844,841 is growing by 0.73% per year.[16][17][18].Albania is a largely ethnically homogenous country with only small minorities. Approximately 96% of the total population is Albanian. Demographics of Albania, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Minorities include Greeks, Aromanians (many of whom identify as Greeks), Torbesh, Gorani, Macedonian Slavs, Roma, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, Balkan Egyptians and Jews. The dominant language is Albanian, with two main dialects, Gheg and Tosk. Many Albanians are also fluent in English, Italian and Greek. Aromanians (also called: Arumanians or Macedo-Romanians; in Aromanian they call themselves Armãnji, Rrãmãnji) are a people living throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern Greece, Albania, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, and as an emigrant community in Romania (Dobruja). ... The Torbesh are a Muslim Slav Macedonian peoples. ... Gorani (also Горанци/Goranci, Gorançe or Goranska) are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo (Serbia), north-western Macedonia in the Šar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania (most notably in the village of Shishtavec... Languages Macedonian Religions predominantly Macedonian Orthodox, but also some Muslim, Protestant, Serbian Orthodox,and others The Macedonians[18] (Macedonian: , Тransliteration: ) also referred to as Macedonian Slavs[19] are a South Slavic ethnic group who are primarily associated with the Republic of Macedonia. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Montenegrins (Serbian/Montenegrin: Црногорци/Crnogorci) are a South Slavic people who are primarily associated with the Republic of Montenegro. ... Balkan Egyptians or simply Egyptians (Albanian: Maxhup, Serbian: Egipćani/Египћани or Đupci/Ђупци, Macedonian: Gjupci/Ѓупци) are an Albanian-speaking ethnic minority of Kosovo and Macedonia. ... Geg is a northern Albanian dialect. ... Tosk may refer to several things: Tosk, a dialect of Albanian. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Religion

Christianity manifested itself in Albania during Roman rule, about the middle of the 1st century AD. At first the new religion had to compete with Oriental culture among them that of Mithra, Persian God of light which had entered the land in the wake of Albania's growing interaction with eastern regions of the empire. For a long time it also had to compete with gods worshiped by Illyrian pagans. The steady growth of the Christian community in Dyrrhachium (the Roman name for Epidamnus) led to the creation there of a bishopric in AD 58. Later, episcopal seats were established in Apollonia, Buthrotum (modern Butrint), and Scodra (modern Shkodra). Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... The Greek city of Epidamnos (Strabo Geography vi. ...


After the division of the Roman Empire in 395, Albania became politically a part of the Eastern, or Byzantine, Empire, but remained ecclesiastically dependent on Rome. When the final schism occurred in 1054 between the Roman and Eastern churches, the Christians in southern Albania came under the jurisdiction of the ecumenical patriarch in Constantinople, and those in the north came under the purview of the papacy in Rome. This arrangement prevailed until the Ottoman invasions of the fourteenth century, when the Islamic faith was introduced. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


One of the major legacies of nearly five centuries of Ottoman rule was the conversion of up to 60 percent of the Albanian population to Islam. Therefore, at independence the country emerged as a predominantly Muslim nation. In the mountainous north, the propagation of Islam was strongly opposed by Roman Catholics.


Albania was preponderantly Roman Catholic, with eighteen episcopal sees, some of which have an uninterrupted history from the dawn of Christendom down to our days. Albania was the last Roman Catholic bridgehead in the Balkans and the Popes were doing everything in their power to keep it and enlarge it. Gradually, however, backwardness, illiteracy, and the absence of an educated clergy and material inducements weakened the resistance. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of Popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


The Communist regime, during its 45 years of absolute rule, religion was officially banned, and Albania was proclaimed as the first and only Atheist state in the world. Today, with the freedom of religion and worship, Albania contains numerous religions and denominations; however, within a muslim majority that may amount to 60% of the total population.[19][20][21][22] Religious fanaticism has never been a problem,[23][dubious ] with people from different religious groups living in peace.[24] Interreligious marriage is very common, and an immensely strong sense of Albanian identity has tended to bind Albanians of all religious practices together.[25] The Roman Catholics are mostly located in the northern part of the country, particularly in the cities of Shkodër and Kruja, while Orthodox Christians lived in the southern districts of Gjirokastër, Korçë, Berat, and Vlorë. The Muslims were spread throughout the land, although they particularly dominated the centre. Most of them were traditional Sunnites, but about one-quarter were members of the liberal, panentheistic Bektashi sect, which for a time had its headquarters in Tiranë. From 1945 until 1992 Albania had a Communist government. ... State atheism is the official rejection of religion in all forms by a government in favor of atheism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Interreligious marriage, traditionally (especially in the Catholic Church) called mixed marriage, is marriage (either religious or civil) between partners professing different religions. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Categories: Albania geography stubs | Cities in Albania ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Bektashi order (Turkish: BektaÅŸi) is a syncretic religious order related to Shia Alevi faith, and is generally considered to be a Shia Sufi sect (Tarika). ...


For generations, religious pragmatism was a distinctive trait of the Albanians. Even after accepting Islam, many people privately remained practicing Christians. As late as 1912, in a large number of villages in the Elbasan area, most men had two names, a Muslim one for public use and a Christian one for private use. Adherence to ancient pagan beliefs also continued well into the twentieth century, particularly in the northern mountain villages, many of which were devoid of churches and mosques. A Poet, Pashko Vasa(1825-92)known as Vaso Pasha,made the trenchant remark, later co-opted by Enver Hoxha, that "the religion of the Albanians is Albanianism." It is estimated that only 30-40% of Albanians actively practice a religion [6]. Pashko Vasa Pashko Vasa Shkodrani (1825-1892), born in Shkodër, Albania, is an Albanian writer, poet and publicist of the Rilindja Kombëtare. ...


Despite such a diverse religious background, Albania has been free of religious conflict, mainly because Albanians have traditionally displayed a high degree of religious tolerance.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Albania

Since the fall of communism in 1990, Albania has launched economic programmes towards a more open-market economy[citation needed]. The democratically elected government that assumed office in April 1992 launched an ambitious economic reform programme to halt economic deterioration and put the country on the path toward a market economy. Key elements included price and exchange system liberalisation, fiscal consolidation, monetary restraint, and a firm income policy[citation needed]. These were complemented by a comprehensive package of structural reforms, including privatisation, enterprise, and financial sector reform, and creation of the legal framework for a market economy and private sector activity. Most prices were liberalised and are now approaching levels typical of the region[citation needed]. Most agriculture, state housing, and small industry were privatised, along with transportation, services, and small and medium-sized enterprises[citation needed]. After severe economic contraction following 1989, the economy slowly rebounded, finally surpassing its 1989 levels by the end of the 1990s. GDP per capita. Since prices have also risen, however, economic hardship has continued for much of the population. In 1995, Albania began privatizing large state enterprises. Since 2000, Albania has experienced a more rapid expansion of its economy.[citation needed] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ...


Following the signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement in June/July 2006, EU ministers urged Albania to push ahead with reforms, focusing on press freedom, property rights, institution building, respect for ethnic minorities and observing international standards in municipal elections. A European Union Association Agreement (Association Agreement) is a treaty between the European Union (EU) and a non-EU country that creates a framework for co-operation between them. ...


Albania has made an impressive recovery, building a modern and diversified economy.Recent administrations have also improved infrastructure and opened competition in seaports, railroads, telecommunications, electricity generation, natural gas distribution and airports.


Tourism in Albania is a large industry and is growing rapidly.The most notable tourist draws are the ancient sites of Apollonia,Butrinti, Krujë and Albania's coastline is becoming increasingly popular with tourists due to its relatively unspoiled nature and its beaches. There have been several places called Apollonia: An ancient Greek city in Illyria near to the sea and the river Vjosa, 12 km from Fier, Albania. ... Butrint (Albanian: Butrint or Butrinti) is an ancient city and an archeological site in Albania, close to the Greek border. ... The castle of Skanderbeg. ...


Military

Main article: Military of Albania

The Albanian Armed Forces are overseen by the General Staff Headquarters, and consists of:Land Forces Command (Army),Naval Forces Command (Navy),Air Defense Command,Doctrine and Training Command and Logistics Command. The military of Albania is made up of the General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Doctrine and Training Command and Logistics Command. ...


In 2002, Albania's armed forces have launched a 10-year reform program sponsored and supervised by the U.S. Department of Defense in order to trim down and thoroughly modernise its current standing force of more than 25,000 troops.[26]


Working towards NATO membership, the Adriatic Charter countries -- Albania, Croatia and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia -- are expected to join the alliance in 2008.[27]The Albanian army participates in peacekeeping missions in Afghanistan and Iraq. NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Gallery

See also

Albania Portal
Lists

Image File history File links Flag_of_Albania. ... This article briefly outlines each period in the history of Albania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... // The oldest known document in Albanian is from November 8, 1462, a formula of baptism (Albanian: Formula e Pagëzimit) by the bishop of Durrës, Pal Engjëlli. ... Frontispiece of Historia de vita et gestis Scanderbegi, Epirotarum principis by Marin Barleti Albania, part of the ancient Illyrian territories, a cross-road of civilizations and geopolitical interests during the barbaric onslaughts and later on a province of the Eastern and Western Empires, Rome and Byzantium, after, over centuries, having... HSH train on the Tirana-Durrës line Albanian Railways (in Albanian: Hekurudhë ë Shqipërisë (HSH)) operate system of 1435mm gauge (standard gauge) rail system in Albania. ... Until 1990, Albania was one of the worlds most isolated and controlled countries, and installation and maintenance of a modern system of international and domestic telecommunications was precluded. ... In the early 1990s, the rock-strewn roadways, unstable rail lines, and obsolete telephone network crisscrossing Albania represented the remnants of the marked improvements that were made after World War II. Enver Hoxhas xenophobia and lust for control had kept Albania isolated, however, as the communications revolution transformed the... Education in Albania The literacy rate in Albania for the total population, age 9 or older, is about 93%. Elementary education is compulsory (grades 1-8), but most students continue at least until a secondary education. ... Public holidays in Albania Categories: Albania | Public holidays by country ... Albanian foreign policy has concentrated on maintaining good relations with its Balkan neighbors, gaining access to European-Atlantic security institutions, and securing close ties with the United States. ... The military of Albania is made up of the General Staff Headquarters, Land Forces Command (Army), Naval Forces Command, Air Defense Command, Doctrine and Training Command and Logistics Command. ... Butrint National Park, in Albania, was created in March 2000. ... Edith Durham in North Albania, 1913 Mary Edith Durham (1863-1944) was a British traveller, artist and writer who became famous for her anthropologist accounts of life in Albania in the early 20th century. ... This is a list of Albania-related articles: 1,2,3 A B C Ç D E F G Gj H I J K L M N P Q R Rr S Sh T U V Xh W Z 8 Persona Plus .al Ada Air Adil Çarçani Agrarian Party of... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This is a list of Albanian writers. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Source for Albania GDP information IMF Albania Data
  2. ^ Dosti, R: "The Times", page 1. Albania's ancient history surfaces,September 03, 2006
  3. ^ Albania Past and Present by Connstanine A.C,and Charles,D: "Columbia University", page 10. April, 1919
  4. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities, Book 1, 17 (LacusCurtius).
  5. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book 12.1 (Perseus).
  6. ^ Strabo,Geography, Book v,2.4 (LacusCurtius).
  7. ^ "The Illyrians"
  8. ^ Library of Congress Country Study (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/altoc.html) of Albania
  9. ^ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205725.pdf
  10. ^ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205725.pdf
  11. ^ Kosovo and the Holocaust Carl Savitch
  12. ^ http://www1.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%205725.pdf
  13. ^ http://libcom.org/history/1997-the-albanian-insurrection
  14. ^ http://www.birn.eu.com/en/22/10/1250/
  15. ^ Gillian Gloyer (2006). Albania, 2nd ed, Bradt Travel Guides. 
  16. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html
  17. ^ http://www.albanian.com/information/countries/albania/general/factbook.html
  18. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html
  19. ^ US Department of State - International Religious Freedom Report 2006 - [1]
  20. ^ L'Albanie en 2005 - [2]
  21. ^ Zuckerman, Phil. "Atheism: Contemporary Rates and Patterns ", chapter in The Cambridge Companion to Atheism, ed. by Michael Martin, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK (2005) [3]
  22. ^ Goring, Rosemary (ed). Larousse Dictionary of Beliefs & Religions (Larousse: 1994); pg. 581-584. Table: "Population Distribution of Major Beliefs" [4]
  23. ^ http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35434.htm
  24. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/al.html
  25. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-42625
  26. ^ http://www.mod.gov.al/
  27. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Membership_Action_Plan

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  • Treasure of the national library of Albania
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Albania - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2047 words)
Albania is one of the poorest European states, with a GDP per capita half that of Bulgaria and almost one tenth that of the UK.
In Albania, half of the economically-active population are engaged in agriculture and a fifth works abroad.
Albania's coastline on the Ionian Sea, especially near the Greek tourist island of Corfu, is becoming increasingly popular with tourists due to its relatively unspoiled nature and its beaches.
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