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Encyclopedia > Alba Iulia
Alba Iulia
Coat of Arms of Alba Iulia Location of Alba Iulia
County Alba County
Status County capital
Mayor Mircea Hava, Democratic Party, since 2000
Area 103.65 km²
Population (2002) 66,369
Density 640 inh/km²
Geographical coordinates 46°4′1″N, 23°34′12″E
Web site http://www.apulum.ro/

Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, German: Karlsburg/Weißenburg, Latin: Apulum, former Turkish: Erdel Belgradı) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş River. The city is historically important for both Hungarians and Romanians. Image File history File links Coa_AlbaIulia_RO.jpg Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Alba_Iulia_in_Romania. ... Administrative map of Romania. ... ... Mircea Hava is a Romanian politician, the current mayor of Alba Iulia (in office since 2000 ). He is a member of the Democratic Party and is now serving the second term . ... The Democratic Party (Romanian: Partidul Democrat, PD) is a centre-right (formerly social democrat) party of Romania. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... The MureÅŸ (in Romanian, in Hungarian: Maros, in German: Mieresch / Marosch) is an approx. ...


== History ==Bold text The city was an important Dacian political, economic and social centre named Apulon, mentioned by the ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy. After the southern part of Dacia became a province of the Roman Empire, the capital of the Dacia Apulensis district was established here, and the city was known as Apulum. Apulum was one of the largest centers in Roman Dacia and the seat of the XIII Gemina Legion. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, c. ... Sestertius minted in 248 by Philip the Arab to celebrate Dacia province and its legions, V Macedonica and XIII Gemina. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In the 9th century, the city was mentioned under the name of Bălgrad ("White Citadel"), the Hungarian Gestas mention a ruler named Geula/Gyula/Jula that had discovered the city and made it the capital of his dukedom during 10th century. Following the establishment of the Catholic Transylvanian episcopacy after Stephen I of Hungary adopted Catholicism, the first cathedral was built in the 11th century. The present (Catholic) cathedral was built in the 12th or 13th centuries. In 1442, John Hunyadi, Voivod of Transylvania, used the citadel to make his preparations for a major battle against the Ottoman Turks. The cathedral was enlarged during his reign and served as his place of entombment after his death. As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... There are two works with the name Gesta Hungarorum. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... King Stephens statue in his hometown, Esztergom A statue of the king in Miskolc Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: ; Latin: ; Slovak: , German: ) (circa 975 – 15 August 1038) was a ruling prince of Hungary, the first King of Hungary and a ruling prince of Nitra. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ... Voivod or (more common) voivoda is a Slavic term initially denoting first in command of a military unit. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ...


As Gyulafehérvár, Alba Iulia became the capital of the Principality of Transylvania in 1541, a status it was to retain until 1690. The Treaty of Weissenburg was signed in the town in 1551. It was during the reign of Prince Gabriel Bethlen that the city reached a high point in its cultural history, with the establishment of an academy. Further important milestones in the city's development include the creation of the Batthyanaeum Library in the 18th century, and the arrival of the railway in the 19th century. Events The first official translation of the entire Bible in Swedish February 12 - Pedro de Valdivia founds Santiago de Chile. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... The Treaty of Weissenburg (German: or Weißenburger Vertrag) declared Archduke Ferdinand of Austria the ruler of Royal Hungary and Transylvania. ... Year 1551 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Gabriel Bethlen, Prince of Transylvania (1580-1629) Gabriel (Gabor) Bethlen (Hungarian: Bethlen Gábor, Slovak: Gabriel Betlen) (1580-1629), prince of Transylvania (1613-1629) and leader of a anti-Habsburg insurrection in the Habsburg Royal Hungary on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...

The Union Museum
The Union Museum

In November 1599, Michael the Brave, Voivode of Wallachia, entered Alba Iulia following his victory in the Battle of Şelimbăr and became governor of Transylvania. In 1600 Michael gained control of Moldavia, thereby uniting the three principalities under his rule until his murder in 1601 by Giorgio Basta's agents. Michael's achievement has historic significance for the Romanians, representing the first unification of the three Romanian-populated principalities of Wallachia, Moldavia, and Transylvania. Image File history File links Sala_unirii. ... Image File history File links Sala_unirii. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Engraving of Michael the Brave Mihai Viteazu redirects here. ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... The Battle of Åželimbăr (Hungarian: Sellenberk; German: Schellenberg) was one of the great events in medieval Romanian history. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Events February 8 - Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, rebels against Elizabeth I of England - revolt is quickly crushed February 25 - Robert Devereux beheaded Jesuit Matteo Ricci arrives in China Bad harvest in Russia due to rainy summer Dutch troops drive Portuguese from Málaga Battle of Kinsale, Ireland Births... Giorgio Basta Giorgio Basta (1544-1607), was a general of Albanian descent, employed by the Holy Roman Emperor to command Habsburg forces in the Long War of (1591-1606) and later to administer Transylvania as an Imperial vassal. ...


In 1918, tens of thousands of Romanians (the exact number is disputed between Romanian and Hungarian historians) and representatives of the Transylvanian Saxons and other minorities of Transylvania, gathered in Alba Iulia on December 1, now commemorated as the National Day in the post-communist Romania, to hear the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania. In 1922, Ferdinand of Romania was symbolically crowned King of Romania in Alba Iulia in an act which mirrored the achievement of Michael the Brave. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Day of Romania or Union Day (Ziua Unirii) occurring on December 1, is the national holiday of Romania. ... From 1859 to 1877, Romania evolved from a personal union of two vassal principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia) under a single prince to a full-fledged independent kingdom with a Hohenzollern monarchy. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Ferdinand of Romania Ferdinand or Ferdinand I (August 24, 1865-July 20, 1927) was the king of Romania from October 10, 1914 until his death Born in Sigmaringen in southwestern Germany, Prince Ferdinand of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen became heir to the throne of his childless uncle, King Carol I of Romania... The King of Romania was the title of the ruler of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947 when Romania was proclaimed a republic. ...


György Jakubinyi was appointed archbishop of the archdiocese of Alba Iulia by Pope John Paul II on April 8, 1994. In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II) born   [] (May 18, 1920, Wadowice, Poland – April 2, 2005, Vatican City) reigned as Pope of the Catholic... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...

Image File history File links 1dec. ... Image File history File links 1dec. ... University 1 Decembrie 1918 of Alba Iulia is a public higher education and research institution founded in 1991. ...

Sights

Batthyaneum library
Batthyaneum library
Romanian Orthodox Cathedral

The main historical area of Alba Iulia is the upper city, developed extensively by Charles VI of the Holy Roman Empire. The Habsburgs renamed the city Karlsburg in honor of Charles. The upper city's fortress with seven bastions, in a stelar shape, was constructed between 17161735 by Giovanni Morando Visconti, using the Vauban system—the largest of this kind in South-eastern Europe. Inside the fortress is the Gothic Catholic cathedral (the most representative building for the Medieval Gothic style in Transylvania), and the Batthyaneum, a library of rare manuscripts founded in 1794. The tomb of John Hunyadi is located in the cathedral, as is that of the Polish-born Isabella Jagiełło, Queen of Hungary. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x665, 56 KB) Summary Batthyaneum library in Alba Iulia, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x665, 56 KB) Summary Batthyaneum library in Alba Iulia, 2005. ... Alba Iulia: the Orthodox Cathedral; copyright User:Gutza 2004. ... Alba Iulia: the Orthodox Cathedral; copyright User:Gutza 2004. ... Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI Charles VI of Austria (October 1, 1685 – October 20, 1740) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1711 to 1740 and the second son of Leopold I with his third wife, Eleonore-Magdalena of Pfalz-Neuburg, came first to the throne with the name Charles III of... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Categories: Stub | Fortification ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... Sébastien Le Prestre, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (May 15, 1633 - March 30, 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a Marshal of France and the foremost military engineer of his age, famed for his skill in both designing fortifications and in breaking through them. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Isabella Kazimira JagieÅ‚Å‚o (18 January 1519, Kraków – 15 September 1559, Alba Iulia) was a queen of Hungary of royal Polish origin. ...


Sister cities

Map of Germany showing Arnsberg Arnsberg is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ... Alcalá de Henares, or Alcalá on the Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of the UNESCOs World Heritage Sites, and formerly one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain. ... Sliven (Bulgarian: Сливен) is a town in southeast Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Sliven Province. ... Düzce is the capital city of Düzce Province in Turkey. ... San Benedetto del Tronto is a city in Marche, Italy, in the province of Ascoli Piceno. ...

External links

  • (English) Official site
  • (Romanian) Alba Iulia photo gallery
Roman Catholic cathedral
Roman Catholic cathedral


Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3488 × 2616 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Localities in Alba County, Romania

Municipalities: Alba Iulia | Aiud | Blaj | Sebeş Image File history File links Stema_Judetului_Alba. ... ... Image File history File links Coa_AlbaIulia_RO.jpg Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Aiud (-Romanian; Hungarian: Nagyenyed; German: Straßburg am Mieresch) is a large town located in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania. ... Blaj (Hungarian: Balázsfalva; German: Blasendorf) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania. ... SebeÅŸ (Hungarian: Szászsebes, German: Mühlbach) is a town in Alba county, Romania, located on the SebeÅŸ river. ...


Towns: Abrud | Baia de Arieş | Câmpeni | Cugir | Ocna Mureş | Teiuş | Zlatna Abrud (Hungarian: Abrudbánya, German: Großschlatten) is a city in Alba county of Transylvania, Romania, situated on the river with the same name. ... Baia de Aries is a city in Alba county, Romania With a population of 4. ... County Alba County Status City Mayor Andres Ioan Calin, since 2004 Area  km² Population (2002) 8080 Density  inh/km² Geographical coordinates 46°22′N 23°3′E Web site Câmpeni (alternate spelling: Cîmpeni, German: Topesdorf, Hungarian: Topánfalva) is a city in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania. ... Cugir (Hungarian: Kudzsir, German: Kudschir) is a city in Alba county, Romania, with a population of 30,244. ... Ocna Mures is a town in Alba county, Romania. ... TeiuÅŸ (Hungarian: Tövis) is a city in Alba county, Romania. ... Zlatna (German: Schlatten, Hungarian: Zalatna) is a town in Alba County, central Transylvania, Romania. ...

Communes:


Albac | Almaşu Mare | Arieşeni | Avram Iancu | Berghin | Bistra | Blandiana | Bucium | Câlnic | Cenade | Cergău | Ceru-Băcăinţi | Cetatea de Baltă | Ciugud | Ciuruleasa | Crăciunelu de Jos | Cricău | Cut | Daia Română | Doştat | Fărău | Galda de Jos | Gârda de Sus | Gârbova | Hopârta | Horea | Ighiu | Întregalde | Jidvei | Livezile | Lupşa | Lopadea Nouă | Lunca Mureşului Meteş | Mihalţ | Mirăslău | Mogoş | Noşlac | Ocoliş | Ohaba | Pianu | Poiana Vadului | Ponor | Poşaga | Rădeşti | Râmeţ | Rimetea | Roşia de Secaş | Roşia Montană | Sălciua | Săliştea | Sâncel | Săsciori | Sântimbru | Scărişoara | Stremţ | Şibot | Sohodol | Şpring | Şugag | Şona | Unirea | Vadu Moţilor | Valea Lungă | Vidra | Vinţu de Jos Albac is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... AlmaÅŸu Mare (German: Groß-Almasch, Hungarian: Nagyalmás) is a commune located in Alba county, Romania With a population of 1678 ( according to the 2002 census) the commune encomprises the villages of AlmaÅŸu Mare, AlmaÅŸu De Mjloc, Brădet, Cib, Cheile Cibului, Glod and Nădăştia. ... Avram Iancu (Hungarian: FelsÅ‘vidra) is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... Alba county Bistra is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... Câlnic (German: , Hungarian: ) is a village in Alba County, Romania. ... Cetatea de Baltă (Hungarian: KüküllÅ‘vár; German: Kockelburg) is a village in Alba County with a population of 3235. ... Alba county Ciugud is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... Alba county Ciuruleasa is a village and commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... Gârda de Sus (Hungarian: FelsÅ‘girda) is a commune located in Alba County, Romania The main village of the comune is located 30km northwest of Câmpeni. ... RoÅŸia Montană (German Goldbach; Hungarian: Verespatak) is a commune in the Apuseni Mountains, in the Alba County, in the west-central Romania. ... SăliÅŸtea, known as Cioara until 1965, is a commune located in the Alba county, Romania. ... Alba county StremÅ£ (Hungarian: Diód or Diódváralja; German: Nußschloss; Latin: Subalpestris) is a commune of Alba County, in the Apuseni Mountains of Western Transylvania, Romania. ... Alba county Unirea is a commune located in Alba County, Romania. ... This article is about the Vidra commune. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alba-Iulia - definition of Alba-Iulia in Encyclopedia (492 words)
Alba Iulia (Hungarian: Gyulafehérvár, German: Karlsburg) is a city in Alba county, Transylvania, Romania with a population of 66,369, located on the Mureş river.
In November 1599, Michael, Voivod of Wallachia, occupied Transylvania following his victory in the battle of Selimbar, entered Alba Iulia and became Habsburg governor of the province, until he was killed by mercenary troops in Giorgio Basta's army.
On December 1, 1918 some tens of thousands of Romanians (the exact number is disputed between Romanian and Hungarian historians) gathered in Alba Iulia, to hear the proclamation of the union of Transylvania with the Kingdom of Romania.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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