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Encyclopedia > Alawite

For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see:Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see: Alawi (sheikhdom) The Alaouite Dynasty is the name of the current Moroccan royal family. ... Map of the Federation of South Arabia Alawi (Arabic: ‎[]), or the Alawi Sheikhdom (Arabic: ‎[]), was one of the original Nine Cantons that signed protection argreements with Great Britain in the late 19th century and became part of the British Aden Protectorate. ...

Part of a series on Shī‘a Islam
Twelverism Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Twelvers ( Ithnāˤashariyyah) are those Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms, as distinct from Ismaili & Zaidi Shiite Muslims, who believe in a different number of Imams or in a different path of succession. ...

Principles

TawhidQiyamahImamah
NubuwwahAdalah According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In Shia Islam, Theology of Shia (Usūl al-Dīn) is the five main beliefs that Shia Muslims must possess. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: ‎ literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Nubuwwah means Prophethood and denotes that God has appointed perfect Prophets and Messengers to teach mankind Gods religion. ... Adalah means Justice and denotes The Justice of God The Shias consider Justice of God as part of Usool-e-Deen (Roots of Religion). ...

Practices

SalatSawmHajj
ZakatKhumsJihad
Command JusticeForbid Evil
TawallaTabarra In Shia Islam, the ten Branches of Religion (FurÅ« al-DÄ«n) are the ten practices that Shia Muslims must perform. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ramadan (religious observances). ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Khums (derived from the Arabic خمس or five) is a Shia article of faith that refers to a one-fifth tax, which all adult Muslims who are financially secure and have surplus in their income normally have to pay on annual savings, net commercial profits, and all... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, bomber, or Cihad, (Arabic: ) as an Islamic term, is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it occupies no official status as such in Sunni Islam. ... Commanding the Just (Arabic: Amr bil MarÅ«f امر بامعرف) is a part of Shia Islams Branches of Religion and means to encourage people to do the necessary good in life, when they forget to do so; for example forgeting Salah. ... Forbidding what is Evil (Arabic: ‎, Nahy an al-Munkar), is a part of Islam and means, for example, to oppose injustice. ... Tawalla - Loving the Ahl al-Bayt, is a part of the Shia Branches of Religion and is derived from a Quranic verse. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ...

Imams

AliHasanHusayn
al-Sajjadal-Baqiras-Sadiq
al-Kazim • al-Rida • al-Taqi
al-Hadial-Askarial-Mahdi
This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (c. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... Ali ibn Husayn (also spelled Ali ibn Hussain or Hussein) (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) (658 - 713) is the fourth Shia Imam. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Muhammad al-Baqir Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (676 - January 31, 743) was the fifth Shia Imam. ... ... Imam Musa al Kazim (November 10, 745 - September 4, 799) was the seventh Shia Imam (he is not accepted by the Ismailis as the seventh Imam). ... Imām ˤAlī ibn-Mūsā ar-Riđā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا) (January 1, 766 - May 26, 818) was the eighth Shīˤa Imām. ... Imam Muhammad al-Taqi (Arabic: امام محمد التقي)(April 12, 811 - November 27, 835) was the ninth Shia Imam in the Ithna Ashari (Twelver) tradition. ... Imam Ali al-Hadi (September 8, 828 _ July 1, 868) was the tenth Shia Imam. ... Hasan al-Askari (Arabic: الإمام الحسن بن علي العسكري) (December 6, 846 – January 1, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... For other uses, see Mahdi (disambiguation). ...

Texts & Laws

Qur'anNahj al-Balagha
Usul al-Kafi This is a sub-article to Shia Islam and Quran The Shia view of the Quran has some differences from the Sunni view. ... It has been proposed below that Nahj al Balagha be renamed and moved to Nahj al-Balagha. ... Usul al-Kafi (literally, Sufficing fundamentals) is one of the most authoritative Shia hadith collections, collected by Muhammad Yaqub Kulainy. ...

Major Branches

UsoolismAkhbarism
AlevismAlawism
Shaykhism Usulis are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor fatwas over hadith when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... Akhbaris are Twelver Shia Muslims who favor hadith over fatwas when trying to determine what the Sunnah says about any specific topic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Alawite is a Middle Eastern Syria. ... Shaykhis, religious movement in Iran. ...

See Also

The Fourteen Infallibles
List of marjasQomNajaf
AyatollahTaqleed
According to Twelver Shia Islam The Fourteen Infallibles (Maasumin - معصومين) are Historical figures that commited no sins and never made a mistake. ... Conservative marjas[1] Naser Makarem Shirazi and Hossein Noori Hamedani This is a list of Marja Taqleeds (Grand Ayatollahs), which are followed by Usuli Shia Muslims around the world. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... Najaf (Arabic: ‎; BGN: An Najaf) is a city in Iraq about 160 km south of Baghdad. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

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The Alawi, also known as Alawites, Nusayris or Ansaris, are a Middle Eastern sect of Shi'a Islam[1][2] prominent in Syria A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ...


The terms Alawī and Alevi, although they share the same etymology, refer to different religious groups, the latter based in Turkey. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Islam
Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ...



Image File history File links Mosque02. ...

Beliefs
Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ...

Allah - Oneness of God
Muhammad · Prophets of Islam Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Allah. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Prophets of Islam are human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets. ...

Practices

Profession of Faith · Prayer
Fasting · Charity · Pilgrimage Aqidah, sometimes spelt as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah. ... The shahadah (Arabic:  ) is the Islamic creed. ... For the Indian village, see Salat, Kulpahar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...

History & Leaders
Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first purported visions in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ...

Timeline of Muslim history
Ahl al-Bayt · Sahaba
Rashidun Caliphs · Shia Imams There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ‎) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in both Sunni and Shia Islam to refer to the rightly guided Caliphs prophesised in the famous tradition, Hold firmly to my example (sunnah) and that of the Rightly Guided Caliphs (Ibn Majah, Abu Dawood). ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ...

Texts & Laws
// Quran Text Surahs Ayah Commentary/Exegesis Tafsir ibn Kathir (by Ibn Kathir) Tafsir al-Tabari (by Tabari) Al Kordobi Tafseer-e-kabir (by Imam Razi) Tafheem-al-Quran (by Maulana Maududi) Sunnah/Hadith Hadith (Traditions of The Prophet) The Siha-e-Sitta al-Bukhari (d. ... Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ...

Qur'an · Sunnah · Hadith
Fiqh · Sharia · Kalam · Tasawwuf This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... It has been suggested that Rule of sharia be merged into this article or section. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to Allah, divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...

Major branches
The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ...

Sunni · Shia

Culture & Society
Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Muslim culture is a term primarily used in secular academia to describe all cultural practices common to historically Islamic peoples. ... Nations with a Muslim majority appear in green, while nations that are approximately 50% Muslim appear yellow. ...

Academics · Art · Science
Philosophy · Architecture
Mosques · Calendar · Festivals
Demographics · Women · Politics Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The term Islamic art denotes the arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people (not necessarily Muslim) who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: گاه‌شماری هجري قمری ‎ Gāhshomāri-ye hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to... Friday is an important day in the life of a Muslim and it is believed that any devotional acts done on this day gain a higher reward. ... Distribution of Islam per country. ... Most commentary on gender and politics in the Middle East and Muslim world assigns a central place to Islam, but there is little agreement about the analytic weight Islam carries on the topic of women in Islam, accounting for the subordination of women or the role it plays in relation... - - - Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ...

See also

Criticism of Islam · Islamophobia
Glossary of Islamic terms Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages, as with many other religions, on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights Disability... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ...

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Alawites call themselves Alawī (Arabic: علوي). They take their name from Imam Ali, cousin and son-in-law of the prophet Muhammad. The term Alawī was recognized by the French when they occupied Syria in 1920. Historically, the Alawites have been called Nusayrīs (Arabic نصيريون), Nasiriyya, and Ansariyya. The term Nusayriyya became one of insult, and they themselves preferred to be called Alawiyya to show their reverence for Ali. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Ali ibn Abi Talib (علي بن أبي طالب) (c. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ...


It is said[citation needed] that during the life of Imam Ali, a few of his devoted followers from Iraq, where Hellenistic and pagan cultures formed the background of many converts, described him as god-like, or the vehicle of a divine incarnation (Arabic حلول hulul).[citation needed] The claim irritated Imam Ali profoundly, and he banished those who made it from his sight; but even today marginal Islamic sects such as the Kızılbaş "Redheads" of Turkey, or the Alawī of the Syrian mountains, maintain an esoteric cosmology which asserts that God became incarnate in Ali,[3] and then in the succession of Imams who descended from him.[citation needed] Kizilbash (Turkish: KızılbaÅŸ, Azerbaijani: QızılbaÅŸ, Persian: قزلباش Qezelbāsh) - Red Heads - name given to a wide variety of extremist Shiite militant groups (ghulāt) who helped found the Safavid Dynasty of Iran. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Contents

Creed

As Alawites practise religious secrecy, they generally claim they are Muslims. This may be especially the case of the non-initiated. The following summarises their belief.

The basic doctrine of 'Alawite faith is the deification of 'Ali. He is one member of a trinity corresponding roughly to the Christian Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 'Alawites interpret the Pillars of Islam (the five duties required of every Muslim) as symbols and thus do not practice the Islamic duties. They celebrate an eclectic group of holidays, some Islamic, some Christian, and many 'Alawite practices are secret. They consider themselves to be moderate Shi'ites, not much different from the Twelvers[1].

History

The origin of the Alawites is disputed. According to some sources, they were originally Nusayrīya, a sect that was an off-shoot of Twelver Shiites in the 9th century. The Alawites trace their origins to the eleventh Shia Imam, Hasan al Askari (d.873), and his pupil Ibn Nusayr (d.868). Ibn Nusayr proclaimed himself the Bāb "Door" (representative) of the 11th Imam. The sect seems to have been organised by a follower of Ibn Nusayr's known as al-Khasibi who died in Aleppo in about 969. Al-Khasibi's grandson al-Tabarani moved to Latakia on the Syrian coast. There he refined the Nusayrī religion and, with his pupils, converted much of the local population. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... The Shia Imam is considered by the Shia sect of Islam to be the rightful successor to Muhammad, and is similar to the Caliph in Sunni Islam. ... Imam Hasan al-Askari (December 6, 846 - January 4, 874), was the eleventh Shia Imam. ... Events Viking raid of Dorestad. ... Ibn Nusayrs full name was Abu Shuayb Muhammad ibn Nusayr (c. ... Events 11 May: Printing of The Diamond Sutra, the oldest dated printed book. ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ...


In the 10th century, Alawites were established during the Hamdanid dynasty of Aleppo, but they were driven out when the dynasty fell in 1004. In 1097, Crusaders initially attacked them, but later allied with them against the Ismailis. In 1120, the Alawites were defeated by the Ismailis and Kurds, but three years later, they fought the Kurds successfully. In 1297, the Ismailiyya and Alawiyya tried to negotiate a merger, but it came to nothing. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Hamdanid Dynasty: Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (905-1004). ... Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... Events December: End of the Samanid dynasty in Bokhara. ... Events Edgar I deposes Donald III to become king of Scotland. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by [Pope Urban II] with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims, and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... Events Welcher of Malvern creates a system of measurement for the earth using degrees, minutes, and seconds of latitude and longitude. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... The Ismāʿīlī (Urdu: اسماعیلی Ismāʿīlī, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-Ismāʿīliyyūn; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the Shīa community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ...


Today Alawites exist as a minority but politically powerful, religious sect in Syria. After the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Syria and Lebanon came under French mandate. The French gave autonomy to Alawites and other minority groups and accepted Alawites into their colonial troops. Under the mandate, many Alawite chieftains supported the notion of a separate Alawite nation and tried to convert their autonomy into independence. A territory of "Alaouites" was created in 1925. In May 1930, the Government of Latakia was created; it lasted until 28 February 1937 when it was incorporated into Syria. Alaouites, or the Alawite State, was a French mandate in the coastal area of present-day Syria after World War I. It was renamed Latakia in 1930 and became part of Syria in 1937. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1939, a portion of northwest Syria, the Sanjak of Alexandretta, now Hatay, that contained a large number of Alawites, was given to Turkey by the French, greatly angering the Alawite community and Syrians in general. Zaki al-Arsuzi, the young Alawite leader from Antioch in Iskandarun (later named the Hatay by the Turks) who led the resistance to the annexation of his province to the Turks, later became a founder of the Ba'ath Party along with the Eastern Orthodox Christian schoolteacher Michel Aflaq. After World War II, when the Alawite provinces were united with Syria, Alawite followers of Sulayman al-Murshid tried to resist integration. He was captured and hanged by the newly independent Syrian government in Damascus in 1946. 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full year calendar). ... Iskenderun, formerly known in the west as Alexandretta, is a city in the Turkish province of Hatay. ... Hatay is a region in the middle east around the town of Iskenderun. ... Zaki al-Arsuzi is a Syrian philosopher, and founder of the Baath Party. ... Antioch on the Orontes (Greek: Αντιόχεια η επί Δάφνη, Αντιόχεια η επί Ορόντου or Αντιόχεια η Μεγάλη; Latin: Antiochia ad Orontem, also Antiochia dei Siri), the Great Antioch or Syrian Antioch was an ancient city located on the eastern side (left bank) of the Orontes River about 30 km from the sea and its port, Seleucia Pieria. ... Hatay is a region in the middle east around the town of Iskenderun. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Headline text Sulayman al-Murshid was sent from France to Syria in order to attribute a bad name to the alawite leadership, after the French recieved news that the alawites were growing in numbers and power thus soon gaining control of the land of syria. ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...


Syria became independent on April 16, 1946. Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War over Palestine, Syria endured a succession of military coups in 1949, the rise of the Ba'th Party, and unification of the country with Egypt in the United Arab Republic in 1958. The UAR lasted for three years and broke apart in 1961, when a group of army officers seized power and declared Syria independent again; a further succession of coups ensued until a secretive military committee, which included a number of disgruntled Alawite officers, including Hafez al-Assad and Salah Jadid, helped the Ba'th Party take power in 1963. In 1966, Alawite-oriented military officers successfully rebelled and expelled the old Ba'ath that had looked to (Christian) Michel Aflaq and (Sunni Muslim) Salah al-Din al-Bitar for leadership. They promoted Zaki al-Arsuzi as the "Socrates" of their reconstituted Ba'ath Party. April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... i am amn idotThe 1948 Arab-Israeli War is the first in a series of armed conflicts fought between the State and i am the greatest of Israel and its Arab neighbors in the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ‎ ) (October 6, 1930-June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... Michel ‘Aflaq Michel ‘Aflaq (1910 - June 23, 1989) was the ideological founder of Ba’athism, a form of Arab nationalism. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Salah al-Din al-Bitar ( 1911), a Sunni Muslim, co-founder of the Bath Party in Syria. ... Zaki al-Arsuzi is a Syrian philosopher, and founder of the Baath Party. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , SÇ’cratÄ“s; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ...


In 1970, then-Air Force Colonel Hafez al-Assad took power and instigated a "correctionist movement" in the Ba'ath Party. In 1971, al-Assad became president of Syria, a function that the Constitution only allows a Muslim to embrace. Thence, in 1974, Imam Musa Sadr, leader of Twelver Shi'ites of Lebanon and founder of the Amal Movement, was asked to proclaim that he accepted the Alawites as real Muslims. Most Muslim authorities—both Sunni and Shiite—still do not recognize them as Muslims. Under the dictatorial but secular Assad regime, religious minorities are tolerated, although during the Hama Massacre in 1982, perhaps 20,000 predominantly Sunnis were killed, after an uprising led by the Muslim Brotherhood. 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Syrian Air Force (Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al Arabiya as-Souriya in Arabic) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian armed forces. ... Colonel (IPA: or ) is a military rank of a commissioned officer, with the corresponding ranks existing in nearly every country in the world. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ‎ ) (October 6, 1930-June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... An expression used in Arab politics by several governments, to give a revolutionary touch to an internal political or bureaucratic power struggle, and also to indicate continued adherence to the ideals of an earlier revolution despite the overthrow of its previous leadership and/or major policy changes. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Moussa Sader (also spelled as Moussa Sadr or Moussa el Sadr) was born in the city of Qom, Iran on April 15th 1928. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement, which has spawned several religious and political organizations in the Middle East, dedicated to...


After the death of Hafez al-Assad in 2000, his son Bashar al-Assad maintained the outlines of his father's regime. Although Alawites predominate among the top military and intelligence offices, the civilian government and national economy is largely led by Sunnis, who represent about 75% of Syria's population. The Assad regime is careful to allow all of the religious sects a share of power and influence in the government, but there is clear Alawite domination of the highest levels of power. Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ‎ ) (October 6, 1930-June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: ‎, ) (born September 11, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...


Religion

Theologically, Alawites today claim to be Twelver Shi'ites, but traditionally they have been designated as "extremists" (Arabic: غلاة ghulat) and outside the bounds of Islam by the Muslim mainstream for their high level of devotion to Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib. They have only one holy book, the Qur'an, but insist that without knowledge of the family of Muhammad, the Qur'an cannot be properly interpreted. Alawites study the book of Jafar as-Sādiq (Al-Hayfat aš-Šarīf), which has been translated into French and printed. This was done in Beirut in the mid-nineteenth century by an Alawite convert to Christianity, who was later killed by a fellow Alawite for exposing a secret sacred book. Twelvers or the Ithna Asharia are members of the group of Shias who believe in twelve Imams. ... Shia Islam (Arabic: follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 10-15% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


The Alawite religion has many similarities to Isma'ilism. The Alawites believe Imam Ali is the true Successor of Muhammad as well as in esoteric reading of the Qur'an. Unlike Ismailis, Alawites regard Imam Aiī as the purpose of life and the divine knowledge of the prophet Muhammad. The Alawite catechism is expressed in the formula: The IsmāʿīlÄ« (Urdu: اسماعیلی IsmāʿīlÄ«, Arabic: الإسماعيليون al-IsmāʿīliyyÅ«n; Persian: اسماعیلیان Esmāʿīliyān) branch of Islam is the second largest part of the ShÄ«a community, after the Twelvers (Ithnāʿashariyya). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... This article or section seems to contain too many quotations for an encyclopedia entry. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...

I turn to the door of knowledge.
In order for the father to provide me with a key;
Thus receiving the reward which is the knowledge of Imam Ali.

An Alawite prays in a manner patterned after the shahada:

I testify that there is no god but God; Muhammad is his messenger and Ali ibn Abi Talib is his wali "protector/ally".

Each World Age, of which there are Seven in total, has an incarnation of God within it. Each world age thus has a person who is the base (asa) and one who is the utterer (natiq). The asas are Adam, Alexander, Khidir, Jacob, David, and possibly Paul and then Sulayman. The natiqs are Habeel, Noah, Jacob, Moses, Solomon, Christ, and Muhammad. The true prophet of the set will disappear and leave a deputy behind who will administer for him until he returns. This is similar to occultation. For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ...


Imam Ali, Muhammad, and a third entity, Salman the Persian are important to the faith. Respectively, they are called the Idea, the Name, and the Door (to god). In Sura 6 of the Mujma', one of their texts, it is stated, "I make for the Door, I prostrate myself before allah, I worship the essence." Salman the Persian (Arabic سلمان الفارسي Salman Farisi, Persian Salman e Farsi) was one of the Prophet Muhammads companions. ...


Alawites do not accept converts or openly publish their texts, which are passed down from scholar to scholar. The vast majority of Alawites know little about the contents of their sacred texts or theology, which are guarded by a small class of male initiates. For Initiation, a person must be at least 15 and cannot be a non-Alawite. They believe in metempsychosis; the soul of the pious ascends to the starry heavens via a series of transformations. The less pious souls require more transformations. For other uses, see Initiation (disambiguation). ... Metempsychosis is a doctrine among some followers of Eastern teachings which expresses the theory of transmigration, that the human spirit may incarnate from one body to another, either human, animal, or inanimate, which is very different from the doctrine of reincarnation, which holds that man is an evolving being progressing...


Because only one book has been translated, outsiders know little about Alawite theology. Hanna Batatu's last book has a short but reliable section on Alawite doctrine, theology, and recent debates within the community. How sincere is this rejection of bida "innovation"? There is no way to tell, but it has a long tradition within the community. The French tried to pressure leading Alawite shaykhs to declare Alawiyya a separate, non-Muslim religion during the early 1920s, but they lost their battle because many religious leaders refused to do so. After all, Alawites declare themselves to be Muslims in their catechism and believe that Muhammad is God's messenger. Definition of Bidah. ... Shaikh (شيخ, also rendered as Sheik, Shaykh or Sheikh) is a word in the Arabic language meaning an elder or a revered old man. ... The 1920s is a decade sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


The Alawite religion seems to be based on Gnosticism and Neo-Platonism.[citation needed] According to Alawite belief, all persons at first were stars in the world of light, but fell from the firmament through the passion of jealousy. The material world is a place of danger, enemies and impurity. The essential evil of this present existence can be escaped by the help of the divine creator. Every Alawite has within his soul a bit of the light of the divine creator, which can be accessed and lead him on the right path and salvation. Faithful Alawites believe that all who put forth towards their soul shall receive their due reward from God. Alawites believe that their rewards are not financial gain or property, but true knowledge of the prophets of God. They also believe infidels are reborn as animals. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... STAR is an acronym for: Organizations Society for Telescopy, Astronomy, and Radio, a non-profit New Jersey astronomy club. ...


Because of the highly syncretistic nature of the religion, scholars have claimed that Alawism is related to Christianity because they have a strong love for Jesus and the previous prophets, but Alawites say that all the prophets were Muslims and that knowledge is like the sea, it never ends. Alawites also study the writings of Aristotle, as well as other texts, puportedly written by Socrates, and Alexander the Great.[citation needed] Syncretism is the attempt to reconcile disparate, even opposing, beliefs and to meld practices of various schools of thought. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – March 7, 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... Socrates (Greek: , invariably anglicized as , Sǒcratēs; circa 470–399 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who is widely credited for laying the foundation for Western philosophy. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


Alawites try to follow the prime example left by Ali. Ali lived out of the eye of the public. Like Ali, the Alawites are too called names and rejected by the common, like Ali, Alawites also keep to themselves, and like Ali, they say that they too "worship God in private and not for show".


Although Alawites recognize the five pillars of Islam, they do not believe that anyone has the privilege of practising them because they are too pure to be performed by "any" soul. Alawites believe that there is no back door entrance to the gates of heaven (i.e. follow the five pillars and you receive the keys to heaven). Instead they believe that one should devote his life the way that the prophet Muhammed would have permitted by following the example of Ali. The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to what are understood among many Muslims to be the five core aspects of Islam. ...


The insistence on conformism has brought rich political rewards—Alawites enjoy all the rights of Muslims in Syria and can hold the office of Prime Minister, which must be filled by a Muslim according to the Taif agreement. Nevertheless, Alawites have paid a steep price for political success and for a share of political power and equality in the nation.


Alawites who have speculated on the success are considerably more optimistic about the percentage of Syrians who considered them Muslim than are their Druze counterparts. Several claim that 50% of Syrians or more accepted them as Muslims. The reason Alawites give for their success is that they try harder than the Druze to be like Sunni Muslims and to assimilate to the textbook version of Islam. One native of Latakia, an Alawi woman who is in her thirties with an advanced degree, gave the following explanation: Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzÄ« or durzÄ« درزي, pl. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ...

We are accepted as Muslims because we have worked hard to be accepted. Some Alawis cover their hair and wear hijab, either for personal reasons or for humbleness to Allah. We don't eat ham. We fast – we don't eat during Ramadan. We have built mosques in our major towns. But we believe that praying at home for one's own soul, not for show, is what Allah deems pure. Many Muslims go to mosques to show that they pray, whereas Alawites know that God knows their true intentions, and it is more pure to talk to Allah personally. Though many Alawis go to Friday prayer and to the Hajj. My grandfather was a modern shaykh who encouraged everyone to pray at the mosque in Jable. The charitable foundation established and run by Jamil al-Assad (the brother of former President Hafez al-Assad) finances hundreds of Alawis to go on Hajj, and the women working for the organization wear the hijab. Hafez al-Assad prayed in a mosque and fasted always. When his mother and son died, he prayed for them in a mosque. He built the Naˤisa Mosque in Qardaha, his hometown, in the name of his mother. All these things are proof to the doubters that we try hard to be part of Islam. They accept it. We have succeeded, God willing.

The introduction of the state school system into the Alawite region during the last fifty years has transformed the religious identity of Alawites. Today, most Alawites know only the tenets of Sunni Islam because they are taught them in mandatory religion classes from first grade through twelfth grade. Syrian school texts do not mention the word Alawite, nor do they refer to diversity of belief and practice in Islam. Although Alawites know they are different from Sunnis, they do not know exactly how. Most will tell you about the popular religious ceremonies their families engage in, which include annual visits to saints' shrines, the sacrificing of sheep, and wearing of talismans. Illustration of an Islamic headscarf Hijab or ħijāb () is the Arabic term for cover (noun), based on the root حجب meaning to veil, to cover (verb), to screen, to shelter In some Arabic-speaking countries and Western countries, the word hijab primarily refers to womens head and body covering... The fourth pillar of Islam which is fasting is practiced during the month of Ramadan. ... The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... Jable, Syria - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jamil al-Assad (born 1933 in Qardaha) is a brother of former Syrian president Hafez al-Assad, and the uncle of present Syrian leader Bashar al-Assad. ... Qardaha is village in northwestern Syria, in the mountains overlooking the coastal town of Latakia. ...


Evidently, the Assads go to great lengths to make sure that the different tribes are equally represented in low-rank military posts, just as they try to divvy out unsensitive government posts among the various religious and ethnic groups of Syria.


Population

Traditionally, Alawites live in the mountains along the Mediterranean coast of Syria; Latakia and Tartous are the region's principal cities. Alawites are also concentrated in the plains around Hama and Homs. Today Alawites also live in all major cities of Syria. They were never estimated at more than 11% of the Syrian population (which would be about 2 million people if true today). The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Location of Tartous Coordinates: Governorate Tartous  - Governor Wahib Hasan Zein Eddin Elevation 0 m (0 ft) Population (2006)  - City 160,000 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Tartous Tartous (Arabic: طرطوس, also transliterated Tartus) is a city in Syria. ... The Orontes River and norias in Hama Location of the governorate of Hama Hama (Arabic: حماه, meaning fortress) is a city on the banks of the Orontes river in central Syria. ... Homs (Arabic: , transliteration: ) is a western city in Syria and the capital of the Homs Governorate. ...


Before 1953, they had reserved seats in the Syrian Parliament, like all other religious communities. After that, including for the 1960 census, there were only general Muslim and Christian categories, without mention of subgroups in order to reduce "communalism" (taïfiyya). Communalism is used in South Asia to denote attempts to promote primarily religious stereotypes between groups of people identified as different communities and to stimulate violence between those groups. ...


There are tens of thousands who live in the Hatay, Adana, and Mersin provinces of southern Turkey, where they are still called Nusayrī in order not to confuse them with Alevis. Hatay is a region in the middle east around the town of Iskenderun. ... Adana (the ancient Antioch in Cilicia or Antioch on the Sarus) is the capital of Adana Province in Turkey. ... Mersin is a large city and a busy port on the Mediterranean coast of southern Turkey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


There are a few thousand Alawites who live in Lebanon, where the Taif Agreement of 1989 gave them two reserved seats in the Parliament (Alawites are recognized as one of the 18 official Lebanese sects). The Taif Agreement was negotiated in Taif, Saudi Arabia by the surviving members of Lebanons 1972 parliament, presided by Speaker of the House President Hussein El-Husseini. ...


There are about 2000 Alawites living in the Golan Heights, alongside Druzes. The Golan Heights (Hebrew: Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a plateau on the border of Israel, Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. ... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ...


Notes

  1. ^ "In their mountainous corner of Syria, the Alawis claim to represent the furthest extension of Twelver Shi'ism." Syria’s Alawis and Shi‘ism, by Martin Kramer
  2. ^ "But outside Iraq, Arab leaders are talking of a Shia "Crescent" that will run from Iran through Iraq to Lebanon via Syria, whose Alawite leadership forms a branch of Shia Islam." This election will change the world. But not in the way the Americans imagined, by Robert Fisk, The Independent, 29 January 2005, hosted by the robert-fisk.com, retrieved 21 October 2006
  3. ^ "The ages of the world are seven in number, each of these having its own manifestation of deity. But the manifestation of the 7th age is not a Mandi who is yet to come, but the historical person `Ali ibn abu Talib. This is stated in the crudest form in Sura 1 i of the Majmu`: " I testify that there is no god but `Ali ibn abu Talib." `Ali is also called the Ma`na (" Idea"; cf. the Logos of the New Testament), hence the Nosairis are also called the Ma`nawiyya." Nosairis - From the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica

Martin Kramer (b. ... (Redirected from 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica) The Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1911) in many ways represents the sum of knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century. ...

See also

Ibn Nusayrs full name was Abu Shuayb Muhammad ibn Nusayr (c. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Druze star The Druze or Druz (also known as Druse; Arabic: derzī or durzī درزي, pl. ... Alawis in Turkey are the Alawite population living in the Republic of Turkey. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alawites (461 words)
Most of them live from agriculture, but the Alawites are also central in the leadership of Syria, President Bashar al-Assad being an Alawite (similar to his late father, Hafez).
The Alawites are not Alevi, another religion, which usually is classified as a Shi'i-originated branch of Islam, with some 21 million adherents, mainly in Turkey.
Through their history, the Alawites have often been in conflict with the rulers as well as other Muslims, who often have claimed that they are not Muslims.
SyriaComment.com: Anthony Shadid on Alawites and the Regime (5608 words)
SyriaComment.com: Anthony Shadid on Alawites and the Regime
Assad is an Alawite, and during the presidency of his father and predecessor, Hafez Assad, the sect emerged from behind the scenes to command the government's most sensitive positions in the military and security services.
The Alawite region is one of Syria's most secular, reflecting the imprint of a Baath Party that saw tribe and religion as barriers to modernization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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