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Encyclopedia > Alans

The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770. ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo European language family. ...

Contents


Name

The various forms of "Alan" (Greek Αλανοι, Αλαννοι; Chinese O-lan-na), as well as the "Iron" - self-designation of the modern Ossetians (descendants of the Alans), - are an Iranian dialectical form of "Aryan" (Avestan and Sanskrit "noble"). The ancient Alans inhabited what is generally conceded (although not without contest) to be the original or one of the original ranges of the Aryans, or Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryan and Iranian peoples. The use of "Aryan", "Iron", "Iranian", etc. as a self-designation was common among all these peoples. The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... Aryan ()is an English language word derived from the Indian Vedas and Iranian Avestan terms ari-, arya-, ārya-, and/or the extended form aryāna-. The Sanskrit and Old Persian languages both pronounced the word as arya- () and aryan. ... Yasna 28. ... Sanskrit ( संस्कृतम् ; pronunciation: ) is an Indo-European classical language of India and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Rabindranath Tagore, Mahatama Gandhi and a Rajasthani tribesman The Indo-Aryans are the ethno-linguistic descendents of the Indic branch of the Indo-Iranians. ... Faravahar is a prominent guardian spirit in Zoroastrianism and Iranian culture that is believed to be a depiction of a Fravashi. ...


Parenthetically, it should be noted that neither "Iron" nor any other variant of this word has any connection with the metal, iron, nor did those peoples contribute anything significant to the mining or iron-working industries.


The Alans were also known over the course of their history by another group of related names, first rendered by the Greeks as "Αορσι" (Aorsi), and shortened since the 9th century to "Asi", "As", or "Os" (Russian Jasy, Georgian Osi). It is this name which is the root of the modern "Ossetian".


Timeline


Early Alans

The first mentions of names that historians link with "Alani" appear almost at the same time in Greco-Roman geography and somewhat later Chinese dynastic chronicles of the 1st century BC. The Geography (xxiii, 11.v) of Strabo, who was born in Pontus on the Black Sea, but was also working with Persian sources, to judge from the forms he gives to tribal names, mentions Aorsi that he links with Siraces and claims that a Spadines, king of the Aorsi, could assemble two hundred thousand mounted archers in the mid-1st century BC. But the "upper Aorsi" from whom they had split as fugitives, could send many more, for they dominated the coastal region of the Caspian Sea (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... the Greek georgapher Strabo, in a 16th‑century engraving. ... Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Map of the Black Sea. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Caspian Sea viewed from orbit The Caspian Sea is a landlocked endorheic sea of Eurasia between Asia and Europe. ...

"and consequently they could import on camels the Indian and Babylonian merchandise, receiving it in their turn from the Armenians and the Medes, and also, owing to their wealth, could wear golden ornaments. Now the Aorsi live along the Tanaïs, but the Siraces live along the Achardeüs, which flows from the Caucasus and empties into Lake Maeotis."

Secure identifications of names and places in the ancient Chinese chronicles are even more speculative, but some centuries later, the Later Han Dynasty Chinese chronicle, the Hou Hanshu, 88 (covering the period 25-220) from the 5th century, mentioned a report that the steppe land Yancai was now known as Alanliao. (阿蘭聊): Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... The Kuban (Куба́нь) is a river in Russia, in the Northern Caucasus region. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: 漢朝; Simplified Chinese: 汉朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese:后汉书) is one of the official Chinese historical works which was compiled by Fan Ye in the 5th century, using a number of earlier histories and documents as sources. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

"The Kingdom of Yancai (literally, "Vast Steppe") has changed its name to the kingdom of Alanliao. Its capital is the town of Di. It is a dependency of Kangju (centered on Turkestan at Bei’tian moved later to Tashkent at Zhe’she). The climate is mild. Wax trees, pines, and ‘white grass’ (aconite) are plentiful. Their way of life and dress are the same as those of Kangju."

In another section of Shiji, 123 (2nd century BC) reported : The Mazar of Shaikh Ahmad Yasavi in the town of Turkestan. ... Tashkent Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташкент in Russian; its name translates from Uzbek to Stone City in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... Species About 60: see text Aconitum is a genus of plants belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... (3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) // Events 175 BCE - Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. ...

“It is said : “Some 2000 li (832 km) to the north-west from Kangju is the state of Yen-ts’ai. The trained bowmen number 100,000. It has the same way of life as Kangju. It is situated on the Great Marsh, which has no [further] shore [and which is presumably the Northern Sea].”

The Chinese li of the Han period differs from the modern SI base unit of length; it was equivalent to 415.8 metres for one li. The "Great Marsh" may be considered as ness of Aral Sea, which was situated not far away from Kangju (distance between Tashkent to Aralsk is about 866 km), or the wetlands at the delta of the Danube, which were a formidable obstacle that slowed the westward drift of many nomads or even more impressive marshes of present day Belarus and north Ukraine. Thus at the beginning of the 1st century, the Alans had occupied lands in the northeast Azov Sea area, along the Don. The written sources suggest that from the second half of the 1st to 4th century the Alans had supremacy over the tribal union and created a powerful confederation of Sarmatian tribes. The Alans made trouble for the Roman Empire, with incursions into both the Danubian and the Caucasian provinces in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. Li: A Chinese unit of distance, 里 (Lǐ), a li is equal to 500 metres, or about 1/3 mile. ... The SI system of units defines seven SI base units: physical units defined by an operational definition. ... Length is the long dimension of any object. ... Map of area around the Aral Sea. ... Tashkent Tashkent (Toshkent or Тошкент in Uzbek, Ташкент in Russian; its name translates from Uzbek to Stone City in English) is the current capital of Uzbekistan and also of Tashkent Province. ... Former harbor area in downtown Aral Aral (Kazakh: Арал, Russian: Аральск) is a small city in south-western Kazakhstan, located in the oblast of Qyzylorda. ... The Danube bend at Visegrád is a popular destination of tourists The Danube (ancient Danuvius) is Europes second-longest river (after the Volga). ... The 1st century was that century which lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Octavian, widely known as Augustus, founder of the Roman empire The Roman Empire was a phase of the ancient Roman civilization characterized by an autocratic form of government. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first...


Herodotus describes Alans as tall, blond with men cutting their hair short unlike the Scythians[1]. Ammianus Marcellinus stated that: Almost all of the Alans are tall and good looking, their hair is generally blond[2]. Bust of Herodotus at Naples Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: , Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Ammianus Marcellinus is a Roman historian who wrote during Late Antiquity. ...


Ammianus Marcellinus considered the Alans to be the former Massagetae: cf. "iuxtaque Massagetae Halani et Sargetae", "per Albanos et Massagetas, quos Alanos nunc appellamus", "Halanos pervenit, veteres Massagetas".


Archaeological finds support the written sources. Late Sarmatian sites were first identified with the historical Alans by P.D. Rau. Based on the archaeological material, they were one of the Iranian-speaking nomadic tribes that began to enter the Sarmatian area between the middle of the 1st and the 2nd century.


The Alani were first mentioned in Roman literature in the 1st century and were described later as a warlike people that specialized in horse breeding. They frequently raided the Parthian empire and the Caucasian provinces of the Roman Empire. In the Vologeses inscription [1] one can read that Vologeses, the Parthian king, in the 11th year of his reign, battled Kuluk, king of the Alani. Parthian Empire at its greatest extent, c60 BCE. The Parthian Empire was the dominating force on the Iranian plateau beginning in the late 3rd century BCE, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 190 BCE and 224 CE. Parthia was the arch-enemy of the Roman Empire in the east and... Vologases, also seen as Vologaeses, Vologaesus, Vologeses, Ologases, Valarsh (Armenian), and Balash (modern Persian) was the name of six kings of Parthia: Vologases I c. ...


This inscription is supplemented by the contemporary Jewish historian, Josephus (37–100), who reports in the Jewish Wars (book 7, ch. 8.4) how Alans (whom he calls a "Scythian" tribe) living near the Sea of Azov, crossed the Iron Gates for plunder and defeated the armies of Pacorus, king of Media, and Tiridates, King of Armenia, two brothers of Vologeses I (for whom the above-mentioned inscription was made): Josephus (c. ... Scythian warriors, drawn after figures on an electrum cup from the KulOba kurgan burial near Kerch. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Pacorus II of Parthia ruled the Parthian Empire from about 78 to 105. ... Tiridates, was the youngest brother of the Parthian king Vologases I., who with interruptions from 53 to 68 or 72 was king of Armenia and founder of the Armenian line of the Arsacid Dynasty known as the Arshakuni Dynasty in Armenia. ...

"4.Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have formerly mentioned somewhere as being Scythians, and inhabiting at the Lake Meotis. This nation about this time laid a design of falling upon Media, and the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them; with which intention they treated with the king of Hyrcania; for he was master of that passage which king Alexander shut up with iron gates. This king gave them leave to come through them; so they came in great multitudes, and fell upon the Medes unexpectedly, and plundered their country, which they found full of people, and replenished with abundance of cattle, while nobody durst make any resistance against them; for Pacorus, the king of the country, had fled away for fear into places where they could not easily come at him, and had yielded up everything he had to them, and had only saved his wife and his concubines from them, and that with difficulty also, after they had been made captives, by giving them a hundred talents for their ransom. These Alans therefore plundered the country without opposition, and with great ease, and proceeded as far as Armenia, laying all waste before them. Now Tiridates was king of that country, who met them, and fought them, but had like to have been taken alive in the battle; for a certain man threw a net over him from a great distance, and had soon drawn him to him, unless he had immediately cut the cord with his sword, and ran away, and prevented it. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this sight, laid waste the country, and drove a great multitude of the men, and a great quantity of the other prey they had gotten out of both kingdoms, along with them, and then retreated back to their own country."

Flavius Arrianus marched against the Alani in the 1st century and left a detailed report (Ektaxis kata Alanoon or 'War Against the Alans') that is a major source for studying Roman military tactics, but doesn't reveal much about his enemy. The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Gorgan (گرگان); Hyrcania ; Hyrcana (Old Persian Varkâna, land of wolves; modern Persian Gorgan): part of the ancient Persian empire, on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea (present day Golestan, Mazandaran, Gilan and parts of Turkmenistan). ... The Darial Gorge is found in the Caucasus in modern day Georgia near the border with Russia. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Αλέξανδρος[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC — June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), is considered one of the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of his known world before his death. ... The Medes(ancient Kurdistan) were an Iranian people, who lived in the north, western, and northwestern portions of present-day Iran, and roughly the areas of present day Tehran, Hamedan, Azarbaijan, north of Esfahan, Zanjan, and Kurdistan. ... Alexander the Great Lucius Flavius Arrianus Xenophon (c. ... Military tactics is the collective name for methods of engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ...


The 'western' Alans and Vandals

Alan and Vandal migrations 4th–5th centuries. Red: migrations; Orange: military expeditions; Yellow: settlement areas.
Alan and Vandal migrations 4th–5th centuries. Red: migrations; Orange: military expeditions; Yellow: settlement areas.

Around 370, the Alans were overwhelmed by the Huns. They were divided into several groups, some of whom fled westward. A portion of these western Alans joined the Germanic tribes of Vandals and Sueves in their invasion of Roman Gaul. Gregory of Tours mentions in his Liber historiae Francorum ("The book of the history of the Franks") that the Alan king Respendial saved the day for the Vandals in an armed encounter with the Franks at the crossing of the Rhine on December 31, 406). According to Gregory, another group of Alans, led by Goar, crossed the Rhine at the same time, but immediately joined the Romans and settled in Gaul. Image File history File links Alani_map. ... Image File history File links Alani_map. ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian and East Asian tribes, most likely of diverse origin with a Turkic or Mongolian-speaking aristocracy, who appeared in Europe in the 4th century, the most famous being Attila the Hun. ... The term Germanic tribes (or Teutonic tribes) applies to the ancient Germanic peoples of Europe. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... Map of Gaul circa 58 BC Gaul (Latin Gallia, Greek Galatia) was the region of Western Europe occupied by present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... St. ... Liber historiae Francorum (The book of the history of the Franks) is a primary source for writing the history of the early Franks and the Merovingians, and a major example of Carolingian historiography, recently explored by Rosamond McKitterick (History and Memory in the Carolingian World). ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... King of a group of Alans in western Europe in the early 5th century. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Heinrich Leutemann (1824-1904) Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... Goar (born pre 390; died (446–450)) was a leader of the Alans in 5th century Gaul. ...


Following the fortunes of the Vandals into the Iberian peninsula (Hispania) in 409, the separate ethnic identity of Respendial's Alans dissolved. In 418, the Alan king, Attaces, was killed in battle against the Visigoths, and this branch of the Alans subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. Although some of these Alans settled in Iberia, most went to North Africa with the Vandals in 429. Later Vandal kings in North Africa styled themselves Rex Wandalorum et Alanorum (King of the Vandals and Alans). The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Visigoths, originally Tervingi, or Vesi (the noble ones), one of the two main branches of the Goths (of which the Ostrogothi were the other), were one of the loosely-termed Germanic peoples that disturbed the late Roman Empire. ... Gunderic (379-428), King of the Vandals and Alans (407-428) led the Vandals, a Germanic tribe originally residing near the Oder River in modern Poland, to take part in the barbarian invasions of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ...


In Gaul, the Alans originally led by Goar settled in several areas, notably around Orléans and Valentia. Under Goar, they allied with the Burgundians led by Gundaharius, with whom they installed the usurping Emperor Jovinus. Under Goar's successor Sangiban, the Alans of Orléans played a critical role in repelling the invasion of Attila the Hun at the Battle of Chalons. After the fifth century, however, the Alans of Gaul were subsumed in the territorial struggles between the Franks and the Visigoths, and ceased to have an independent existence. Flavius Aëtius settled large numbers of Alans in and around Armorica in order to quell unrest. The Breton name Alan (rather than the French Alain) and several towns with names related to 'Alan', such as Alanville are popularly taken as evidence that a contingent settled in Brittany. Orléans Cathedral, dedicated to the Holy Cross, built from 1278 to 1329; after being pillaged by Huguenots in the 1560s, the Bourbon kings restored it in the 17th century. ... Location within France Champs de Mars and Kiosque Peynet in Valence A World War I memorial in Valence ville Valence is a commune in south-eastern France, the capital of the département of Drôme, situated on the left bank of the Rhône, 65 miles south of Lyon... The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose old form in Old Norse still was Burgundarholmr (the Island of the Burgundians), and from here to mainland Europe. ... Gunther (in Latin Gundaharius and in Anglicized Old Norse Gunnar) was a king of the Burgundians west of the Rhine from at least 411 to his death in 437. ... Jovinus Jovinus was a Gallo-senator and claimed to be Roman Emperor (411 - 413). ... Attila redirects here. ... Combatants Western Roman Empire, Visigoths Huns and allies Commanders Flavius Aetius Theodoric Attila the Hun Strength 30,000–50,000 30,000–50,000 The Battle of Chalons, also called the Battle of the Catalaunian Fields or the Battle of the Catalun, took place in 451 between the allied forces... Depiction of Flavius Aëtius, from a relief in Monza. ... Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul that includes the Brittany peninsula and the territory between the Seine and Loire rivers, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic coast. ... Breton can refer to: The Breton language A person from Brittany, a region of France previously controlled by Britons the Breton people, a Celtic ethnic group native to the region of Brittany Author André Breton Thierry Breton, the French Minister of Economy, Finance, and Industry French realist painter Jules Adolphe...


In the Iberian peninsula the Alans settled in Lusitania and the Cartaginense provinces: "Alani Lusitaniam et Carthaginiensem provincias". They became known in retrospect for their massive hunting and fighting dogs, which they apparently introduced to Europe. A giant breed of dog still called Alano survives in the Basque Country. The dogs, which are traditionally used in boar hunting and cattle herding, are associated with the massive dogs that Alans and Vandals brought into Iberia. Roman province of Lusitania, 120 AD Lusitania, an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal (except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho) and part of modern day western Spain (specifically the present autonomous community Extremadura), named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris The dog (or its younger counterpart puppy) is a mammal in the order Carnivora. ... Location of Basque Country The Ikurriña, Basque Country flag This article is about the traditional overall Basque domain. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Young piglets feeding The Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular usage, kine archaic, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ...


Modern genetic science's disclosure of the geographical distribution of historical genetic markers has convinced certain theorists of the connection between Sarmato-Alanic deep ancestral heritage in Europe and the Y-DNA paternal Haplogroup G (Y-DNA), specifically G2[2]. In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ...


Alans and Slavs

Alan tribes living north of the Black Sea may have moved northwest into what is now Poland, merging with Slavic peoples there to become the precursors of historic Slav nations (notably Serbs and Croats). Third-century inscriptions from Tanais, a town on the Don River in modern Russia, mention a nearby Alan tribe called the Choroatos or Chorouatos. The historian Ptolemy identifies the 'Serboi' as a Sarmatian tribe who lived north of the Caucasus, and other sources identify the Serboi as an Alan tribe in the Volga-Don steppe in the third century. Map of the Black Sea. ... The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Sarmatian cataphract from Tanais. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ... Serbi (Serboi) located near the mouth of the Volga, based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Serboi is the name of the ancient Sarmatian tribe that could be the possible predecessors of the present-day Slavic Serbs and Sorbs. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Serbi (Serboi) located near the mouth of the Volga, based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Serboi is the name of the ancient Sarmatian tribe that could be the possible predecessors of the present-day Slavic Serbs and Sorbs. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


Accounts of these names reappear in the fifth century, with the Serboi, or Serbs, established east of the river Elbe in what is now western Poland, and the Croats in what is now Polish Galicia. The Alan tribes likely moved northeast and settled among the Slavs, dominating and mobilizing the Slavic tribes they encountered and later assimilating into the Slav population. In 620 the Croats and Serbs were invited into the Balkans by Eastern Roman Emperor Heraclius to drive away the Turkic Avars, and settled there among earlier Slavic migrants to become ancestors of the modern Serbs and Croats. Some Serbs remained on the Elbe, and their descendants are the modern Sorbs. Tenth-century Byzantine and Arab accounts describe a people called the Belochrobati (White Croats) living on the upper Vistula, an area later called Chrobatia. Serbi (Serboi) located near the mouth of the Volga, based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Serboi is the name of the ancient Sarmatian tribe that could be the possible predecessors of the present-day Slavic Serbs and Sorbs. ... Serbs (Serbian: Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia Galicia is a historical region currently split between Poland and Ukraine. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Heraclius and his sons Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia, supposedly of proto-Mongolian Turkic stock, who migrated from eastern Asia into central and eastern Europe in the 6th century. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ... The Sorbs are a Slavic minority indigenous to the region known as Lusatia in the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg (in former GDR territory). ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... White Croats migrated to modern Dalmatia (coastal part of Croatia) as part of the migration of the Croats in 610-641 A.D.[1] ... The Vistula (Polish: Wisła) is the longest river in Poland. ...


The 'eastern' Alans and Huns

Some of the other Alans remained under the rule of the Huns. These 'eastern' Alans are said to be ancestors of the modern Ossetians of the Caucasus. Map of Ossetia Ossetia is a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains, inhabited by the Ossetians. ... The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map The Caucasus, a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ...


Those of the eastern division, though dispersed about the steppes until late medieval times, were forced by the Mongols into the Caucasus, where they remain as the Ossetians. Their most famous leader was Aspar, the magister militum of the Byzantine Empire during the 460s. They formed a network of tribal alliances between the ninth and twelfth centuries. The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Ossetians live in the region of Ossetia, a region in the northern Caucasus Mountains in Europe. ... Flavius Ardabur Aspar (? - 471), an Alan, was the magister militum (Master of Soldiers) of the Byzantine Empire. ... Magister militum (Master of the Soldiers) was a rank used in the later Roman Empire dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Centuries: 4th century - 5th century - 6th century Decades: 410s - 420s - 430s - 440s - 450s - 460s - 470s - 480s - 490s - 500s - 510s Years: 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 Events: Aspar becomes magister militum and de facto ruler of the eastern Roman Empire Births: Romulus Augustus, Western Roman... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...


Medieval Alania

Map showing the location of Alans, c. 650 CE.
Map showing the location of Alans, c. 650 CE.

In the 8th century a consolidated Alan kingdom, referred to in sources of the period as Alania, emerged in the northern Caucasus Mountains, roughly in the location of modern Circassia and North Ossetia-Alania. Its capital was Maghas, and it controlled the vital trade route through the Darial Pass. At times it had an outlet to the sea via the ancient port city of Phasis in Colchis (western Georgia). Image File history File links Khazar0. ... Image File history File links Khazar0. ... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... Capital Vladikavkaz Area - total - % water 84th - 8,000 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density 68th - est. ... The capital city of Alania, located in the northern Caucasus Mountains near the modern Ossetian city of Vladikavkaz. ... The Darial Gorge is found in the Caucasus in modern day Georgia near the border with Russia. ... Poti is a city in the Samegrelo province in the west of the Republic of Georgia. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ...


In the 800s, the Alan kingdom in the Caucasus fell under the overlordship of the Khazar Khaganate. They were staunch allies of the Khazars, supporting them against a Byzantine-led coalition during the reign of the Khazar king Benjamin. According to the anonymous author of the Schechter Letter, many Alans were during this period adherents of Judaism. However, in the early 900's, the Alans fell under the influence of the Byzantine Empire, possibly due to the conversion of their ruler to Christianity. The Byzantines, who had adopted an anti-Khazar foreign policy, involved the Alans in a war against the Khaganate during the reign of the Khazar ruler Aaron II, probably the early 920s. In this war the Alans were defeated and their king captured. According to Muslim sources such as al-Mas'udi, the Alans abandoned Christianity and expelled the Byzantine missionaries and clergy roughly contemporaneously with these events. Aaron's son married the daughter of the Alan king and Alania was re-aligned with the Khazars, remaining so until the collapse of the Khaganate in the 960's. Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s Years: 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 Significant Events and Trends Swedish town of Birka founded as a centre of trade on the island of Björk... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... KHAGAN, alternatively spelled Chagan, Qaqan etc, is a title of royal or imperial rank in Mongolian and Turkic languages. ... Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A Khazar ruler (probably the bek), mentioned in the Schechter Text and the Khazar Correspondence. ... Also called the Cambridge Document, the Schechter Letter was discovered in the genizah of a Cairo synagogue by Solomon Schechter. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on Jesus of Nazareth, and on his life and teachings as presented in the New Testament. ... Khazar ruler during the early 900s CE. Aaron ben Benjamin was the son of the Khazar king Benjamin. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان) is an adherent of Islam. ... Abd al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn Masudi (d. ...


Thereafter, the Alan kings frequently allied with the Byzantines and various Georgian rulers for protection against encroachments by steppe people such as the Pechenegs and Kipchaks. Their alliance with Georgia culminated in 1187, when the Alanian prince David Soslan married Queen Thamar and founded a new line of the Bagrationi royal dynasty of Georgia which ruled the country for 600 years. The medieval Alanian princesses also married Russian Rurikid rulers more than once. For instance, St Maria the Ossetian, who founded the Convent of Princesses in Vladimir, was the wife of Vsevolod the Big Nest and grandmother of Alexander Nevsky. Byzantine Empire (Greek: Βυζαντινή Αυτοκρατορία) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Kipchaks (also Kypchaks, Qipchaqs) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. Their language was also known as Kipchak. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... David Soslan (Georgian: დავით სოსლანი) (d. ... Tamar as depicted on a mural from Vardzia monastery Tamar (1160-1213), from the House of Bagrationi, was Queen of the Kingdom of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. ... The Bagratuni or Bagrationi or Bagratid royal dynasty (Armenian: Բագրատունյաց Ô±Ö€Ö„Õ¡ÕµÕ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Տոհմ or Bagratunyac Arqayakan Tohm, Georgian: ბაგრატიონთა სამეფო დინასტია or Bagrationta Samepo Dinastia) is a royal family whose ascendancy in Transcaucasia lasted for more than a millenium, since the 8th century until the early 19th century. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Vsevolod III Yuriyevich, or Vsevolod the Big Nest (also: Vsevolod the Large Nest) (Всеволод III Юрьевич Большое Гнездо in Russian) (1154-1212), Grand Prince of Kiev (1173), Prince of Pereyaslavl (1176-1177), Grand Prince of Vladimir (1177-1212). ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ...


Religion, language, and later history

In the 4th-5th centuries the Alans were at least partially Christianized by Byzantine missionaries of the Arian church. In the thirteenth century, fresh invading Mongol hordes pushed the eastern Alans further south into the Caucasus, where they mixed with native Caucasian groups and successively formed three territorial entities each with different developments. Around 1395 Timur's army invaded Northern Caucasus and massacred much of the Alanian population. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 - 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... This article is about theological views like those of Arius. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events End of reign of Hungary by Capet-Anjou family. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Timur (Chagatai: تیمور, iron, actually Timūr Gurkānī, Persian: تيمور گوركانى, Gurkān being the Persianized form of the original Mongolian word kürügän, son-in-law) - also known as Timur-e Lang, Persian: تیمور لنگ, which translates to Timur the Lame, as he was lame... Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ...


As the time went by, Digor in the west came under Kabard and Islamic influence. It was through the Kabardians (an East Circassian tribe) that Islam was introduced into the region in the 17th century. Tuallag in the southernmost region became part of what is now Georgia, and Iron, the northernmost group, came under Russian rule after 1767, which strengthened Orthodox Christianity considerably. Most of the Ossetes today are Eastern Orthodox Christians. Digor is a traditional sport in Bhutan, resembling the sport of shot put. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Kabarda, Kabard or Kabarid are simply alternative ways of referring to the Kabar people of the northern Caucasus more commonly known by the plural term Kabardin (or Kebertei as they term themselves). ... Circassia, also known as Cherkessia in Russian, is a region in Caucasia. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... ...


The linguistic descendents Alans, living in the autonomous republics of Russia and Georgia, speak the Ossetic language, which belongs to the Northeastern Iranian language group, being the only remnant of the Scytho-Sarmatian dialect continuum which once stretched over much of the Pontic steppe and Central Asia. Modern Ossetic has two major dialects: Digor, spoken in the western part of North Ossetia; and Iron, spoken in the rest of Ossetia. A third branch of Ossetic, Jassic (Jász), was formerly spoken in Hungary. The literary language, based on the Iron dialect, was fixed by the national poet, Kosta Xetagurov (1859-1906). The Entholinguistic patchwork of the modern Caucasus - CIA map Ossetic or Ossetian (in Ossetic: or ) is a language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the slopes of the Caucasus mountains on the borders of Russia and Georgia. ... The Northeastern group of Iranian languages has only two living members in two widely separated areas, the Yagnobi language of Tajikistan and the Ossetic language of the Caucasus. ... Scythian and Sarmatian are the names of the East Iranian dialects spoken by the Scythian/Sarmatian tribes of the nomadic cattlebreeders in Southern Russia between 8th century BC and 5th century AD. Sometimes, the Scythian and Sarmatian languages are combined into one name: Scytho-Sarmatian languages. ... The Pontic steppe refers to the steppelands to the north of the Black Sea and on its eastern side as far as the Caspian Sea. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia (Russian: Средняя Азия/Srednyaya Azia for Middle Asia or Центральная Азия/Tsentralnaya Azia for Central Asia; in Turkic languages Orta Asya; in Persian آسياى مرکزی; (Urdu: وسطى ايشيا)Wasti Asia; Standard Mandarin Chinese... Jassic is a dialect of the Ossetian language and the name of a nomadic tribe settled in Hungary in the 13th century. ... Many nations have adopted a poet who is perceived to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of their culture. ...


Their is small community of people who live in Western Iraq, who also call themselves the Alani, they seem to have Turkish or Iranian ancestry, and are Sunni Muslims, the name Alani probably adopted by these people to claim ancestry to the legendary Iranian tribe known as the Alans. However they are largely arabized by the Arabs. However they do share many racial similarities with the Caucasian population of the Caucasus area also known as Caucasia which is a homeland of the Alans. These people use the name Alani as their surname. Its not uncommon to find red hair and blond hair among them, however as intermarriage with the Arabs became common, now they have variety of phenotypes, some show to have a Mongolian features this is infact support that they do have Alatic ancestry rather than Iranian, since Turkish tribes have large amounts of Mongolian blood. Sometimes they have been linked to the ten lost tribes of Israel, the Huns, Khazars, and of course the Tatar army of Hulagu khan when the Mongols entered Iraq. The later theory was intorduced by the Shiites who despiese the Alanis because of great cultural and political influence on Iraqi society. Extermist Shiites called them derogatory terms such "Pigs" , and "unclean dogs" that must be exterminated by some. Although the Alanis might share the name with the legendary tribe known as the Alans who are also called Alani, the relationship between these two groups is based on legends and assumptions. However racial they are different from the Semitic Arabs, however they seem to be of the Alatic branch, and probably came from Siberia and Central asia in the year 487 A.D according to their legend that they came from the north of the Caucasus, and eastern Tabristan which is probably Turkestan. Some have linked them to the Persians who also used the name.


References

  • Agustí Alemany, Sources on the Alans: A Critical Compilation. Brill Academic Publishers, 2000 ISBN 9004114424
  • Bernard S. Bachrach, A History of the Alans in the West, from their first appearance in the sources of classical antiquity through the early middle ages, University of Minnesota Press, 1973 ISBN 0816606781
  • Golb, Norman and Omeljan Pritsak. Khazarian Hebrew Documents of the Tenth Century. Ithaca: Cornell Univ. Press, 1982.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Draft Edition. [3]
  • Yu, Taishan. 2004. A History of the Relationships between the Western and Eastern Han, Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Western Regions. Sino-Platonic Papers No. 131 March, 2004. Dept. of East Asian Languages and Civilizations, University of Pennsylvania.

See also

The German term Völkerwanderung (lit. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Alans - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2467 words)
The ancient Alans inhabited what is generally conceded (although not without contest) to be the original or one of the original ranges of the Aryans, or Indo-Iranians, the common ancestors of the Indo-Aryan and Iranian peoples.
In 418, the Alan king, Attaces, was killed in battle against the Visigoths, and this branch of the Alans subsequently appealed to the Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown.
In the Iberian peninsula the Alans settled in Lusitania and the Cartaginense provinces: "Alani Lusitaniam et Carthaginiensem provincias".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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