FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Alabama" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Alabama
State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Flag of Alabama Seal
Nickname(s): Yellowhammer State, Heart of Dixie
Motto(s): Audemus jura nostra defendere
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) English 96.17%,
Spanish 2.12%
Demonym Alabamian
Capital Montgomery
Largest city Birmingham
(229,424, est. 2006)[1]
Largest metro area Greater Birmingham Area
Area  Ranked 30th in the US
 - Total 52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km²)
 - Width 190 miles (306 km)
 - Length 330 miles (531 km)
 - % water 3.20
 - Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 - Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Population  Ranked 23rd in the US
 - Total 4,447,100
 - Density 84.83/sq mi 
33.84/km² (26th in the US)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Cheaha[2]
2,407 ft  (734 m)
 - Mean 499 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Governor Robert R. Riley (R)
Lieutenant Governor Jim Folsom, Jr. (D)
U.S. Senators Richard Shelby (R)
Jeff Sessions (R)
Congressional Delegation List
Time zone Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations AL Ala. US-AL
Website www.alabama.gov
Alabama State Symbols
Living Symbols
 -Amphibian Red Hills salamander
 -Bird Yellowhammer, Wild Turkey
 -Butterfly Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
 -Fish Largemouth bass, Fighting tarpon
 -Flower Camellia, Oak-leaf Hydrangea
 -Insect Monarch Butterfly
 -Mammal American Black Bear, Racking horse
 -Reptile Alabama red-bellied turtle
 -Tree Longleaf Pine
Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
Colors Red, White
Dance Square Dance
Food Pecan, Blackberry, Peach
Fossil Basilosaurus
Gemstone Star Blue Quartz
Mineral Hematite
Rock Marble
Shell Johnstone's Junonia
Slogan(s) Share The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice
Soil Bama
Song(s) Alabama
Route Marker(s)
Alabama Route Marker
Quarter
Alabama quarter
2003
See Also

The State of Alabama (IPA: /ˌæləˈbæmə/), is located in the southern region of the United States of America. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population with almost 4.6 million residents in 2006.[3] Alabama, U.S. state Alabama (people), a Native American group Alabama (band), a country music band Alabama River Alabama, New York, a town in Genesee County, New York and a community in that town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Alabama. ... Image File history File links State Seal of Alabama The Alabama state seal. ... The flag of Alabama The flag of Alabama was adopted by Act 383 of the Alabama state legislature on February 16, 1895. ... The Great Seal of Alabama The Great Seal of Alabama is the state seal of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... This is a list of U.S. state nicknames -- both official and traditional (official state nicknames are in bold). ... Here is a list of state mottos for the states of the United States. ... Audemus jura nostra defendere (Latin We Dare Defend Our Rights or We Dare Maintain Our Rights) is a state motto of Alabama, depicted on a yellow ribbon below the coat of arms and completed in 1923. ... Image File history File links Map_of_USA_AL.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alabama ... The United States does not have an official language, but English is spoken by about 82% of the population as a native language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... // Although the United States currently has no official language, it is largely monolingual with English being the de facto national language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, site of first U.S. capital. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... In the United States, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) has produced a formal definition of metropolitan areas. ... Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area The Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman Combined Statistical Area sometimes known as Greater Birmingham, is made up of 8 counties in Central Alabama. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... This is a complete list of the states of the United States ordered by total area, land area, and water area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... “km” redirects here. ... Map of states populations (2007) This is a list of states of the United States by population (with inhabited non-state jurisdictions included for comparison) as of July 1, 2007, according to the 2007 estimates of the United States Census Bureau. ... Map of states showing population density This is a list of the 50 U.S. states, ordered by population density. ... This is a list of United States states by elevation. ... Mount Cheaha is the highest point in Alabama, at 2407 feet or 734 meters above mean sea level. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The order which the original 13 states ratified the constitution, then the order that the others were admitted to the union This is a list of U.S. states by date of statehood, that is, the date when each U.S. state joined the Union. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... Robert Renfroe Bob Riley (born October 3, 1944) is an American politician in the Republican Party. ... This is a complete and current List of United States Lieutenant Governors. ... James Elisha Folsom, Jr. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Richard Craig Dick Shelby (born May 6, 1934) is an American politician. ... Jefferson Beauregard Jeff Sessions III (born December 24, 1946) is the junior United States Senator from Alabama. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... These are tables of congressional delegations from Alabama to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives. ... Map of U.S. time zones with new CST and EST areas displayed This is a list of United States of America States by time zone. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... The following is a list of abbreviations used by the United States Postal Service. ... U.S. states This is a list of traditional abbreviations for U.S. states and territorries, which were in wide use prior to the U.S. postal abbreviations. ... ISO 3166-2 codes for the United States of America cover 50 states, 1 district, 6 outlying areas (including 9 minor outlying islands under separate ISO 3166-1 country code UM). ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... This is a list of official U.S. state amphibians. ... Binomial name Phaeognathus hubrichti The Red Hills salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti) is a fairly large, terrestrial salamander growing to about 255 millimeters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus, 1758 The Yellowhammer, Emberiza citrinella, is a passerine bird in the bunting family Emberizidae, a group now separated by most modern authors from the finches, Fringillidae. ... Binomial name Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Wild Turkey (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of U.S. state insects. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Eastern tiger swallowtail, Papilio glaucus, is a large (12 cm wingspan) swallowtail butterfly. ... This is a list of official U.S. state fish: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Binomial name The largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) is a species of fish in the sunfish family. ... Binomial name Megalops atlanticus Valenciennes, 1847 The Atlantic tarpon, Megalops atlanticus, inhabits coastal waters, estuaries, lagoons, and rivers. ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... Species About 100–250 species, including: Camellia assimilis Camellia brevistyla Camellia caudata Camellia chekiangoleosa Camellia chrysantha – Golden Camellia Camellia connata Camellia crapnelliana Camellia cuspidata Camellia euphlebia Camellia euryoides Camellia forrestii Camellia fraterna Camellia furfuracea Camellia granthamiana Camellia grijsii Camellia hongkongensis - Hong Kong Camellia Camellia irrawadiensis Camellia japonica – Japanese Camellia Camellia... Binomial name Hydrangea quercifolia Bartram The Oakleaf hydrangea is a hydrangea native to the United States. ... It has been suggested that List of U.S. state butterflies be merged into this article or section. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The butterfly species Danaus plexippus is commonly known as the Monarch butterfly. ... A state mammal is the official or representative animal of a U.S. state. ... Binomial name Pallas, 1780 Synonyms Euarctos americanus The American Black Bear (Ursus americanus) is the most common bear species native to North America. ... Some people debate if the Racking Horse is a stand-alone breed, but is was given that designation by the USDA in 1978, and the breed has its own organization today. ... This is a list of official U.S. state reptiles: Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ Official Alabama Reptile. ... Binomial name Pseudemys alabamensis The Alabama Red-Bellied Turtle, Pseudemys alabamensis, is native to Alabama. ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... ... This is a list of official state beverages:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Conecuh Ridge Whiskey, officially marketed as Clyde Mays Conecuh Ridge Alabama Style Whiskey, is a recreation of a high-quality aged moonshine whiskey which was produced illegally in Alabama during the mid to late 20th century. ... This is a list of U.S. state colors:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... This is a list of official U.S. state dances:[1] This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Square dance is often used as a general term for modern Western square dance. ... Binomial name Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Though every state in the United States has a State Bird and a State Flower, not every state in the United States has a State Fossil. ... Species Basilosaurus (King Lizard) was a genus of cetacean that lived from 39 to 34 million years ago in the Eocene. ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... For other uses, see Quartz (disambiguation). ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... For other uses, see Hematite (disambiguation). ... // Not every state has an official state mineral, rock, stone or gemstone. ... -1... This is a list of official state shells:[1] References ^ List of all state shells http://www. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This is a list of official U.S. state soils: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... Bama soil profile. ... Forty-nine states of the United States (all except New Jersey) have one or more state songs, selected by the state legislature as a symbol of the state. ... Alabama is the state song of Alabama. ... Highways in the United States are split into at least four different types of systems. ... Image File history File links Alabama_67. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program (Pub. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 597 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1119 × 1123 pixel, file size: 1. ... These are lists of U.S. state insignia as designated by tradition or the respective state legislatures List of U.S. state amphibians List of U.S. state beverages List of U.S. state birds List of U.S. state butterflies List of U.S. state colors List of U... Historic Southern United States. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern States, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. More significantly, white rural, minority domination of the legislature until the 1960s meant that urban, contemporary interests were consistently underrepresented.[4] In the years following the war, Alabama experienced significant recovery as the economy of the state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and high technology. Today, the state is heavily invested in aerospace, education, health care, and banking, and various heavy industries including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, which is also the name of the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie". The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, and the largest city is Birmingham. Binomial name Colaptes auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) The Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is a medium-sized woodpecker. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Dixie (disambiguation). ... This List of U.S. state trees includes official trees of the following states and U.S. possessions: See also Lists of U.S. state insignia National Grove of State Trees External link USDA list of state trees and flowers Categories: | | ... ... This is a list of U.S. state flowers: List of U.S. state trees Lists of U.S. state insignia ^ State Flower of Alabama. ... Species About 100–250 species, including: Camellia assimilis Camellia brevistyla Camellia caudata Camellia chekiangoleosa Camellia chrysantha – Golden Camellia Camellia connata Camellia crapnelliana Camellia cuspidata Camellia euphlebia Camellia euryoides Camellia forrestii Camellia fraterna Camellia furfuracea Camellia granthamiana Camellia grijsii Camellia hongkongensis - Hong Kong Camellia Camellia irrawadiensis Camellia japonica – Japanese Camellia Camellia... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ...

Contents

Etymology of state name

The Alabama, an Upper Creek tribe, which resided just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River,[5] served as the etymological source of the names of the river and state. The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language[6] and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name.[7] The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources.[7] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively.[7] As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons.[5] Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.[7][8][9] The use of state names derived from Native American languages is common with an estimated 27 states having names of Native American origin.[10] Alabama-Coushatta Reservation welcome sign The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... The Coosa River is the major tributary when it joins the Tallapoosa River near Wetumpka, Alabama to form the Alabama River. ... The Tallapoosa River runs from the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains in Georgia in the United States south and west into Alabama. ... The Alabama River at Montgomery in 2004 The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about six miles above Montgomery. ... Etymologies redirects here. ... The Choctaw language, traditionally spoken by the Native American Choctaw people of the southeastern United States, is a member of the Muskogean family. ... For the Peruvian economist, see Hernando de Soto (economist). ... Indigenous languages of the Americas (or Amerindian Languages) are spoken by indigenous peoples from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland, encompassing the land masses which constitute the Americas. ...


Although the origin of Alabama was evident, the meaning of the tribe's name was not always clear. An article without a byline appearing in the Jacksonville Republican on July 27, 1842 originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest."[7] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.[7] Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence that would support this translation.[5][7] It is now generally accepted that the word comes from the Choctaw words alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").[7][6][11] This results in translations such as "clearers of the thicket"[6] or even "herb gatherers"[11][12] which may refer to clearing of land for the purpose of planting crops[8] or to collection of medicinal plants by medicine men.[12] The byline on a newspaper or magazine article gives the name, and often the position, of the writer of the article. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alexander Beaufort Meek (July 17, 1814 (Columbia, South Carolina) - November 30, 1865 (Columbus, Mississippi)) was an American politician, lawyer, writer and poet. ... Pre-contact distribution of Muskogean languages Muskogean (also Muskhogean, Muskogee) is a language family of the Southeastern United States. ... Medicine man is an English term used to describe Native American religious figures; such individuals are analogous to shamans. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Alabama
See also: List of Alabama counties and Geology of Alabama
Alabama terrain map: shows lakes, rivers, roads, with Mount Cheaha (right center) east of Birmingham.
Alabama terrain map: shows lakes, rivers, roads, with Mount Cheaha (right center) east of Birmingham.

Alabama is the 30th largest state in the United States with 52,423 square miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3.19% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest inland waterway system in the United States.[13] About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes.[14] Another natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville, in Winston County. Physiographic Regions in Alabama Physical Features. ... List of 67 counties in the U.S. state of Alabama: Autauga County Baldwin County Barbour County Bibb County Blount County Bullock County Butler County Calhoun County Chambers County Cherokee County Chilton County Choctaw County Clarke County Clay County Cleburne County Coffee County Colbert County Conecuh County Coosa County Covington... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (810 × 1340 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 362 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (810 × 1340 pixel, file size: 243 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Mount Cheaha is the highest point in Alabama, at 2407 feet or 734 meters above mean sea level. ... Birmingham is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... North Alabama is a region of the U.S. state of Alabama, generally thought to include these 11 counties: Cherokee, Colbert, DeKalb, Franklin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, Morgan, and Winston. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Natural Bridge is a town located in Winston County, Alabama. ... Natural bridge or Natural Bridge can refer to several things: Natural arch, a land formation sometimes referred to as a natural bridge Natural Bridge (Virginia) National Historical Landmark in U.S. state of Virginia Natural Bridge Caverns, in the U.S. state of Texas Natural Bridges National Monument, in the... Rocky Mountain National Park (photo courtesy of NPS) View of Colorado Rockies. ... Haleyville is a city located in Winston County, Alabama. ... Winston County is a county of the State of Alabama. ...


Alabama generally ranges in elevation from sea level,[2] down at Mobile Bay, to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha[14] (see map), at a height of 2,407 ft (733 m). For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Mobile Bay - Landsat photo Mobile and Mobile Bay from space, June 1991 During a jubilee along the shores of Mobile Bay, blue crabs & flounder come to shallow water near shore Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Mount Cheaha is the highest point in Alabama, at 2407 feet or 734 meters above mean sea level. ...


States bordering Alabama include Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state.[14] This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...


National Parks in Alabama include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee.[15] This article is about national parks. ... Horseshoe Bend National Military Park is a U.S. National Military Park managed by the National Park Service that is the site of the last battle of the Creek War on March 27, 1814. ... Alexander City is a city located in Tallapoosa County, Alabama. ... Little River Canyon Little River Canyon National Preserve occupies 14,000 acres (57 km²) and protects the nations longest mountaintop river, the Little River. ... Fort Payne is a city located in DeKalb County, Alabama. ... The Russell Cave National Monument is a U.S. National Monument, consisting of a small limestone cave in north-eastern Alabama, United States, close to the town of Bridgeport. ... Bridgeport is a city in Jackson County, Alabama, United States. ... The Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee, Alabama is at historic Moton Field, site of primary flight training for the pioneering World War II pilots known as the Tuskegee Airmen. ... Tuskegee is a city located in Macon County, Alabama. ... There is also the Tuskegee Airmen, a corps of African-American military pilots trained there during World War II Tuskegee University is an American institution of higher learning located in Tuskegee, Alabama. ... Tuskegee re-directs here; for alternate uses see Tuskegee (disambiguation) Tuskegee is a city located in Macon County, Alabama. ...


Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. The Natchez Trace Parkway is a 444 mile (715 km) long parkway, in the form of a limited-access two-lane road, in the southeastern United States. ... John Lewis (on right in trench coat) and Hosea Williams (on the left) lead marchers across the Edmund Pettus Bridge,March 7, 1965 The Selma to Montgomery marches, which included Bloody Sunday, were three marches that marked the political and emotional peak of the American civil rights movement. ... For other uses, see Trail of Tears (disambiguation). ...


Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area.[16] Baldwin County is a county of the U.S. state of Alabama. ...


A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka crater, which is the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster".[17] A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago.[17] The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface.[18] In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as an internationally recognized impact crater.[17] Elmore County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... Wetumpka is a meteor crater in Alabama, United States. ... There is also the Wetumpka crater Wetumpka is a city located in Elmore County, Alabama. ... Wetumpka is a meteor crater in Alabama, United States. ...


Urban areas

Birmingham, largest city and metropolitan area
Birmingham, largest city and metropolitan area
Mobile, second largest metropolitan area
Mobile, second largest metropolitan area
Huntsville, third largest metropolitan area
Huntsville, third largest metropolitan area
See also: List of cities in Alabama
Rank Metropolitan Area Population
(2007 estimates)
1 Birmingham 1,108,210
2 Mobile 540,258
3 Huntsville 386,632
4 Montgomery 365,962
5 Tuscaloosa 205,218
6 Decatur 149,279
7 Florence-Muscle Shoals 143,149
8 Dothan 139,499
9 Auburn-Opelika 130,516
10 Anniston-Oxford 113,103
11 Gadsden 103,271
total 3,249,245

Download high resolution version (1200x494, 271 KB)Panorama of Birmingham, Alabama from Red Mountain (2002) Photograph by John Morse, November 2002. ... Download high resolution version (1200x494, 271 KB)Panorama of Birmingham, Alabama from Red Mountain (2002) Photograph by John Morse, November 2002. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1524, 770 KB) Summary View of downtown Huntsville, Alabama from Big Spring International Park. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2032x1524, 770 KB) Summary View of downtown Huntsville, Alabama from Big Spring International Park. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... Categories: | ... This list of current cities. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. ... The Decatur Metropolitan Area is a large separate but equal part of the Huntsville-Decatur Metropolitan Area. ... Location of The Shoals The Shoals is a metropolitan area in northwestern Alabama, officially known as the Florence-Muscle Shoals Metropolitan Area, including the cities of Florence, Muscle Shoals, Tuscumbia, and Sheffield, and the counties of Lauderdale and Colbert. ... Dothan is a city located in the southeastern corner of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... The Auburn Metropolitan Area, officially the Auburn-Opelika Metropolitan Statistical Area, is a metro area in east-central Alabama with a 2004 population of 120,743. ... The Anniston-Oxford Metropolitan Statistical Area is the most populated metropolitan area in Northeast Alabama. ... Gadsden is a city in and the county seat of Etowah County, northeastern Alabama, United States, approximately 60 miles northeast of Birmingham. ...

Climate

The climate of Alabama is described as temperate with an average annual temperature of 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler.[19] Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.[19] For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...


Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in the entire state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken. This article is about weather phenomena. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...

Though winters in the state are usually mild, nightly freezing occurs frequently in the North Alabama region. This is shown in this picture taken at the Old State Bank in Decatur during early January.

South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the U.S. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail – the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.[20] Sometimes tornadoes occur – these are common throughout the state, although the peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama shares the dubious distinction, with Kansas, of having reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state – according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period 1 January 1950 to 31 October 2006. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind.[21] Several long – tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state except for Texas and Mississippi. The Super Outbreak of March, 1974, badly affected Alabama. The northern part of the state – along the Tennessee Valley – is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season (November and December) in addition to the Spring severe weather season. North Alabama is a region of the U.S. state of Alabama, generally thought to include these 11 counties: Cherokee, Colbert, DeKalb, Franklin, Jackson, Lauderdale, Lawrence, Limestone, Madison, Marshall, Morgan, and Winston. ... The Old State Bank in Decatur, Alabama, United States, opened its doors on July 29, 1833. ... Decatur, Alabama (top center), along the Tennessee River, is southwest of Huntsville and north of Birmingham, along Interstate 65. ... A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... This article is about the weather phenomenon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... F-scale redirects here. ... The U.S. National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina is the worlds largest active archive of weather data. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 1Time from first tornado to last tornado 2Most severe tornado damage; see Fujita Scale The Super Outbreak is the largest tornado outbreak on record. ... An outline of Significant Tornado Alley in the United States, where the highest percentage of violent tornadoes occur Tornado Alley is a colloquial term most often used in reference to the area of the United States in which tornadoes are most frequent. ...


Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Snow is a rare event in much of Alabama. Areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall. The US Southeast is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, but the Census Bureau does not provide a standard definition of a Southeast region of the United States, and organizations that need to subdivide the US are free to define a Southeast region to fit their needs. ...

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities[22]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
City temp °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C
Birmingham high 53 12 58 14 66 19 74 23 81 27 88 31 91 33 90 32 85 29 75 24 64 18 56 13
low 32 0 35 2 42 6 48 9 58 14 65 18 70 21 69 21 63 17 51 11 42 6 35 2
Huntsville high 49 9 55 13 63 17 72 22 80 27 86 30 89 32 89 32 83 28 73 23 62 17 52 11
low 31 −1 34 1 41 5 48 9 58 14 65 18 70 21 68 20 62 17 50 10 41 5 34 1
Mobile high 61 16 64 18 71 22 77 25 84 29 89 32 91 33 91 33 87 31 79 26 70 21 63 17
low 40 4 42 6 49 9 55 13 63 17 69 21 72 22 72 22 68 20 56 13 48 9 42 6
Montgomery high 58 14 62 17 70 21 78 26 85 29 91 33 93 34 92 33 88 31 79 26 69 21 60 16
low 36 2 39 4 45 7 51 11 60 16 67 19 71 22 70 21 65 18 52 11 44 7 38 3

History

Main article: History of Alabama

Among the Native American people once living in the area of present day Alabama were Alabama (Alibamu), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile.[23] Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-AD 700) and continued until European contact.[24] Meso-American influence is evident in the agrarian Mississippian culture that followed. Alabama State Flag This is the history of the State of Alabama, in the United States of America. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States and their history after European contact, chiefly in what is now the United States. ... Alabama-Coushatta Reservation welcome sign The Alabama or Alibamu (Albaamaha in the Alabama language) are a Southeastern culture people of Native Americans. ... This page contains special characters. ... For other uses, see Chickasaw (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Choctaw (disambiguation). ... The Creek are an American Indian people originally from the southeastern United States, also known by their original name Muscogee (or Muskogee), the name they use to identify themselves today. ... The Coushatta (also Koasati) are a Native American people living primarily in the U.S. state of Louisiana. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Territories in the Americas colonized or claimed by a European great power in 1750. ... The Mississippian culture was a mound-building Native American culture that flourished in what is now the Midwestern, Eastern, and Southeastern United States from approximately 800 to 1500 A.D., varying regionally. ...


The French founded the first European settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile in 1702.[25] Southern Alabama was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1780, and part of Spanish West Florida from 1780 to 1814. Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the American Mississippi territory thereafter. Its statehood was delayed by the lack of a coastline; rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814.[26] Alabama was the twenty-second state admitted to the Union, in 1819. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ...


Alabama was the new frontier in the 1820s and 1830s. Settlers rapidly arrived to take advantage of fertile soils. Planters brought slaves with them, and traders brought in more from the Upper South as the cotton plantations expanded. The economy of the central "Black Belt" featured large cotton plantations whose owners built their wealth on the labor of enslaved African Americans. It was named for the dark, fertile soil.[27] Elsewhere poor whites were subsistence farmers. According to the 1860 census, enslaved Africans comprised 45% of the state's population of 964,201. There were only 2,690 free persons of color. Map of Alabamas Black Belt region. ...


In 1861 Alabama seceded from the Union to join the Confederate States of America. While not many battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the Civil War. All the slaves were freed by 1865.[28] Following Reconstruction, Alabama was readmitted to the Union in 1868. Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...


After the Civil War, the state was still chiefly rural and tied to cotton. Planters resisted working with free labor and sought to re-establish controls over African Americans. Whites used paramiliatry groups, Jim Crow laws and segregation to reduce freedoms of African Americans and restore their own dominance. Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


In its new constitution of 1901, the elite-dominated legislature effectively disfranchised African Americans through voting restrictions. While the planter class had engaged poor whites in supporting these efforts, the new restrictions resulted in disfranchising poor whites as well. By 1941 a total of more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks. This was due mostly to effects of the cumulative poll tax.[29]


The damage to the African-American community was more pervasive, as nearly all its citizens lost the ability to vote. In 1900 fourteen Black Belt counties (which were primarily African American) had more than 79,000 voters on the rolls. By June 1,1903, the number of registered voters had dropped to 1,081. In 1900 Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote. By 1903 only 2,980 had managed to "qualify" to register, although at least 74,000 black voters were literate. The shut out was longlasting.[29]The disfranchisement was ended only by African Americans' leading the Civil Rights Movement and gaining Federal legislation in the mid-1960s to protect their voting and civil rights. Such legislation also protected the rights of poor whites. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The rural-dominated legislature continued to underfund schools and services for African Americans in the segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes.[27] Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek out opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities. The rate of population growth rate in Alabama (see table) dropped by nearly half from 1910-1920, reflecting the outmigration. Binomial name Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 Wikispecies has information related to: Boll weevil The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a beetle measuring an average length of six millimeters (¼ inch). ... was when erikson martinez was rich ...


At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs. It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City." By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U.S and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy.


Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside of Birmingham.


One result was that Jefferson County, home of Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state. It received back only 1/67th of the tax money, as the state legislature ensured that taxes were distributed equally to each county regardless of population. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature."[4]


Because of the long disfranchisement of African Americans, the state continued as one-party Democratic for decades. It produced a number of national leaders. Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought prosperity.[27] Cotton faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. In the 1960s under Governor George Wallace, many whites in the state opposed integration efforts. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ...


By the moral crusade of the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a restoration of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. De jure segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed.[30] Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to properly redistrict by population both the state legislature House and Senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the Alabama constitution's provision for periodic redistricting based on population was implemented. This benefited the many urban areas that had developed, and all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.[4]


After 1972, the state's white voters shifted much of their support to Republican candidates in presidential elections (as also occurred in neighboring southern states). Since 1990 the majority of whites in the state have also voted increasingly Republican in state elections.[31]


Demographics

Alabama Population Density map
Alabama Population Density map
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1800 1,250
1810 9,046 623.7%
1820 127,901 1,313.9%
1830 309,527 142%
1840 590,756 90.9%
1850 771,623 30.6%
1860 964,201 25%
1870 996,992 3.4%
1880 1,262,505 26.6%
1890 1,513,401 19.9%
1900 1,828,697 20.8%
1910 2,138,093 16.9%
1920 2,348,174 9.8%
1930 2,646,248 12.7%
1940 2,832,961 7.1%
1950 3,061,743 8.1%
1960 3,266,740 6.7%
1970 3,444,165 5.4%
1980 3,893,888 13.1%
1990 4,040,587 3.8%
2000 4,447,100 10.1%
Est. 2007 4,627,851 4.1%

As of 2005, Alabama has an estimated population of 4,557,808,[32] which is an increase of 32,433, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 110,457, or 2.5%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 77,418 people (that is 319,544 births minus 242,126 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 36,457 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 25,936 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 10,521 people. Image File history File links Alabama_population_map. ... Image File history File links Alabama_population_map. ... Main article: Alabama Population The U.S. Census Bureau reports Alabamas 2000 population as 4,447,100, and estimates its 2003 population as 4,500,752. ... The United States Census of 1800 was the second Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1810 was the third Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1820 was the fourth Census conducted in the United States. ... The United States Census of 1830 was the fifth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Sixth Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32. ... The Seventh Census of the United States, conducted by the Bureau of the Census, determined the resident population of the United States to be 23,191,876 — an increase of 35. ... The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants (24,000).


The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division.[33] Center of population is a subject of study in the field of demographics. ... Chilton County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... Jemison is a town located in Chilton County, Alabama. ...


Race and ancestry

The racial makeup of the state and comparison to the prior census:

Demographics of Alabama (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 72.56% 26.33% 1.00% 0.89% 0.07%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.48% 0.18% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 72.14% 26.70% 0.98% 1.02% 0.07%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.08% 0.17% 0.05% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 1.90% 3.95% -0.06% 17.43% 4.90%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 1.02% 3.97% -0.55% 17.47% 6.67%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 43.85% 1.05% 11.46% 16.20% -2.17%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama: African American (26.0%), American (17.0%), English (7.8%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%). 'American' does not include those reported as Native American. Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the United States Census Bureau and the Federal Office of Management and Budget (OMB), is a self-identification data item in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... Scots-Irish (formerly Scotch-Irish) is a term used to describe inhabitants of the USA and Canada of Scots-Irish (particularly Ulster-Scots) descent, who formed distinctive communities and had distinctive social characteristics. ...


Religion

Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt. In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.[34] In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state.[35][36] The approximate extent of the Bible Belt, indicated in red The Bible Belt is an informal term for an area of the United States of America in which socially conservative Christian Evangelical Protestantism is a dominant part of the culture. ...


Economy

Alabama's quarter depicting famous resident Helen Keller along with the longleaf pine branch and Camellia blossoms from the 50 State Quarters program. Released March 19, 2003.
Alabama's quarter depicting famous resident Helen Keller along with the longleaf pine branch and Camellia blossoms from the 50 State Quarters program. Released March 19, 2003.

According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2006 total gross state product was $160 billion, or $29,697 per capita for a ranking of 44th among states. Alabama's GDP increased 3.1% from 2005, placing Alabama number 23 in terms of state level GDP growth. The single largest increase came in the area of durable goods manufacturing.[37] In 1999, per capita income for the state was $18,189.[38] Download high resolution version (1154x1147, 171 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1154x1147, 171 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Helen Adams Keller (June 27, 1880 – June 1, 1968) was an American author, activist and lecturer. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program (Pub. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that provides a comprehensive statistical picture of the economy of the United States. ... Gross state product is a measurment of the economic output of a U.S. state or an Australian state. ... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ...


Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama ranks between eight and ten in national cotton production, according to various reports,[39][40] with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio Poultry is the category of domesticated birds kept for meat, eggs, and feathers. ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... This article is about the legume. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are utilised as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... Soy redirects here. ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, which is home of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Missile Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal. Fe redirects here. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Girls wearing formal attire for dancing, an example of one of the many modern forms of clothing. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Surface mount electronic components Electronics is the study of the flow of charge through various materials and devices such as semiconductors, resistors, inductors, capacitors, nano-structures and vacuum tubes. ... Huntsville, Alabama (top center), near the Tennessee border, is north of Birmingham and northeast of Decatur, across the Tennessee River flowing northwest. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is a lead NASA center for propulsion and for computers, networks, and information management. ... ATACMS missile The United States Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) is the U.S. Army organization primarily responsible for life cycle management of army missile, helicopter, unmanned ground vehicle and unmanned aerial vehicle weapon systems. ... Redstone Arsenal is a U.S. Army post and a census-designated place (CDP) located next to the city of Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama, and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. ...


Alabama is also home to the largest industrial growth corridor in the nation, including the surrounding states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Most of this growth is due to Alabama's rapidly expanding automotive manufacturing industry. In Alabama alone since 1993, it has generated more than 67,800 new jobs. Alabama currently ranks 2nd in the nation behind Detroit in automobile output. With recent expansions at sites in Alabama, by early 2009 the state will surpass Detroit and become the largest builder of automobiles in North America.


In the 1970s and 1980s, Birmingham's economy was transformed by investments in bio-technology and medical research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and its adjacent hospital. The UAB Hospital is a Level I trauma center providing health care and breakthrough medical research. UAB is now the area's largest employer and the largest in Alabama with a workforce of about 20,000. Health care services provider HealthSouth is also headquartered in the city.


Birmingham is also a leading banking center, serving as home to two major banks: Regions Financial Corporation and Compass Bancshares. SouthTrust, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004. The city still has major operations as one of the regional headquarters of Wachovia. In November 2006, Regions Financial merged with AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. They formed the 8th Largest U. S. Bank (by total assets). Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Magic City, such as Superior Bank and New South Federal Savings Bank.


Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, has a major presence with several large offices in the metropolitan area. Major insurance providers: Protective Life, Infinity Property & Casualty and ProAssurance among others, are headquartered in Birmingham and employ a large number of people in Greater Birmingham.


The city is also a powerhouse of construction and engineering companies, including BE&K and B. L. Harbert International which routinely are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design and international construction firms.[7][8]


In May 2007, a site north of Mobile was selected by German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp for a $3.7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.[41] Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... ThyssenKrupp AG (ISIN: DE0007500001) is a very large German industrial conglomerate, with about 188,000 employees. ...


The city of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on the Gulf of Mexico, and with inland waterway access to the Midwest via the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile man-made waterway which provides a connecting link between the Tennessee and Tombigbee rivers. ...


Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5% personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status. The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.[42] The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon additional city and county sales taxes. The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country.[43]


As recently as 2003, Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. It is one of only a few handful of states to accomplish large surpluses, with a budget surplus of nearly $1.2 billion in 2007, and estimated at more than $2.1 billion for 2008. The declining economy may reduce that surplus.


Transportation

Alabama state welcome sign
Alabama state welcome sign

Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross it: I-65 runs north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 goes from the border of Georgia and ends in Montgomery, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to east through Mobile. Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under construction. When completed around 2012 it will connect Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. Yellow Mama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Yellow Mama File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Interstate 65 is an interstate highway in the United States. ... Interstate 59 is an interstate highway in the southern United States. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Interstate 85 is an interstate highway in the southeastern United States. ... Interstate 10, the major east-west Interstate Highway in the southern United States, runs through the southern sections of Mobile County and Baldwin County, Alabama. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ...


Major airports in Alabama include Birmingham International Airport (BHM), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals – Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU). For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa. Birmingham International Airport (IATA: BHM, ICAO: KBHM) is the major airport that serves Birmingham, Alabama and Central Alabama. ... , FAA diagram of Dothan Regional Airport Dothan Regional Airport (IATA: DHN, ICAO: KDHN, FAA LID: DHN) is a public airport located five miles (8 km) northwest of the central business district of Dothan, a city in Houston County, Alabama, United States. ... FAA Official Diagram Huntsville International Airport (IATA: HSV, ICAO: KHSV, FAA LID: HSV), also known as Carl T. Jones Field, is an airport located 9 miles (14 km) southwest of the central business district of Huntsville, a city in Madison County, Alabama, United States. ... Mobile Regional Airport (IATA: MOB, ICAO: KMOB) is an airport located 11 miles (18 km) west of the central business district (CBD) of Mobile, a city in Mobile County, Alabama, near Pascagoula, Mississippi. ... Montgomery Regional Airport (IATA: MGM, ICAO: KMGM), also known as Dannelly Field, is a public airport located six miles (9. ... Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (IATA: MSL, ICAO: KMSL) is a public airport located 1 mile (2 km) east of Muscle Shoals, in Colbert County, Alabama, USA. MSL is mostly used for general aviation but is also served by one commercial airline. ... Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (IATA: TCL, ICAO: KTCL) is a public airport located three miles (5 km) northwest of the city of Tuscaloosa in Tuscaloosa County, Alabama, USA. External links Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (PDF) FAA Airport Diagram (PDF) Resources for this airport: AirNav airport information for KTCL FlightAware airport information and... Pryor Field is located next to Calhoun Community College in Decatur, AL. This regional airport serves the western portion of the Huntsville-Decatur Metro Area, and primarily serves the cities of Decatur and Athens. ... Vermonter at the Brattleboro, Vermont, station, 18 March 2004. ...


Water ports

Aerial view of the port of Mobile
Aerial view of the port of Mobile

Listed from north to south Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 999 pixel, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions of this file File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alabama... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 999 pixel, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions of this file File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alabama...

Port name Location Connected to
Port of Florence Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick Lake Tennessee River
Port of Decatur Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Tennessee River
Port of Guntersville Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Tennessee River
Port of Birmingham Birmingham, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Montgomery Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake Alabama River
Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico

Florence Florence city is the seat of Lauderdale County, which is situated in the northwest corner of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Florence Florence city is the seat of Lauderdale County, which is situated in the northwest corner of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Muscle Shoals is a city famous for its music and contributions to American popular music, in Colbert County, Alabama, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population of the city is 11,924, and is included in The Shoals MSA. // Muscle Shoals is located at (34. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Category: ... Decatur, Alabama (top center), along the Tennessee River, is southwest of Huntsville and north of Birmingham, along Interstate 65. ... Wheeler Lake area Wheeler Lake is located in north Alabama between Rogersville and Huntsville. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Guntersville is a city in Marshall County, Alabama, United States and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. ... Guntersville is a city in Marshall County, Alabama, United States and is included in the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area. ... Lake Guntersville is located in north Alabama between Bridgeport and Guntersville. ... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Birmingham is the largest city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Jefferson County. ... Nickname: Location in Jefferson County in the state of Alabama Coordinates: , Country State Counties Jefferson, Shelby Incorporated December 19, 1871 Government  - Type Mayor - Council  - Mayor Bernard Kincaid (Current) Larry Langford (Mayor-Elect) Area  - City 151. ... The Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa, Alabama in 2004 The Black Warrior River is a tributary of the Tombigbee River, approximately 178 mi (286 km) long, in west central Alabama in the United States. ... Map of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km) artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee and Tombigbee rivers. ... Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. ... Tuscaloosa is a city in west central Alabama in the southern United States. ... The Black Warrior River at Tuscaloosa, Alabama in 2004 The Black Warrior River is a tributary of the Tombigbee River, approximately 178 mi (286 km) long, in west central Alabama in the United States. ... Map of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km) artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee and Tombigbee rivers. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... Coordinates: , Country State County Montgomery Incorporated December 3, 1819 Government  - Mayor Bobby Bright Area  - City  156. ... The Alabama River at Montgomery in 2004 The Alabama River, in the U.S. state of Alabama, is formed by the Tallapoosa and Coosa rivers, which unite about six miles above Montgomery. ... Basic Facts The Port of Mobile, Alabama, is the largest and only deep-water port in the state, and is the 14th largest in the United States. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Mobile Bay - Landsat photo Mobile and Mobile Bay from space, June 1991 During a jubilee along the shores of Mobile Bay, blue crabs & flounder come to shallow water near shore Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ...

Law and government

The State Capitol, built in 1850
The State Capitol, built in 1850

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 176 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

State government

Main article: Government of Alabama

The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution.[44][45] There is a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution.[2] This movement is based upon the fact that Alabama's constitution highly centralizes power in Montgomery and leaves practically no power in local hands. Any policy changes proposed around the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length were intentional to codify segregation and racism. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Alabama Constitution is the basic governing document of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Page I of the Constitution of the United States of America Page II of the United States Constitution Page III of the United States Constitution Page IV of the United States Constitution The Syng inkstand, with which the Constitution was signed The Constitution of the United States is the supreme...


Alabama is divided into three equal branches:


The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation. Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Alabama Legislature met at the Alabama State Capitol between 1851 to 1985. ... The seal of the Alabama Senate. ...


The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the Alabama State Auditor. The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The following is a list of the territorial and state governors of Alabama. ... // The Attorney General of Alabama is an elected, constitutional officer of the State of Alabama. ...


The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama. The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... The Alabama Constitution is the basic governing document of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... The Supreme Court of Alabama is the highest court in the state of Alabama. ...


Local and county government

Alabama has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the County Commission, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Due to the restraints placed in the Alabama Constitution, all but seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have little to no home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning. United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... The Alabama Constitution is the basic governing document of the U.S. state of Alabama. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...

Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. However, counties can declare themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas. Autauga County - Prattville Baldwin County - Bay Minette Barbour County - Clayton Bibb County - Centreville Blount County - Oneonta Bullock County - Union Springs Butler County - Greenville Calhoun County - Anniston Chambers County - Lafayette Cherokee County - Centre Chilton County - Clanton Choctaw County - Butler Clarke County - Grove Hill Clay County - Ashland Cleburne County - Heflin Coffee County... Map of Alcoholic Beverage Control States, current as of February 2006. ...


State politics

Alabama Governor Bob Riley
Alabama Governor Bob Riley

The current governor of the state is Bob Riley. The lieutenant governor is Jim Folsom Jr. The Democratic Party currently holds a large majority in both houses of the Legislature. Due to the Legislature's power to override a gubernatorial veto by a mere simple majority (most state Legislatures require a 2/3 majority to override a veto), the relationship between the executive and legislative branches can be easily strained when different parties control the branches. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 664 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alabama Bob Riley User:Mimich/Sandbox... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 495 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (548 × 664 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alabama Bob Riley User:Mimich/Sandbox... The following is a list of the territorial and state governors of Alabama. ... Robert Renfroe Bob Riley (born October 3, 1944) is an American politician in the Republican Party. ... This is a List of Lieutenant Governors of the U.S. state of Alabama, 1868 to present. ... James Elisha Folsom, Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the African American vote through intimidation and terrorism. White supremacy was re-established. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Third Military District existed in the American South during the Reconstruction era that followed the American Civil War comprised of Georgia, Florida and Alabama and headquartered in Atlanta. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ...


After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise black residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Provisions which disfranchised African Americans also disfranchised poor whites, however. By 1941 more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000, although the impact was greater on the African-American community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised. Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ...


From 1901 to the 1960s, the state legislature failed to perform redistricting as population grew and shifted within the state . The result was a rural minority that dominated state politics until a series of court cases required redistricting in 1972.


With the disfranchisement of African Americans, the state became part of the "Solid South", a one-party system in which the Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election. The phrase Solid South describes the electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era, 1876-1964. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... For other uses, see Primary. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ...


In the 1986 Democratic primary election, the then-incumbent Lieutenant Governor lost the Democratic nomination for Governor. The state Democratic party invalidated the election and placed the Lieutenant Governor's name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of the candidate chosen in the primary. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger Guy Hunt as Governor. This was the first Republican Governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction. Since then, Republicans have been increasingly elected to state offices until in 2006 Democrats were barely holding a majority in the state legislature. Since 1986, only one Democrat, Don Siegelman, has managed to win the Governor's office. A corruption probe and eventual trial, the timing of which coincided with the 2006 state primary, relegated Siegelman to one term. Today, the state is mainly Republican. Harold Guy Hunt (born June 17, 1933 in Holly Pond, Alabama) is an American politician who served two terms as the Governor of Alabama from 1987 to 1993. ... Donald Eugene Siegelman (born February 24, 1946) is an American Democratic politician. ...


Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when majority whites bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social reform. George Wallace, the state's governor, remains a notorious and controversial figure. Only with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain suffrage and other civil rights. Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ...


In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and the Governor signed, a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State Capitol, which served as the first Capital of the Confederate States of America.[46] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Alabama State Capitol The Alabama State Capitol is located on Goat Hill in Montgomery, Alabama. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia...

National Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic State winner
2004 62.46% 1,176,394 36.84% 693,933 George W. Bush
2000 56.47% 944,409 41.59% 695,602 George W. Bush
1996 50.12% 769,044 43.16% 662,165 Bob Dole
1992 47.65% 804,283 40.88% 690,080 George Bush
1988 59.17% 815,576 39.86% 549,506 George Bush
1984 60.54% 872,849 38.28% 551,899 Ronald Reagan
1980 48.75% 654,192 47.45% 636,730 Ronald Reagan
1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% 659,170 Jimmy Carter
1972 72.43% 728,701 25.54% 256,923 Richard Nixon
1968* 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579 George Wallace
1964 69.45% 479,085 30.55% 210,732 Barry Goldwater
1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% 318,303 John F. Kennedy
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes

From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. 1960 was a curious election. The Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot, but the Democratic electors from Alabama gave 6 of their 11 electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd. In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state, in part because of his opposition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which restored the franchise for African Americans. GOP redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Presidential election results map. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... § Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) was a United States Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996, serving part of that time as United States Senate Majority Leader. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... Harry Flood Byrd, Sr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–1965, 1969–87) and the Republican Partys nominee for president in the 1964 election. ...


In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that. The United States presidential election of 1968 was a wrenching national experience, and included the assassination of Democratic candidate Robert F. Kennedy, the violence at the 1968 Democratic National Convention, and widespread demonstrations against the Vietnam War across American university and college campuses. ... The American Independent Party is a California political party. ... This article is about the politician, former governor of Alabama and former presidential candidate. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Since 1980, conservative Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the Federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates have been elected to many state-level offices and comprise a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The eleven counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group. The United States presidential election of 2004 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004 to elect the president. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Map of Alabamas Black Belt region. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ...


The state's two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans. The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Jefferson Beauregard Jeff Sessions III (born December 24, 1946) is the junior United States Senator from Alabama. ... Richard Craig Dick Shelby (born May 6, 1934) is an American politician. ...


In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, five of whom are Republicans: (Jo Bonner, Terry Everett, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, and Spencer Bachus) and two are Democrats: (Bud Cramer and Artur Davis). The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Josiah Robins Bonner, Jr. ... Robert Terry Everett (born February 15, 1937), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 2nd Congressional District of Alabama. ... For the U.S. Representative from Michigan, see Mike J. Rogers. ... Robert Aderholt (born July 22, 1965) is an American politician and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1997, representing Alabamas 4th congressional district. ... Spencer Bachus Spencer Thomas Bachus III (born December 28, 1947), American politician, has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 6th District of Alabama (map). ... Robert E. Bud Cramer Jr. ... Artur Davis Artur Davis (born October 9, 1967), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 7th District of Alabama (map). ...

Further information: United States presidential election in Alabama, 2004

Alabama trended sharply toward George W. Bush in 2004. ...

Health and education

Primary and secondary education

Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the oversight of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364 elementary and secondary students.[47] The Alabama State Board of Education is a nine-member body which authorizes the education policy for the state of Alabama. ...


Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006-2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year.[47]


In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law. In 2004, only 23 percent of schools met AYP.[48]


Colleges and universities

Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama in Florence. The school was chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature in 1830.

Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, numerous two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from 2-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs. [49] This is a list of colleges and universities in Alabama. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Harrison Plaza, University of North Alabama, Florence. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 257 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Harrison Plaza, University of North Alabama, Florence. ... The University of North Alabama (abbreviated UNA) is a coeducational university located in Florence, Alabama, and the states oldest public university. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges as well as a variety of subject focused national and international accreditation agencies.[50]


Professional Sports teams

Main article: List of professional sports teams in Alabama
Club Sport League
Birmingham Barons Baseball Southern League
Huntsville Stars Baseball Southern League
Mobile BayBears Baseball Southern League
Montgomery Biscuits Baseball Southern League
Huntsville Havoc Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League
Alabama Renegades (Huntsville) Football National Women's Football Association
Tennessee Valley Vipers (Huntsville) Arena football af2

League Southern League Division South Division Year founded 1885 Major League affiliation Chicago White Sox Home ballpark Regions Park Previous home ballparks Rickwood Field City Hoover, Alabama Current uniform colors black, white, silver Previous uniform colors Logo design The wordmark Barons in black outlined in white and silver with the... This article is about the sport. ... The Southern League is a minor league baseball league which operates in the Southern United States. ... The Huntsville Stars are a minor league baseball team based in Huntsville, Alabama. ... The Mobile BayBears are a minor league baseball team based near Mobile, Alabama. ... Tampa Bay Devil Rays American League AAA Durham Bulls AA Montgomery Biscuits A Visalia Oaks Southwest Michigan Devil Rays Hudson Valley Renegades R Princeton Devil Rays The Montgomery Biscuits are a minor league baseball team based in Montgomery, Alabama. ... The Huntsville Havoc are a professional ice hockey team. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The Southern Professional Hockey League (SPHL) is a professional ice hockey league with teams located in the southeastern United States. ... The Alabama Renegades are a womens full-contact American football team based in Huntsville, Alabama. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The National Womens Football Association (NWFA) is a full-contact American football league for women. ... The Tennessee Valley Vipers is Huntsville, Alabamas af2 franchise, holding home games at the Von Braun Center. ... Arena football is a sport invented by Jim Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the National Football League. ... af2 (short for arenafootball2) is the name of the Arena Football Leagues minor league, which started play in 2000. ...

See also

  • List of Alabama-related topics

Cultural sites

The Old State Bank in Decatur

Image File history File links Saxes-4. ... Image File history File links Saxes-4. ... The Old State Bank in Decatur, Alabama, United States, opened its doors on July 29, 1833. ... Decatur, Alabama (top center), along the Tennessee River, is southwest of Huntsville and north of Birmingham, along Interstate 65. ... The Alabama Shakespeare Festival (ASF) is one of the largest Shakespeare festivals in the world. ... The Alabama Symphony Orchestra is a major orchestra based in Birmingham, Alabama. ... The Alabama Theatre was built in 1927 by Paramount Studios as an Alabama showcase for Paramount films. ... The Birmingham Astronomical Society was founded in 1977 in Birmingham, Alabama by amateur astronomers. ... Birmingham Civil Rights Institute is a large interpretive museum and research center that features the struggles of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s and 1960s. ... The Birmingham Museum of Art is a large public art museum, located in downtown Birmingham, Alabama. ... The McWane Science Center is a science museum and research archive located in downton Birmingham, Alabama (USA). ... The Old State Bank in Decatur, Alabama, United States, opened its doors on July 29, 1833. ... St. ... The Rhea-McEntire House is located along the shoreline of the Tennessee Rivers Wheeler Lake in Decatur, Alabama. ... USS Alabama (BB-60), a South Dakota-class battleship, was the fifth completed ship named Alabama of the United States Navy, however she was only the third commissioned ship with that name. ... Some of the rockets in the U.S. Space & Rocket Center. ... Towering rockets in Rocket Park are a daily sight for campers at U.S. Space Camp. ... The Vulcan statue of Birmingham, Alabama is the largest cast iron statue in the world and the symbol of the city. ...

Events

// Activities Each and every year, dozens of colorful balloons take to the skies of Decatur, AL for the Alabama Jubilee Hot-Air Balloon Classic over the Memorial Day holiday weekend (May 28-29). ... The Alabama Sports Festival is a multi-sport event featuring athletes from the U.S. State of Alabama, The ASF is an affiliate of State Games of America. ... Bayfest is a 3 day music festival in the heart of downtown Mobile, Alabama. ... Big Spring Jam is an annual three-day music festival taking place in Huntsville, Alabama. ... City Stages is a three-day, family-friendly, arts and music festival that takes place in downtown Birmingham, Alabama in and around Linn Park. ... The GMAC Bowl is a post-season NCAA-sanctioned Division 1-A college football bowl game that has been played annually at 40,646-seat Ladd Peebles Stadium in Mobile, Alabama, since 1999. ... Jubilee City Fest is a three-day, family-friendly, arts and music festival that takes place in downtown Montgomery, Alabama. ... Mardi Gras (French for Fat Tuesday) is the day before Ash Wednesday, and is also called Shrove Tuesday, the final day of Carnival (pronounced car-nee-VAHL in English, CAR-na-val in most romance languages – and in New Orleans, in the USA, because of its french heritage). ... Jubilee photo with crabs, flounder (flat brown fish), stingray, and an eel, at Weeks Bay NERR on eastern shore of Mobile Bay (click image to enlarge) Jubilee is the name used locally [1] for a natural phenomenon that occurs from time to time on the shores of Mobile Bay, Alabama... Annual Festival in Dothan, Alabama celebrating the huge crop of peanuts that is harvested in the surrounding environs each year. ... The Papajohns. ... The Regions Charity Classic, formerly known as the Brunos Memorial Classic, is an American golf tournament that is part of the PGA Champions Tour. ... The Senior Bowl is an all-star college football exhibition game usually played either at or towards the end of the college football season in January. ... Sidewalk Moving Picture Festival is a film festival, founded in 1999 and occurring annually on the last weekend of September in Birmingham, Alabama. ... // Intro One of the largest free Fourth of July celebrations in the South. ...

Venues

The Birmingham Jefferson Convention Complex (formerly Birmingham-Jefferson Civic Center) is a sports, convention and entertainment complex located in Birmingham, Alabama. ... Bryant-Denny Stadium, located in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, is the home stadium for the University of Alabama football team. ... Celebration Arena is a 10,000-seat indoor arena located in Decatur, Alabama. ... The Fair Park Arena is a 6,000-seat multi-purpose arena in Birmingham, Alabama, USA. It hosts locals sporting events and concerts. ... Hank Aaron Stadium is the home of the Mobile BayBears of the Southern League. ... Joe W. Davis Stadium was built in 1985 in Huntsville, Alabama to host the Southern League Huntsville Stars minor league baseball team. ... Jordan-Hare Stadium is the playing venue for Auburn Universitys football team located on campus in Auburn, Alabama, USA. The stadium is named for Ralph Shug Jordan (pronounced JURD-an), the Universitys winningest football coach, and Cliff Hare, a member of Auburns first football team. ... Ladd Peebles Stadium (formerly Ladd Memorial Stadium) is a stadium in Mobile, Alabama. ... Legion Field is a large stadium in Birmingham, Alabama primarily designed to be used as a venue for American football, but is occasionally used for other large outdoor events. ... The McWane Science Center is a science museum and research archive located in downton Birmingham, Alabama (USA). ... Mitchell Center is a 10,041-seat multi-purpose arena in Mobile, Alabama. ... Mobile Civic Center is a multi-use event center located in Mobile, Alabama. ... Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium is the home of the Montgomery Biscuits of the Southern League. ... Movie Gallery Veterans Stadium is a stadium in Troy, Alabama. ... Paul Snow Stadium is a 15,000-seat multi-purpose stadium in Jacksonville, Alabama. ... Template:The Gilmer Blackburn (Point Mallard) Aquatic Center Point Mallard Aquatic Center (Water Park), Decatur, AL Point Mallard Parks Aquatic Center was developed in the early 1970s after Mayor Gilmer Blackburn saw enclosed wave-making swimming pools in Japan and thought one could be a tourist attraction in... Regions Park, formerly known as Hoover Metropolitan Stadium, is a minor league baseball park located in the Birmingham, Alabama, USA, suburb of Hoover. ... Rickwood Field, located in Birmingham, Alabama, is the oldest surviving professional baseball park in the United States. ... The Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail is a collection of nine championship caliber golf courses, designed by Robert Trent Jones, Sr. ... Talladega Superspeedway is a motorsports complex located in Talladega, Alabama. ... The International Motorsports Hall of Fame and Museum were opened in April of 1983. ... The Von Braun Center (VBC), formerly known as the Von Braun Civic Center (VBCC), is a multipurpose indoor arena, meeting, and performing arts complex, with a maximum arena seating capacity of 10,000, located in Huntsville, Alabama. ...

Famous Alabamians

Hank Aaron, Tallulah Bankhead, Hugo L. Black, Paul "Bear" Bryant, George Washington Carver, Nat King Cole, William C. Handy, Bo Jackson, Helen Keller, Coretta Scott King, Harper Lee, Joe Louis, Willie Mays, John Hunt Morgan, Jim Nabors, Jesse Owens, Condoleezza Rice, George Wallace, Booker T. Washington, Hank Williams (World Almanac & Book of Facts, Reader's Digest Publishing, 2008)


References

  1. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Alabama, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division (June 28, 2007). Retrieved on June 28, 2007.
  2. ^ a b c Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 3 November, 2006.
  3. ^ census.gov Alabama Quick Facts. State and County Quick Facts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  4. ^ a b c George Mason University, United States Election Project: Alabama Redistricting Summary, accessed 10 Mar 2008
  5. ^ a b c Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. 
  6. ^ a b c Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward, Leah R. Atkins, Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Alabama: The State Name. All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  8. ^ a b Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. 
  9. ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. 
  10. ^ Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. 
  11. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North America". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145: 153–174. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. 
  12. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama". American Speech (12): 212–215. 
  13. ^ GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000. Geographic Comparison Table. US Census Bureau (Census Year 2000). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  14. ^ a b c The Geography of Alabama. Geography of the States. NetState.com (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  15. ^ National Park Guide. Geographic Search. National Park Service - U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  16. ^ Alabama County (geographies ranked by total population) date= Census year 2000. Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  17. ^ a b c "Wetumpka Impact Crater" Wetumpka Public Library, accessed Aug. 21, 2007.
  18. ^ "The Wetumpka Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42.
  19. ^ a b "Alabama Climate", Encyclopedia Britannica, Retrieved May 7, 2007
  20. ^ Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 1990-2003, [1] Retrieved 8 May 2007
  21. ^ Tornadoproject.com, Fujita scale. Retrieved 3 September 2007
  22. ^ US Travel Weather
  23. ^ Alabama Indian Tribes. Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com (Updated 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  24. ^ Alabama. The New York Times Almanac 2004. The New York Times (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  25. ^ Alabama State History. theUS50.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  26. ^ AL-Alabama. Landscapes and History by state. StateMaster.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  27. ^ a b c The Black Belt. Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University (2004-04-19). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  28. ^ 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  29. ^ a b Glenn Feldman. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, p.136
  30. ^ Voting Rights. Civil Rights: Law and History. US Department of Justice (2002-01-09). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  31. ^ The New South Rises, Again. Civil Rights: Law and History. Southerner.net (Spring 1999). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  32. ^ Alabama QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau (2006-06-08). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  33. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt.
  34. ^ Campbell, Kirsten. "Alabama rates well in biblical literacy", Mobile Register, Advance Publications, Inc., 2007-03-25, p. A1. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  35. ^ Confidence in State and Local Institutions Survey (English). Capital Survey Research Center.
  36. ^ White, David. "Poll says we feel good about state Trust in government, unlike some institutions, hasn't fallen", Birmingham News, Birmingham News, 2007-04-01, p. 13A. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  37. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2006 (HTML). Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  38. ^ United States Census Bureau (HTML). State and County Quick Facts. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  39. ^ Alabama and CBER: 75 Years of Change. Alabama Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama (Q4 2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  40. ^ State Highlights for 2004-2005. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. USDA, NASS, Alabama Statistical Office (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  41. ^ "ThyssenKrupp's Alabama incentive package tops $811 million", Press register, 2007-05-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  42. ^ http://www.taxadmin.org/fta/rate/sl_sales.html Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes, July 2004 Retrieved on 25 May 2007
  43. ^ Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970-2007) (PDF). Tax Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  44. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel. "Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds", The Washington Post, 2004-11-28. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. 
  45. ^ Constitution of Alabama - 1901. The Alabama Legislative Information System. Retrieved on 2006-09-22.
  46. ^ Rawls, Phillip. "Alabama offers an apology for slavery", The Virginian Pilot, Landmark Communications. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. (English) 
  47. ^ a b Alabama Education Quick Facts 2007 (PDF) (english). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  48. ^ Eighty-Two Percent of Alabama Schools Make AYP While Increasing Annual Measurable Objectives (PDF) (english). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  49. ^ [www.ache.state.al.us/Acadaffr/ProInv/Degreeabbr.htm Degree titles and abbreviations] (english). Alabama Commission on Higher Education.
  50. ^ [www.ache.state.al.us/Colleges&Universities/Accreditation/index.htm Accreditation] (english). Alabama Commission on Higher Education..

The comma-separated values (or CSV; also known as a comma-separated list or comma-separated variables) file format is a file type that stores tabular data. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John R. Swanton was an American anthropologist who worked among a number of Pacific Northwest coastal tribes in the United States and Canada in the early 20th century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John R. Swanton was an American anthropologist who worked among a number of Pacific Northwest coastal tribes in the United States and Canada in the early 20th century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

For a detailed bibliography, see the History of Alabama.
  • Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994)
  • Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004)
  • Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921.
  • Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.
  • Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979.
  • WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)

Alabama State Flag This is the history of the State of Alabama, in the United States of America. ...

External links

Find more about Alabama on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Alabama.gov – Official website.
  • Alabama State Databases - Annotated list of searchable databases produced by Alabama state agencies and compiled by the Government Documents Roundtable of the American Library Association.
  • Alabama Association of Regional Councils
  • TourAlabama.org – Alabama Department of Tourism and Travel
  • al.com - online home of The Birmingham News, The Huntsville Times, and the Mobile Register newspapers
  • TheRiverRegionOnline.com – River Region Information source
  • Archives.state.al.us – Alabama Department of Archives and History
    • All About Alabama at the Archives Department site
  • AlabamaMosaic, a digital repository of materials on Alabama's history, culture, places, and people
  • Alabama National Guard – Alabama National Guard
  • Code of Alabama 1975 – at the Alabama Legislature site
  • Alabama at the Open Directory Project
  • USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Alabama
  • Alabama QuickFacts from the U.S. Census Bureau
  • Alabama State Fact Sheet from the U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Alabama State Parks
  • National Parks of Alabama
  • The U. S. Space and Rocket Center Huntsville
  • Business Alabama magazine
  • Alabama Department of Conservation & Natural Resources
  • Alabama Department of Public Health
  • Africa Town, Alabama
  • Regions of Alabama Southern Spaces – Wayne Flynt – October 3, 2005


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Birmingham News is a the daily newspaper for Birmingham, Alabama, and the largest newspaper in Alabama. ... The Huntsville Times is the daily morning newspaper of record for the city of Huntsville, Alabama and its surrounding areas. ... The Mobile Register is a daily newspaper serving the southeast Alabama counties of Mobile and Baldwin, continuing its on-going mission to be a better newspaper everyday since its first incarnation in 1813, making it Alabamas oldest newspaper. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Coordinates: 33°N 87°W / 33, -87 Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... -1... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Dakotan Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th in the US  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Official language(s) English Demonym South Dakotan Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  Ranked 17th in the US  - Total 77,116[1] sq mi (199,905 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 380 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For the capital city of the United States, see Washington, D.C.. For other uses, see Washington (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Federal districts are subdivisions of a federal system of government. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... An insular area is United States territory that is neither a part of one of the fifty states nor a part of the District of Columbia, the nations federal district. ... Motto Samoa, Muamua Le Atua(Samoan) Samoa, Let God Be First Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner, Amerika Samoa Capital Pago Pago; Fagatogo (seat of government) Official languages English, Samoan Government  -  Governor Togiola Tulafono United States unincorporated territory  -  Treaty of Berlin 1899   -  Deed of Cession of Tutuila 1900   -  Deed of Cession... Anthem: Gi Talo Gi Halom Tasi(Chamorro) Satil Matawal Pacifiko(Carolinian) Capital Saipan Official languages English, Chamorro, Carolinian Government Presidential representative democracy  -  Governor Benigno R. Fitial  -  Lt. ... For the board game, see Puerto Rico (board game). ... Motto United in Pride and Hope Anthem Virgin Islands March Capital (and largest city) Charlotte Amalie Official languages English Government  -  Head of State George W. Bush  -  Governor John de Jongh Organized, unincorporated territory  -  Revised Organic Act 22 July 1954  Area  -  Total 346. ... The flag of the United States is used for all of the United States Minor Outlying Islands Map showing the location of the islands in the Pacific Ocean (highlighted with red boxes) The United States Minor Outlying Islands, a statistical designation defined by ISO 3166-1, consists of nine insular... Bajo Nuevo Bank, also called the Petrel Islands, is located in the western United States and Jamaica. ... Baker Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°13′N 176°31′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Howland Island Howland Island is an uninhabited atoll located just north of the equator in the central Pacific Ocean at 0°48′N 176°38′W, about 3,100 km (1,675 nautical miles) southwest of Honolulu. ... Jarvis Island (formerly also known as Bunker Island[1]) is an uninhabited 4. ... Johnston Atoll is a 130 km² atoll in the North Pacific Ocean at 16°45′N 169°30′W, about one-third of the way from Hawaii to the Marshall Islands. ... The flag of the US is used for Kingman Reef Kingman Reef Kingman Reef—NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Kingman Reef is a one-square-kilometer tropical coral reef located in the North Pacific Ocean, roughly half way between Hawaiian Islands and American Samoa at 6°24... Orthographic projection centred over Midway. ... Navassa Island map from The World Factbook Navassa Island - NASA NLT Landsat 7 (Visible Color) Satellite Image Navassa Island (La Navase in French, Lanavaz in Haitian Kreyòl) is a small, uninhabited island in the Caribbean Sea. ... Palmyra Atoll - Landsat Image N-03-05_2000 (1:50,000) Palmyra Atoll - Marplot Map (1:50,000) Orthographic projection over Palmyra Atoll Palmyra Atoll, is an incorporated atoll administered by the United States government. ... Serranilla Bank is a western Caribbean island located about 210 miles north-northeast of Nicaragua. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Historic Southern United States. ... The South Atlantic States form one of the nine divisions within the United States that are formally recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The East South Central States constitute one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by that countrys census bureau. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... The West South Central States form one of the nine geographic divisions within the United States that are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links Confederate_National_Flag_since_Mar_4_1865. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Alabama Band (1532 words)
When legendary country music group Alabama broke the news of their 2003-2004 American Farewell Tour, an entire generation of fans turned out to support the band's last stand.
It is with great pleasure that Cracker Barrel presents this exclusive, live collection of classic Alabama hits recorded during that tour experience what it felt like to be in the seats and hear the unique way that these songs were performed live.
Sonny James spent his early years as a musical prodigy in an Alabama farm family that eventually became a professional singing group that had 16 consecutive No. 1's; a record that stood until Alabama smashed it with 21 consecutive No. 1's in the 80's.
Alabama - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2203 words)
Alabama is part of the Bible Belt, in which evangelicals and fundamentalists are predominant.
The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members.
Alabama is one of the most conservative states in the country; Shelby County, in suburban Birmingham, and the city of San Francisco, California are the closest pair of greatly populated areas to being political polar opposites.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m