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Encyclopedia > Al Jazira, Mesopotamia

Al Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. It covers northern Mesopotamia, extending from the Euphrates to the Tigris. Its major settlements are Mosul, Dayr az Zawr, Ar Raqqah, Al Hasakah and Qamishli. Al Jazira is characterised as a riparian plain, quite distinct from the Syrian Desert and lower-lying central Mesopotamia. Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Mesopotamia ( Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin two rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Mosūl ( Kurdish: Mûsil, Arabic: موصل, al Mawsil) or Nineveh ( Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ... Ar Raqqah (ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ; also spelled Rakka), city in north central Syria, capital of the Raqqah province, located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. ... Al Hasakah is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria, including the Euphrates river. ... Qamishli ܩܡܫܠܝ (or Al Qamishli or Kamishli, sometimes transcribed with accents) is a city in northeast Syria on the border with Turkey and close to Iraq (Ancient Assyria). ... Riparian areas or zones are the areas of vegetation directly separating land from water and immediately adjacent land that is frequently inundated, or, in other words, the floodways of streams. ... Mesopotamia ( Greek: Μεσοποταμία, translated from Old Persian Miyanrudan the Land between the Rivers or the Aramaic name Beth-Nahrin two rivers) is a region of Southwest Asia. ...


The name was used by Islamic sources to refer to the northern section of Mesopotamia, which together with Sawād, made up Al-‘arāgh (Iraq). The region was limited to the Sanjar Mountains in the south, but the western and eastern boundaries seem to have fluctuated in the pre-Abbasid times (sometimes to include Northern Syria to the west and Adiabene in the east). During the early Islamic Empire (i.e. Umayyads), the administration of Jazira was often shared with that of Armenia. The Republic of Iraq is a Middle Eastern country in southwestern Asia encompassing the ancient region of Mesopotamia at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. ... Adiabene was an ancient kingdom in Mesopotamia with its capital at Arbela. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Jazira included the Sasanian provinces of Arbayestan, Nisibis, and Mosul. The conquest of the region took place under the early caliphate that left the general administration of the region intact, with the exception of levying the Jizya tax on the population. At the time of Mu‘awiyah (governor of Syria and the later founder of the Umayyad Caliphate), the administration of Jazira was included in the administration of Syria. Nisibis (Nusaybin, province Mardin, south-eastern Turkey) is the ancient Mesopotamian city, which Alexanders successors refounded as Antiochia Mygdonia and is mentioned for the first time in Polybius description of the march of Antiochus against the Molon (Polybius, V, 51). ... Mosūl ( Kurdish: Mûsil, Arabic: موصل, al Mawsil) or Nineveh ( Syriac: ܢܝܢܘܐ) is a city in northern Iraq/Central Assyria. ... Jizyah is the Arabic language translation of Poll tax or head tax, a tax imposed on male individuals of other faiths living under Muslim rule. ...


Since the pre-Islamic times, Jazira has been an economically prosperous region with various agricultural (fruit and cereal) products, as well as a prolific manufacturing (food processing and cloth weaving) system. The region’s position at the border of the Sasanian and Byzantine territories also made it an important commercial center, and advantage that the region continued to enjoy, even after the Muslim conquest of Byzantine possessions in Anatolia. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of...


The prosperity of the region and its high agricultural and manufacturing output made it an object of contest between the leaders of the early conquering Arab armies. Various conquerors tried, in vain, to bind various cities of the former Sasanian provinces, as well as the newly conquered Byzantine provinces of Mesopotamia, into a coherent unit under their own rule.


The control of the region, however, was essential to any power centered in Baghdad. Consequently, the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate brought Jazira under the direct rule of the government in Baghdad. At this time, Jazira was one of the highest tax yielding provinces of the Abbasid Empire. A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid was the dynastic name generally given to the caliphs of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Muslim empire, that overthrew the Umayyid caliphs. ...


During the early history of Islam, Jazira became a center for Kharijite (Xwārij) movement and had to be constantly subdued by various caliphs. Later, a local dynasty called the Hamdānids, themselves descendants of a Kharijite, established an autonomous state with two branches in Jazira and Northern Syria. The demise of the Hamdānid power put the region back under the nominal rule of the Caliphs of Baghdad, while the true control was indeed in the hands of the Buyid brothers who had conquered Baghdad itself. Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ...


In subsequent eras, Jazira came under the control of newly established Turkic dynasties such as the Ekhshidis and the Zangis, and eventually was controlled by the Ayyubids (i.e. Saladin). Later development of the region was determined by the rise of Mosul and Nisibis, both important commercial and manufacturing centers. In the 12th century, the region was conquered and controlled by the Seljuk dynasty and was later put under the control of Seljuks of Rum, joining the emerging Ottoman Empire when the latter replaced the Seljuks of Rum in Asia Minor. The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Saladin, king of Egypt from a 15th century illuminated manuscript; the orb in his left hand is a European symbol of kingly power. ... For the dynasty and empire founded by Seljuk, see Seljuk Turks. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923...


Bibliography

Istakhri, Ibrahim. Al-Masālik wa-al-mamālik, Dār Al Qalam, Cairo, 1961


Brauer, Ralph W., Boundaries and Frontiers in Medieval Muslim Geography, Philadelphia,1995


Ibn Khurradādhbih. Almasalik wal Mamlik, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1967


Lestrange, G. The lands of the eastern caliphate. Cambridge : University press, 1930


Mohammadi Malayeri, Mohammad. Tārikh o Farhang-i Irān dar Asr-e Enteghaal, Tus, Tehran, 1996


Morony, Michael G. Iraq after the Muslim Conquest, Princeton, 1984


 
 

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