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Encyclopedia > Al Smith
Alfred Emanuel Smith
Al Smith

In office
January 1, 1919 – December 31, 1920
Lieutenant Harry C. Walker
Preceded by Charles S. Whitman
Succeeded by Nathan L. Miller
In office
January 1, 1923 – December 31, 1928
Lieutenant George R. Lunn (1923-1924)
Seymour Lowman (1925-1926)
Edwin Corning (1926-1928)
Preceded by Nathan L. Miller
Succeeded by Franklin D. Roosevelt

Election date
November 6, 1928
Running mate Joseph Taylor Robinson
Opponent(s) Herbert Hoover (R)
Incumbent Calvin Coolidge (R)
Preceded by John W. Davis
Succeeded by Franklin D. Roosevelt

Born December 30, 1873(1873-12-30)
New York City, New York
Died October 4, 1944 (aged 70)
New York City, New York
Political party Democratic
Religion Roman Catholicism

Alfred Emanuel Smith, Jr., known in private and public life as Al Smith, (December 30, 1873 New York City - October 4, 1944 New York City) was elected Governor of New York four times, and was the Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928. He was the first Roman Catholic and Irish-American to run for President as a major party nominee. He lost the election to Herbert Hoover. He then became president of the Empire State, Inc. and was instrumental in getting the Empire State Building built during the Great Depression. Al Smith is the name of: Al Smith (1873–1944), a U.S. politician Al Smith (baseball outfielder) (1928–2002), a baseball outfielder Al Smith (baseball pitcher) (1907–1977), a baseball pitcher Al Smith (cartoonist), a cartoonist whose work includes Mutt and Jeff Al Smith (hockey), a former ice hockey... Democratic presidential candidate Alfred E. Smith waves to crowd during U.S. presidential election, 1928. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lieutenant Governor of New York is the second highest ranking official in the government of New York. ... Harry C. Walker was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1919 to 1921. ... Charles S. Whitman (September 29, 1868 - March 29, 1947) served as Republican Governor of New York between 1915 and 1919. ... Nathan Lewis Miller (October 10, 1868 – June 26, 1953) was a Governor of the U.S. state of New York. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... George R. Lunn was the Socialist mayor of Schenectady, New York from 1911 - 1913 and 1915 - 1916, when he joined the Democratic Party. ... Seymour Lowman was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1925 to 1927. ... Edwin Corning was an American politician who served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1927 to 1929. ... Nathan Lewis Miller (October 10, 1868 – June 26, 1953) was a Governor of the U.S. state of New York. ... FDR redirects here. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Taylor Robinson Joseph Taylor Robinson (August 26, 1872 - July 14, 1937) was a Democratic United States Senator, Senate Majority Leader, member of the United States House of Representatives, Governor of Arkansas, and U.S. Vice Presidential candidate. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... GOP redirects here. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... John W. Davis John William Davis (April 13, 1873 — March 24, 1955) was an American politician and lawyer. ... FDR redirects here. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The following is a list of the Governors of the State of New York. ... The History of the Democratic Party is an account of a continuously supported political party in the United States of America. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Smith was born to Alfred Emanuel Smith (original last name Ferrara, of Italian ancestry), and Catherine Mulvihill and initially grew up in the multiethnic Lower East Side of Manhattan, on Oliver Street, New York City, within sight of the Brooklyn Bridge which was then under construction. His four grandparents were Irish, German, Italian, and English, but Smith identified with the Irish American community and became its leading spokesman in the 1920s. He was thirteen when his father Alfred, a Civil War veteran who owned a small trucking firm, died. At fourteen he had to drop out of parochial school, St. James School in Manhattan located at 37 James Street, to help support the family. He never attended high school or college, and claimed that he learned about people by studying them at the Fulton Fish Market, a job for which he was paid $12 per week to support his family. An accomplished amateur actor, he became a notable speaker. On May 6, 1900, Alfred Smith married Catherine A. Dunn, with whom he had five children.[1] Categories: Manhattan neighborhoods | Stub ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Brooklyn Bridge (disambiguation). ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. ... German Americans (German Deutschamerikaner) are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States, accounting for 17% of the U.S. population. ... An Italian American is an American of Italian descent and/or dual citizenship. ... English Americans (occasionally known as Anglo-Americans) are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Markets Interior The Fulton Fish Market is a fish market in New York, United States. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Political career

In his political career, he traded on his working-class beginnings, identified himself with immigrants, and campaigned as a man of the people. Although indebted to the Tammany Hall political machine, particularly to its boss, "Silent" Charlie Murphy, he remained untarnished by corruption and worked for the passage of progressive legislation.[2] Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... In this 1899 cartoon from Puck, all of New York City politics revolves around boss Richard Croker A political machine is an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, behind-the-scenes control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ...


Smith's first political job was as a clerk in the office of the Commissioner of Jurors in 1895. In 1903 he was elected to the New York State Assembly. He served as vice chairman of the commission appointed to investigate factory conditions after a hundred workers died in the disastrous Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in 1911. Smith crusaded against dangerous and unhealthy workplace conditions and championed corrective legislation. The New York State Assembly is the lower house of the New York Legislature, the state legislature of the U.S. state of New York. ... The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the largest industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York, causing the death of 148 garment workers who either died from the fire or jumped to their deaths. ...


In 1911, the Democrats obtained a majority of seats in the State Assembly, and Smith became chairman of the powerful Ways and Means Committee. In 1912, following the loss of the majority, he became the minority leader. When the Democrats reclaimed the majority in the next election, he was elected Speaker for the 1913 session. He became minority leader again in 1914 when the Republicans won the majority again, and remained in that position until his election as sheriff of New York County in 1915. By now he was a leader of the Progressive movement in New York City and state. His campaign manager and top aide was Belle Moskowitz, daughter of Prussian-Jewish immigrants.[3] The Speaker of the New York State Assembly is the highest official in the New York State Assembly, customarily elected from the ranks of the majority party. ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... In the United States, the Progressive Era was a period of reform which lasted from the 1890s to the 1920s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Al Smith with his wife.
Al Smith with his wife.

After serving in the patronage-rich job of sheriff of New York County beginning in 1916, Smith was elected governor of New York in 1918 with the help of Tammany Boss Charles F. Murphy and James A. Farley, who brought Smith the upstate vote. He was the first Irish-American to be elected governor of a state, though Martin H. Glynn was New York's first Catholic governor, serving in 1913-1914 when he succeeded Governor William Sulzer, who had been impeached. For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Charles Francis Murphy (1858 - 1924) was a U.S. political figure. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... Irish Americans (Irish: Gael-Mheiriceánach) are citizens of the United States who can claim ancestry originating in the west European island of Ireland. ... Martin Henry Glynn (September 27, 1871 - December 14, 1924) was a Democratic Governor of New York. ... William Sulzer (March 18, 1863 – November 6, 1941) was a Governor of New York. ...


In 1919, Smith gave the famous speech, "A man as low and mean as I can picture", making an irreparable break with William Randolph Hearst. Newspaperman Hearst was the leader of the left-wing of the Democratic Party in the city, and had combined with Tammany Hall in electing the local administration. Hearst had attacked Smith for "starving children" by not reducing the cost of milk. For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation) William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ...


Smith lost his bid for re-election in 1920, but was reelected as governor in 1922, 1924 and 1926 with James A. Farley serving as his campaign manager. As Governor Smith became known nationally as a progressive who sought to make government more efficient and more effective in meeting social needs. His young assistant Robert Moses constructed the nation's first state park system and reformed the civil service system; later he was elected Secretary of State of New York. During his term New York strengthened laws governing workers' compensation, women's pensions, and child and women's labor with the help of Frances Perkins, soon to be President Franklin D. Roosevelt's Labor Secretary, and ahead of many states. At the 1924 Democratic National Convention, Smith unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for president, advancing the cause of civil liberty by decrying lynching and racial violence. Roosevelt made the nominating speech in which he saluted Smith as "the Happy Warrior of the political battlefield".[4] In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ... This is about the urban planner; for other uses, see Robert Moses (disambiguation). ... Secretary of State is an official in the state governments of 47 of the 50 states of the United States. ... Frances Coralie Perkins (born Fanny Coralie Perkins, lived April 10, 1882 – May 14, 1965) was the U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945, and the first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet. ... FDR redirects here. ... Seal of the United States Department of Labor Secretary of Labor redirects here. ... The 1924 Democratic National Convention, also called the Klanbake was held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial...


The 1928 election

It was reporter Frederick William Wile who made the oft-repeated observation that Smith was defeated by "the three P's: Prohibition, Prejudice and Prosperity" [5]. The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ...

Al Smith giving a speech.
Al Smith giving a speech.

The Republican Party was riding high on the economic boom of the 1920s, which their presidential candidate Herbert Hoover pledged to continue. Historians agree that the prosperity along with anti-Catholic sentiment made Hoover's election inevitable, although he had never run for office. He defeated Smith by a landslide in the 1928 election. Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... The United States presidential election of 1928 pitted Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Al Smith. ...


Smith was the first Catholic to win a major-party presidential nomination.[6] (See also John F. Kennedy, the first Catholic elected U.S. President.) A major controversial issue was the continuation of Prohibition. Smith was personally in favor of relaxation or repeal of Prohibition laws despite its status as part of the nation's Constitution, but the Democratic Party split north and south on the issue. During the campaign Smith tried to duck the issue with noncommittal statements.[7] John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ...


Smith was an articulate exponent of good government and efficiency as was Hoover. But as Smith became known for saying in his campaign, "Let's look at the record." Smith swept the entire Catholic vote, which had been split in 1920 and 1924, and brought millions of Catholic ethnics to the polls for the first time, especially women. He lost important Democratic constituencies in the rural north and in southern cities and suburbs. He did carry the Deep South, thanks in part to his running mate, Senator Joseph Robinson from Arkansas, and he carried the ten most populous cities in the United States. Part of Smith's losses can be attributed to fear that as president, Smith would answer to the Pope rather than to the Constitution, to fears of the power of New York City, to distaste for the long history of corruption associated with Tammany Hall, as well as to Smith's own mediocre campaigning. Smith's campaign theme song, "The Sidewalks of New York", was not likely to appeal to rural folks, and his city accent on the "raddio" seemed a bit foreign. Although Smith lost New York state, his fellow-Democrat Roosevelt was elected to replace him as governor of New York.[8] Ironically it was James A. Farley who left Smith's camp to run Franklin D. Roosevelt's successful campaign for Governor, and later Roosevelt's successful campaigns for the Presidency in 1932 and 1936. Joseph Taylor Robinson Joseph Taylor Robinson (26 August 1872 - 14 July 1937) was a Democratic United States Senator, Senate Majority Leader, member of the United States House of Representatives, Governor of Arkansas, and U.S. Vice Presidential candidate. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... Sidewalks of New York is a folk song about life in New York City during the 1890s. ... FDR redirects here. ... In American history, James Farley led the Bonus army in 1932. ...


Voter realignment

In long-term perspective Al Smith started a voter realignment. He helped launch the end of classless politics that ushered in the New Deal coalition of Franklin D. Roosevelt.[9] As one political scientist explains, "...not until 1928, with the nomination of Al Smith, a northeastern reformer, did Democrats make gains among the urban, blue-collar, and Catholic voters who were later to become core components of the New Deal coalition and break the pattern of minimal class polarization that had characterized the Fourth Party System."[10] Finan (2003) says Smith is an underestimated symbol of the changing nature of American politics in the first half of the century. He represented the rising ambitions of urban, industrial America at a time when the hegemony of rural, agrarian America was in decline. He was connected to the hopes and aspirations of immigrants, especially Catholics and Jews. Smith was a devout Catholic, but his struggles against religious bigotry were often misinterpreted when he fought the religiously inspired Protestant morality imposed by prohibitionists. The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that period, although they had only one Presidential majority after 1944. ... The Fourth Party System is a term generally used by historians and political scientists to cover a period in American political history from about 1896 to 1932 (see Third Party System). ...


Opposition to Roosevelt

Smith felt slighted by Roosevelt during Roosevelt's governorship. They became rivals for the 1932 Democratic presidential nomination. After losing the nomination, Smith begrudgingly campaigned for Roosevelt in 1932. When President Roosevelt began pursuing the liberal policies of his New Deal, Smith began to work with the opposition. Smith believed the New Deal was a betrayal of good-government Progressive ideals, and ran counter to the goal of close cooperation with business. Along with other prominent conservative Democrats, in 1934 he became a leader of the American Liberty League, the focus of political opposition to Roosevelt's New Deal. Smith supported the Republican presidential candidates Alfred M. Landon in the 1936 election and Wendell Willkie in the 1940 election.[11] Presidential electoral votes by state. ... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... The American Liberty League was a U.S. organization formed in 1934 by conservative Democrats such as Al Smith (the 1928 Democratic presidential nominee), Jouett Shouse (former high party official and U.S. Representative), John Davis (the 1924 Democratic presidential nominee), and John Jacob Raskob (former Democratic National Chairman and... This article is about the policy program of US President Franklin D Roosevelt. ... Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 - October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin Delano Roosevelt. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer in the United States and the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Although personal resentment was a motivating factor in Smith's break with Roosevelt and the New Deal, Smith was consistent in his beliefs and politics. Finan (2003) argues Smith always believed in social mobility, economic opportunity, religious tolerance, and individualism.


Civilian life

Smith golfing with baseball great Babe Ruth in Coral Gables, Florida (1930) – State Archive of Florida
Smith golfing with baseball great Babe Ruth in Coral Gables, Florida (1930) – State Archive of Florida

After the 1928 election, he became the president of Empire State, Inc., the corporation which built and operated the Empire State Building. Construction for the building was commenced symbolically on March 17, 1930, per Smith's instructions, as president of the corporation. Smith's grandchildren cut the ribbon when the world's tallest skyscraper opened on May 1, 1931--May Day--built in only 13 months. As with the Brooklyn Bridge, which Smith witnessed being built from his Lower East Side boyhood home, the Empire State Building was a vision and an achievement constructed by combining the interests of all rather than being divided by interests of a few. Smith, like most New York City businessmen, enthusiastically supported World War II, but was not asked by Roosevelt to play any role in the war effort.[12] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 739 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Babe Ruth and former NY Gov. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (600 × 739 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Babe Ruth and former NY Gov. ... This article is about the baseball player. ... Nickname: Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida Coordinates: , Country State County Miami-Dade Government  - Mayor Don Slesnick Area  - City 96. ... The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in New York City at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 1939 he was appointed a Papal Chamberlain, one of the highest honors the Papacy bestows on a layman. Papal chamberlain (Cameriere di spada e cappa) is one of the highest honours that can be bestowed on a Catholic layman by the Pope, and is often given to members of noble families. ...


Smith died at the Rockefeller Institute Hospital on October 4, 1944, at the age of 70, broken-hearted over the death of his wife from cancer five months earlier. He is interred at Calvary Cemetery, Queens, New York. Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Calvary Cemetery is located in Woodside, Queens County, New York, and is a very popular eternal dwelling place for mobsters and politicians. ...


Namesake

  • Alfred E. Smith Building, a 1928 skyscraper in Albany, New York
  • Governor Alfred E. Smith Houses, a public housing development in Lower Manhattan, near his birthplace
  • Governor Alfred E. Smith Park, a playground in the Two Bridges neighborhood in Manhattan, near his birthplace
  • Alfred E. Smith Recreation Center, a youth activity center in the Two Bridges neighborhood, Manhattan.
  • Governor Alfred E. Smith Sunken Meadow State Park, a state park on Long Island
  • PS 163 Alfred E. Smith School, a school on the Upper West Side of Manhattan
  • PS 1 Alfred E. Smith School, a school in Manhattan's Chinatown.
  • Al Smith Dinner, a fundraiser held for Catholic charities and a stop on the presidential campaign trail
  • Smith Hall, a residence hall at Hinman College, SUNY Binghamton.
  • Alfred E. Smith Vocational High School in the South Bronx.

A view of the Alfred E. Smith Building The Alfred E. Smith Building, officially known as the Alfred E. Smith State Office Building and sometimes called simply the Smith Building, is a structure located in downtown Albany, New York across the street from the New York State Capitol. ... For other uses, see Albany. ... A local authority tower block in Cwmbrân, South Wales Public housing or project homes are forms of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... Woolworth Building, looking south along Broadway Lower Manhattan, from the Brooklyn Bridge, 2005 Rigid airship the USS Akron over Lower Manhattan Lower Manhattan is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the City of New York. ... The view of the East River and the Brooklyn and Manhattan Bridges from Two Bridges, Manhattan Two Bridges is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of Manhattan in New York City, United States. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... The Upper West Side is a neighborhood of the borough of Manhattan in New York City that lies between Central Park and the Hudson River above West 59th Street. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Binghamton University Binghamton University, also known as the State University of New York at Binghamton, is a public university located in the Binghamton, New York, USA area. ...

Electoral history

1928 United States Presidential Election

Herbert Hoover (R) 58.2%
Al Smith (D) 40.8%
Norman Thomas (Socialist) 0.7%
William Zebulon Foster (Communist) 0.1%

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a mining engineer and author. ... Norman Thomas Norman Mattoon Thomas (November 20, 1884 - December 19, 1968) was a leading American socialist, pacifist, and six-time presidential candidate for the Socialist Party of America. ... William Z. Foster William Zebulon Foster (February 25, 1881 - September 1, 1961), born in Taunton, Massachusetts, was the long-time General Secretary of the Communist Party USA and trade union leader. ...

In fiction

In Harry Turtledove's alternate history series Timeline 191, in which the Confederate States of America wins the American Civil War, Al Smith becomes the third Socialist President of the United States in 1936. In 1941, during his second term, the Confederacy invades the US, starting World War II. Smith is killed by a Confederate bomber in 1942 in his bunker in Philadelphia. Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Timeline-191 is a fan name given to a series of Harry Turtledove alternate history novels. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Entente United Kingdom France Confederate States Russian Empire Empire of Japan Mexican Empire Mormon Rebels Canadian Rebels Union of South Africa Australia New Zealand British India Argentina Central Powers Austria-Hungary Germany United States Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Republic of Ireland Poland Ukraine Quebec Norway Black Guerillas An analog to... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


References

  1. ^ Slayton 2001
  2. ^ Slayton 2001
  3. ^ Slayton 2001
  4. ^ Slayton 2001
  5. ^ reprinted 1977, John A. Ryan, "Religion in the Election of 1928," Current History, December 1928; reprinted in Ryan, Questions of the Day (Ayer Publishing, 1977) p.91
  6. ^ Hostetler, (1998).
  7. ^ Lichtman (1979)
  8. ^ Slayton 2001; Lichtman (1979)
  9. ^ Degler (1964)
  10. ^ Lawrence (1996) p 34.
  11. ^ Slayton 2001
  12. ^ Slayton 2001

Bibliography

  • Bornet, Vaughn Davis; Labor Politics in a Democratic Republic: Moderation, Division, and Disruption in the Presidential Election of 1928 (1964) online edition
  • Douglas B. Craig. After Wilson: The Struggle for Control of the Democratic Party, 1920-1934 (1992)online edition see Chap. 6 "The Problem of Al Smith" and Chap. 8 "'Wall Street Likes Al Smith': The Election of 1928"
  • Degler, Carl N. (1964). "American Political Parties and the Rise of the City: An Interpretation". Journal of American History 51 (1): 41–59. doi:10.2307/1917933. 
  • Eldot, Paula (1983). Governor Alfred E. Smith: The Politician as Reformer. Garland. ISBN 0824048555. 
  • Finan, Christopher M. (2003). Alfred E. Smith: The Happy Warrior. Hill and Wang. ISBN 0809030330. 
  • Hostetler, Michael J. (1998). "Gov. Al Smith Confronts the Catholic Question: The Rhetorical Legacy of the 1928 Campaign". Communication Quarterly 46. 
  • Lawrence, David G. (1996). The Collapse of the Democratic Presidential Majority: Realignment, Dealignment, and Electoral Change from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. Westview Press. ISBN 0813389844. 
  • Lichtman, Allan J. (1979). Prejudice and the old politics: The Presidential election of 1928. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807813583. OCLC 4492475. 
    • Carter, Paul A. (1980). "Deja Vu; Or, Back to the Drawing Board with Alfred E. Smith". Reviews in American History 8 (2): 272–276. doi:10.2307/2701129. ISSN 0048-7511. ; review of Lichtman
  • Moore, Edmund A. (1956). A Catholic Runs for President: The Campaign of 1928. OCLC 475746.  online edition
  • Neal, Donn C. (1983). The World beyond the Hudson: Alfred E. Smith and National Politics, 1918-1928. New York: Garland, 308. ISBN 978-0824056582. 
  • Neal, Donn C. (1984). "What If Al Smith Had Been Elected?". Presidential Studies Quarterly 14 (2): 242–248. ISSN 0360-4918. 
  • Perry, Elisabeth Israels (1987). Belle Moskowitz: Feminine Politics and the Exercise of Power in the Age of Alfred E. Smith. Oxford University Press, 280. ISBN 0195044266. 
  • Daniel F. Rulli; "Campaigning in 1928: Chickens in Pots and Cars in Backyards," Teaching History: A Journal of Methods, Vol. 31#1 pp 42+ (2006) online version with lesson plans for class
  • Slayton, Robert A. (2001). Empire Statesman: The Rise and Redemption of Al Smith. Free Press, 480. ISBN 978-0684863023. , the standard scholarly biography
  • Sweeney, James R. “Rum, Romanism, and Virginia Democrats: The Party Leaders and the Campaign of 1928.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 90 (October 1982): 403–31.

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ...

Primary sources

  • Smith, Alfred, E. (1929). Campaign addresses of Governor Alfred E. Smith, Democratic Candidate for President 1928. Washington, D.C.: Democratic National Committee. ISBN 0404061176. OCLC 300555. 
  • Alfred E. Smith. Progressive Democracy: Addresses & State Papers. (1928) online edition

The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Al Smith - Turtledove (998 words)
Smith was able to steer the country through the early dark days of the Second Great War, and was killed in the bombing of Powel House.
Throughout Smith's first term, his counter-part in the Confederacy, President Jake Featherston, had demanded the return of territories the C.S. had lost to the U.S. during the Great War, implying that the C.S. was prepared to retake those territories by force.
Smith, wanting to avoid another war, while realizing that the American people were tired of the troublesome former Confederate states, finally agreed to meet with Featherston in Richmond.
Al Smith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1402 words)
Alfred Emanuel "Al" Smith (December 30, 1873 – October 4, 1944) was Governor of New York, and Democratic U.S. presidential candidate in 1928.
Smith was born to Alfred Emanuel Smith and Catherine Mulvihill and initially grew up in the multiethnic Lower East Side of Manhattan, on Oliver Street, New York City.
Smith was personally in favor of relaxation or repeal of Prohibition laws, despite its status as part of the nation's Constitution, but the Democratic Party split north and south on the issue.
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