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Encyclopedia > Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
Image:Aljazeera.svg
Type Satellite television network
Country Qatar
Availability    Worldwide
Owner Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer al-Thani
Key people Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer al-Thani, Chairman
Wadah Khanfar, Director-General
Ahmed Sheikh, Editor-in-chief
Launch date 1996
Website www.aljazeera.net (Arabic)
english.aljazeera.net (English)

Al Jazeera (Arabic: الجزيرة‎, al-ğazīrä, [al.dʒaˈziː.ra], meaning "The Island", referring to the Arabian Peninsula) is a television network headquartered in Doha, Qatar. Initially launched as an Arabic news and current affairs satellite TV channel with the same name, Al Jazeera has since expanded into a network with several outlets, including the Internet and specialty TV channels in multiple languages, and in several regions of the world. [Al] Jazira (جزيرة) means [the] island or [the] peninsula in Arabic, and may refer to: Al Jazira, Mesopotamia — the riparian plain of Mesopotamia, which encompasses northeastern Syria and northwestern Iraq. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of communications satellites, as compared to conventional terrestrial television and cable television. ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... The World in Plate Carrée Projection In English, world is rooted in a compound of the obsolete words were, man, and eld, age; thus, its oldest meaning is Age of Man. ... Wadah Khanfar Wadah Khanfar is the Director General of the Al Jazeera Network. ... Ahmed Sheikh is a Palestinian journalist and the current Editor-in-Chief of the Qatar-based television channel Al Jazeera. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Arabia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ... News channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content. ... Satellite television is television delivered by way of orbiting communications satellites located 37,000 km (22,300 miles) above the earths surface. ... A specialty channel or specialty service is a television channel, generally not available through conventional broadcast television, which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic. ... The term television channel generally refers to either a television station or its cable/satellite counterpart (both outlined below). ...


The original Al Jazeera channel's willingness to broadcast dissenting views, including on call-in shows, created controversies in Persian Gulf States. The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast video statements by Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders (see Videos of Osama bin Laden). In broadcasting, a phone in is where viewers or listeners air comments on-air via telephone, often regarding a specific topic of discussion for that day. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... There have been several videos released by Osama bin Laden. ...

Contents

Network

Al Jazeera operates a number of specialty channels besides its original flagship news channel. As of early 2007, the Al Jazeera network's TV channels include:[1] A specialty channel or specialty service is a television channel, generally not available through conventional broadcast television, which consists of programming focused on a single type or targeted at a specific demographic. ...

  • Al Jazeera
the original international Arabic-language 24h news channel launched in 1996 www.aljazeera.net/channel 

a popular Arabic-language sports channel launched in 2003 aljazeerasport.net 
launched in 2004  
  • Al Jazeera Sports +2

a live politics and public interest channel (similar to C-SPAN or BBC Parliament), which broadcasts conferences in real time without editing or commentary launched in 2005  

a children's interest channel launched in 2005 www.jcctv.net 

a global English-language 24h news channel launched in 2006 english.aljazeera.net 

an Arabic language documentary channel launched in 2007 www.aljazeera.net/NR/exe... 

Arabic redirects here. ... News channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content. ... Al Jazeera Sports (Arabic: ) is a popular Arabic-language sports channel launched in November 2003 by the well-known Al Jazeera network. ... Sports channels are television specialty channels (usually available exclusively through cable and satellite) broadcast sporting events, usually live, and when not broadcasting events, sports news and other related programming. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Al Jazeera Sports +2 is a pay tv sports channel broadcast from Qatar . ... Al Jazeera Mobasher is a television channel launched by Al Jazeera on April 15, 2005. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... BBC Parliament is a British television channel from the BBC. It broadcasts live and recorded coverage of the British House of Commons and House of Lords, Select Committees, the Northern Ireland Assembly, the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly, and occasionally from the General Synod of the Church of England. ... Al Jazeera Childrens Channel was launched on September 9 2005. ... Childrens interest channels are television specialty channels that present childrens interest content. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... News channels are television specialty channels which focus on presenting news content. ... Al Jazeera Documentary Channel is an Arabic documentary channel and one of the many channels that make up Al Jazeera. ... A Documentary Channel is a specialty television channel which focuses on broadcasting documentaries. ...

Future plans

Future announced products include Al Jazeera in a number of other languages - these would include Al Jazeera Urdu, an Urdu language channel to cater mainly to Pakistanis and other Urdu-speaking populations. Al Jazeera Urdu is a forthcoming channel from Al Jazeera. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ...


Al Jazeera has also been reported to be planning to launch an international newspaper.[2]


History

The original Al Jazeera channel was started in 1996 with a US$150 million grant from the Emir of Qatar, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa. USD redirects here. ... This is a list of emirs of Qatar: The emirs of Qatar are members of the Al-Thani dynasty and the state of Qatar was founded in 1868 by Muhammad bin Thani as a kingdom. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani became the Emir of the State of Qatar on June 26, 1995 after deposing his father, who was vacationing in Switzerland at the time. ...


In April 1996, the BBC World Service's Saudi-co-owned Arabic language TV station, faced with censorship demands by the Saudi Arabian government, shut down after two years of operation. Many former BBC World Service staff members joined Al Jazeera, which at the time was not yet on air. The channel began broadcasting in late 1996.[3] The BBC World Service is one of the most widely recognised international broadcasters, transmitting in 33 languages to many parts of the world through multiple technologies. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see Censor. ... The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ...


Al Jazeera's availability (via satellite) throughout the Middle East changed the television landscape of the region. Prior to the arrival of Al Jazeera, many Middle Eastern citizens were unable to watch TV channels other than state-censored national TV stations. Al Jazeera introduced a level of freedom of speech on TV that was previously unheard of in many of these countries. Al Jazeera presented controversial views regarding the governments of many Persian Gulf states, including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain and Qatar; it also presented controversial views about Syria's relationship with Lebanon, and the Egyptian judiciary. Critics accused Al Jazeera of sensationalism in order to increase its audience share. Al Jazeera's broadcasts have sometimes resulted in drastic action: For example, on 27 January 1999, Al Jazeera had critics of the Algerian government on during their live program El-Itidjah el-Mouakass (="The Opposite Direction"). The Algerian government cut the electricity supply to at least large parts of the capital Algiers (and allegedly to large parts of the country), to prevent the program from getting seen.[4][5][6] At that time, Al Jazeera was not yet generally known in the Western world, but where it was known, the opinion about it was often favourable[7] and Al Jazeera claimed to be the only politically independent television station in the Middle East. Al Jazeera's well presented coverage of the Lebanese Civil War in 2000-2001 gave its viewer ratings a boost throughout the region. However, it wasn't until late 2001 that Al Jazeera achieved worldwide recognition, when it broadcast video statements by al-Qaeda leaders.[8] This article is about the general concept. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


Funding

Further to the initial US$ 150 million grant from the Emir of Qatar, Al Jazeera had aimed to become self-sufficient through advertising by 2001, but when this failed to occur, the Emir agreed to continue subsidizing it on a year-by-year basis (US$30 million in 2004,[9] according to Arnaud de Borchgrave). Other major sources of income include advertising, cable subscription fees, broadcasting deals with other companies, and sale of footage.[10] In 2000, advertising accounted for 40% of the station's revenue.[11] This is a list of emirs of Qatar: The emirs of Qatar are members of the Al-Thani dynasty and the state of Qatar was founded in 1868 by Muhammad bin Thani as a sheikhdom. ... Arnaud de Borchgrave is a conservative journalist of Flemish extraction who focuses on international politics. ...


Outside the Middle East

Main article: Al Jazeera English

In 2003, Al Jazeera hired its first English-language journalist, Afshin Rattansi, from the BBC's Today Programme (which had been at the heart of UK events when it came to Tony Blair's decision to back the U.S. invasion of Iraq). Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... Today, sometimes referred to as the Today programme to avoid ambiguity, is BBC Radio 4s long-running early morning news and current affairs programme, which is now broadcast from 6am to 9am from Monday to Friday and from 7am to 9am on Saturdays. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


In March 2003, it launched an English-language website (see below).


On July 4, 2005 Al Jazeera officially announced plans to launch a new English-language satellite service to be called Al Jazeera International.[12] The new channel started at 12h GMT on November 15, 2006 under the name Al Jazeera English and has broadcast centers in Doha (next to the original Al Jazeera headquarters and broadcast center), London, Kuala Lumpur and Washington D.C.. The channel is a 24-hour, 7-day-a-week news channel, with 12 hours broadcast from Doha, and four hours each from London, Kuala Lumpur, and Washington D.C. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... AJI emblem Al Jazeera International is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... For other uses, see Doha (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (English: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country State Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - Total 243. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United...


With Al Jazeera's growing global outreach and influence, some scholars including Adel Iskandar have described the station as a transformation of the very definition of "alternative media."[13] Adel Iskandar (aka Adel Iskandar Farag) (born March 15, 1977) is a Middle East media scholar, postcolonial theorist and media reform activist. ... Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ...


Viewership

It is widely believed internationally that inhabitants of the Arab world are given limited information by their governments and media, and that what is conveyed is biased towards the governments' views.[5] Many people see Al Jazeera as a more trustworthy source of information than government and foreign channels. Some scholars and commentators use the notion of contextual objectivity,[4] which highlights the tension between objectivity and audience appeal, to describe the station's controversial yet popular news approach.[14] As a result, it is probably the most watched news channel in the Middle East. Increasingly, Al Jazeera's exclusive interviews and other footage are being rebroadcast in American, British, and other western media outlets such as CNN and the BBC. In January 2003, the BBC announced that it had signed an agreement with Al Jazeera for sharing facilities and information, including news footage.[15] Al Jazeera is now considered by some to be a fairly mainstream media network, though more controversial than most. In the United States as of 2006, video footage from the network carried by other stations was largely limited to video segments of hostages. For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). ... Contextual objectivity is a principle with roots in quantum mechanics that was adapted and applied to the explain and describe the operations of news media organizations during times of war. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


As of 2007, the Arabic Al Jazeera channel rivals the BBC in worldwide audiences with an estimated 40 to 50 million viewers.[16] Al Jazeera English has an estimated reach of around 100 million households.[17] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ...


Availability

The original Al Jazeera channel is available worldwide through various satellite and cable systems.[18] In the U.S., it is available through subscription satellite and Free to Air DVB-S on the Galaxy-25 satellite. Al Jazeera can also be freely viewed with a DVB-S receiver in Europe, Northern Africa, and the Middle East as it is broadcast on the Astra and Hot Bird satellites. In the UK, it is available on Sky platform. DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted, open standards for digital television maintained by the DVB Project, an industry consortium with more than 300 members, and published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... SES Astra SA, is a corporate subsidiary of SES, based in Betzdorf, in eastern Luxembourg, that owns and operates the Astra series of geostationary satellites, which transmit approximately 1100 analogue and digital television and radio channels via 176 transponders to 91 million households across Europe. ... Hot Bird or Hotbird is the common name of a family of satellites operated by Eutelsat, located at 13°E over the Equator (orbital position) and with a transmitting footprint over Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. ...


For availability info of the Al Jazeera network's other TV channels, see their respective articles. Segments of Al Jazeera English are uploaded to YouTube.[19] YouTube is a popular video sharing website where users can upload, view and share video clips. ...


It is also possible to watch Al Jazeera English over the internet from their official website. The low-resolution version is available free of charge [7], high-resolution available under subscription fees through partner sites.


Staff

The Chairman of Al Jazeera is Sheikh Hamad bin Thamer al-Thani, a distant cousin of Qatari Emir Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani. Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al-Thani became the Emir of the State of Qatar on June 26, 1995 after deposing his father, who was vacationing in Switzerland at the time. ...


Al Jazeera recently restructured its operations and have formed a Network that contains all their different channels. Wadah Khanfar, the managing director of the Arabic Channel was appointed as the Director General of the Al Jazeera Network. He also acts as the Managing Director of the Arabic channel. He is supported by Ahmed Sheikh, Editor-in-Chief, and Amen Jaballah. Wadah Khanfar Wadah Khanfar is the Director General of the Al Jazeera Network. ... Ahmed Sheikh is a Palestinian journalist and the current Editor-in-Chief of the Qatar-based television channel Al Jazeera. ...


The Editor-in-Chief of the Arabic website is Ahmed Sheikh, and the editorial head is Mohammad Dawood. It has more than one hundred editorial staff. Ahmed Sheikh is a Palestinian journalist and the current Editor-in-Chief of the Qatar-based television channel Al Jazeera. ...


The Editor-in-Chief of the English-language site is Russell Merryman, who took over in August 2005. He replaced Omar Bec who was caretaking the site after the departure of Managing Editor Alison Balharry. Previous incumbents include Joanne Tucker and Ahmed Sheikh.


Prominent on-air personalities include Faisal al-Qassem, host of the talk show The Opposite Direction. Dr. Faisal al-Qassem is a Syrian, Druze,television personality who hosts The Opposite Direction, a talk show on Al Jazeera. ...


The chief investigative reporter is Yosri Fouda. He is currently in charge of Jazeera's London bureau. Born in Egypt, Yosri Fouda initially worked for the BBCs short-lived Arabic-subsidiary covering the ongoing struggle in Bosnia with veteran reporter Martin Bell before joining the newly-forming Al Jazeera in 1996. ...


Criticism and controversy

While Al Jazeera has a large audience in the Middle East and worldwide, the organisation and the original Arabic channel in particular have been involved in numerous controversies,[20] and especially in some parts of the western world, many people have an unfavourable view of Al Jazeera.[21][22] Occident redirects here. ...


A widely reported criticism is the allegation that Al Jazeera had shown videos of masked terrorists beheading western hostages in Iraq.[23] When this is reported in reputable media, Al Jazeera presses for retractions to be made.[24] This allegation was again repeated on Fox News in the USA on the launch day of Al Jazeera's English service, 15 November 2006.[25] Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ...


Later The Guardian apologized for incorrect information that Al Jazeera 'had shown videos of masked terrorists beheading western hostages'.[26] For other uses, see Guardian. ...


Al Jazeera has been entangled in controversies involving the following countries:


Algeria

As mentioned above, on 27 January 1999, several Algerian cities lost power simultaneously, reportedly to keep residents from watching a program in which Algerian dissidents implicated the Algerian military in a series of massacres.[4][5][6]


On July 4, 2004, the Algerian government froze the activities of Al Jazeera's Algerian correspondent. The official reason given was that a reorganization of the work of foreign correspondents was in progress. The international pressure group Reporters Without Borders says, however, that the measure was really taken in reprisal for a broadcast the previous week of another El-Itidjah el-Mouakass debate on the political situation in Algeria.[27] is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Bahrain

The Bahraini Information Minister, Nabeel Yacoob Al Hamer, banned Al Jazeera correspondents from reporting from inside the country on 10 May 2002, saying that the station was biased towards Israel and against Bahrain.[28] After improvements in relations between Bahrain and Qatar in 2004, Al Jazeera correspondents returned to Bahrain. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Iraq

During the Iraq war, Al Jazeera faced the same reporting and movement restrictions as other news-gathering organizations. In addition, one of its reporters, Tayseer Allouni, was expelled from the country, while another one, Diyar Al-Omari, was stripped of his journalistic permits by the Iraqi Information Ministry. Reacting to this, Al Jazeera announced on April 2, 2003, that it would "temporarily freeze all coverage" of Iraq in protest of what Al Jazeera described as unreasonable interference from Iraqi officials.[29] All of these decisions were later reverted. Taysir Allouni is a journalist for the Al Jazeera news channel. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In May 2003, the CIA, through the Iraqi National Congress, released documents purportedly showing that Al Jazeera had been infiltrated by Iraqi spies, and was regarded by Iraqi officials as part of their propaganda effort. As reported by the Sunday Times, the alleged spies were described by an Al Jazeera executive as having minor roles with no input on editorial decisions. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Iraqi National Congress (INC) is an umbrella Iraqi opposition group led by Ahmed Chalabi. ... SPY may refer to: SPY (spiders), ticker symbol for Standard & Poors Depository Receipts SPY (magazine), a satirical monthly, trademarked all-caps SPY (Ivory Coast), airport code for San Pédro, Côte dIvoire SPY (Ship Planning Yard), a U.S. Navy acronym SPY, short for MOWAG SPY, a... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ...


On 23 September 2003, Iraq suspended Al Jazeera (and Al-Arabiya) from reporting on official government activities for two weeks for what the Council stated as supporting recent attacks on council members and Coalition occupational forces. The move came after allegations by Iraqis who stated that the channel had incited anti-occupation violence (by airing statements from Iraqi insurgency leaders), increasing ethnic and sectarian tensions, and being supportive of the insurgency. is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Arabiya is an Arabic-language satellite news channel based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which began broadcasting in February 2003, launched with an investment of $300 million from the Saudi-owned MBC, the Lebanese Hariri Group, and others. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ...


During 2004, Al Jazeera broadcast several video tapes of various victims of kidnappings in Iraq, which had been sent to the network. The videos had been filmed by the kidnappers holding the hostages. The hostages were shown, often blindfolded, pleading for their release. They often appeared to be forced to read out prepared statements of their kidnappers. Al Jazeera has assisted authorities from the home countries of the victims in an attempt to secure the release of kidnapping victims. This included broadcasting pleas from family members and government officials. Contrary to some allegations, including the oft-reported comments of Donald Rumsfeld on June 4, 2005, Al Jazeera has never shown beheadings. (Beheadings have appeared on numerous non-Al Jazeera Internet websites and have sometimes been misattributed to Al Jazeera.)[23] Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ...


On August 7, 2004, the Iraqi Allawi government shut down the Iraq office of Al Jazeera, claiming that it was responsible for presenting a negative image of Iraq, and charging the network with fueling anti-Coalition hostilities. Al Jazeera spokesman Jihad Ballout said: "It's regrettable and we believe it's not justifiable. This latest decision runs contrary to all the promises made by Iraqi authorities concerning freedom of expression and freedom of the press."[30] and Al Jazeera vowed to continue its reporting from inside Iraq.[31] News photographs showed United States and Iraqi military personnel working together to close the office. Initially closed by a one-month ban, the shutdown was extended indefinitely in September 2004, and the offices were sealed,[32] drawing condemnation from international journalists.[33] is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Allawi at a ceremony for the transfer of governmental authority to the Iraqi Interim Government. ...


Qatar

Al Jazeera has been criticized for failing to report on many hard hitting news stories that originate from Qatar, where Al Jazeera is based. The two most frequently cited stories were the revoking of citizenship from the Al Ghafran clan of the Al Murrah tribe in response to a failed coup that members of the Al Ghafran clan were implicated in, and Qatar's growing relations with and diplomatic visits to Israel.[34][citation needed] The Al Murrah is a tribe of camel-herding nomads from eastern and southern Arabia. ...


Saudi Arabia

While the New York Times reported that Al Jazeera was notable in its on-air silence regarding the Qatif girl rape case,[35] the station did publish at least five articles on the topic on its website.[36] The motivation cited behind the decision to suppress criticism was the desire by the Qatari leadership to bolster relations with the Saudis.


Spain

Main article: Tayseer Allouni

Reporter Tayseer Allouni was arrested in Spain on 5 September 2003, on a charge of having provided support for members of al-Qaeda.[37] Judge Baltasar Garzón, who had issued the arrest warrant, ordered Allouni held without bail. Al Jazeera wrote to then Spanish Prime Minister Jose Maria Aznar and protested: "On several occasions Western journalists met secretly with secret organizations and they were not subjected to any legal action because they were doing their job, so why is Alouni being excluded?"[38] Allouni was released on bail several weeks later over health concerns, but prohibited from leaving the country. Taysir Allouni is a journalist for the Al Jazeera news channel. ... Taysir Allouni is a journalist for the Al Jazeera news channel. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... José María Aznar López (born February 25, 1953) was President of the Government (styled Presidente del Gobierno, i. ...


On 19 September, a Spanish court issued an arrest warrant for Allouni, before the expected verdict. Allouni had asked the court for permission to visit his family in Syria to attend the funeral of his mother, but authorities denied his request and instead ordered him back to jail.[39] is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although he pleaded not guilty of all the charges against him, Allouni was sentenced on 26 September 2005 to seven years in prison for being a financial courier for al-Qaeda. Allouni insisted he merely interviewed bin Laden after the September 11 attack on the United States.[40] Al Jazeera has continuously supported Allouni and protested his innocence.[41] is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...


Many international and private organizations condemned the arrest and called on the Spanish court to free Taysir Allouni.[42] Websites such as Alony Solidarity were created to support Allouni.


United Kingdom

UK officials, like their US counterparts, strongly protested Al Jazeera's coverage of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. Al Jazeera stated that the coalition leaders were taking exception because its reporting made it more difficult for both countries to manage the way the war was being reported.[43] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


United States

While prior to September 11, 2001, the United States government had lauded Al Jazeera for its role as an independent media outlet in the Middle East, US officials have since claimed an anti-American bias to Al Jazeera's news coverage.[43][44] The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


The station first gained widespread attention in the West following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast videos in which Osama bin Laden and Sulaiman Abu Ghaith defended and justified the attacks. This led to significant controversy and accusations by the United States government that Al Jazeera was engaging in propaganda on behalf of terrorists. Al Jazeera countered that it was merely making information available without comment, and indeed several western television channels later followed suit in broadcasting portions of the tapes. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Sulaiman Abu Ghaith (born 1965 or 1966?) is an Kuwaiti Islamist militant regarded as Al-Qaidas official spokesman. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


On November 13, during the US invasion of Afghanistan, 2001 a U.S. missile strike destroyed Al Jazeera's office in Kabul. There were no casualties.[45] is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ...


Detention of Sami Al Hajj

Main article: Sami Al Hajj

Al Jazeera cameraman Sami Al Hajj, a Sudanese national, was detained while in transit to Afghanistan in December 2001, and as of 2007 continues to be held without charge, as an "enemy combatant" in Camp Delta at Guantánamo Bay. The reasons for his detention remain unknown, although the US' official statement on all detainees is that they are security threats. Reporters Without Borders have repeatedly expressed concern over Al Hajj's detention,[46] mentioned Al Hajj in their Annual Worldwide Press Freedom Index,[47] and launched a petition for his release.[48] On 23 November 2005, Sami Al Hajj's lawyer Clive Stafford-Smith reported that, during (125 of 130) interviews, U.S. officials had questioned Sami as to whether Al Jazeera was a front for al-Qaeda.[49] Sami Al Hajj is a citizen of Sudan who is detained in Camp Delta in the American naval base at Guantanamo Bay after being captured in December 2001. ... Sami Al Hajj is a citizen of Sudan who is detained in Camp Delta in the American naval base at Guantanamo Bay after being captured in December 2001. ... An enemy combatant has historically referred to members of the armed forces of the state with which another state is at war. ... A Camp Delta recreation and exercise area at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. ... Map of Cuba with location of Guantánamo Bay indicated. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clive Stafford-Smith is a British born human rights lawyer based in the United States and practising US law. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In the run-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the U.S. Pentagon hired the Rendon Group to target and possibly punish Al Jazeera reporters who did not stay on message.[50] This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


When Al Jazeera went on to do reporting featuring very graphic footage from inside Iraq, US officials decried Al Jazeera as anti-American and as inciting violence.[43] This sentiment was widely echoed throughout the US media and population.


On Monday, 24 March 2003, shortly after the start of the invasion, two Al Jazeera reporters covering the New York Stock Exchange had their credentials revoked. The New York Stock Exchange banned Al Jazeera (as well as several other news organizations whose identities were not revealed) from its trading floor indefinitely. NYSE spokesman Ray Pellechia claimed "security reasons" and that the exchange had decided to give access only to networks that focus "on responsible business coverage". He denied the revocation has anything to do with the network's Iraq war coverage.[51] The move was quickly mirrored by Nasdaq stock market officials.[52] is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the Big Board, is a New York City-based stock exchange. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


Killing of Tareq Ayyoub

Main article: Tareq Ayyoub

On April 8, 2003 Al Jazeera's office in Baghdad was hit by a U.S. missile, killing reporter Tareq Ayyoub and wounding another.[53] Al Jazeera, in order to avoid coming under US fire, had informed the U.S. of the office's precise coordinates prior to the incident.[54] Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, continues to seek justice for her husband's death and has among other things written for the Guardian and participated in a documentary broadcast on Al Jazeera English.[55] Tareq Ayyoub (طارق ايوب) (also spelled Tarek Ayyoub) was an Arab television reporter of Palestinian nationality, employed by Al Jazeera, and previously by Fox News. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Tareq Ayyoub (طارق ايوب) (also spelled Tarek Ayyoub) was an Arab television reporter of Palestinian nationality, employed by Al Jazeera, and previously by Fox News. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ...


On January 30, 2005 the New York Times reported that the Qatari government, under pressure from the Bush administration, was speeding up plans to sell the station.[56] However, as of 2007, the station/network has not been sold and it is unclear whether there are still any plans to do so. is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Al Jazeera bombing memo

Also see O'Connor - Keogh official secrets trial.

On November 22, 2005, the UK tabloid The Daily Mirror published a story claiming that it had obtained a leaked memo from 10 Downing Street saying that U.S. President George W. Bush had considered bombing Al Jazeera's Doha headquarters in April 2004, when U.S. Marines were conducting a contentious assault on Fallujah.[citation needed] The Al Jazeera bombing memo is an unpublished memorandum made within the British government which purports to be the minutes of a discussion between United States President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair. ... Leo OConnor and David Keogh have been charged with breaking the Official Secrets Act in the United Kingdom. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Prime Minister Tony Blair and U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney stand in front of the famous main door to Number 10. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... Fallujah skyline before November 2004 battle Fallujah (Arabic: ; sometimes transliterated as Falluja or Fallouja) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly 69 km (43 miles) west of Baghdad on the Euphrates. ...


In light of this allegation, Al Jazeera has questioned whether it has been targeted deliberately in the past – Al Jazeera's Kabul office was bombed in 2001 and another missile hit its office in Baghdad during the invasion of Iraq, killing correspondent Tareq Ayyoub. Both of these attacks occurred subsequent to Al Jazeera's disclosure of the locations of their offices to the United States.[citation needed] For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ...


On the Web

Al Jazeera's web-based service is accessible subscription-free throughout the world. The English and Arabic sections are editorially distinct, with their own selection of news and comment.


High quality video broadcast of Al Jazeera are available in English as a subscription service.


Arabic language

The Arabic version of the site was brought offline for about 10 hours by an FBI raid on its ISP, InfoCom Corporation, on September 5, 2001. InfoCom was later convicted of exporting to Libya and Syria, of knowingly being invested in by a Hamas member (both of which are illegal in the United States), and of underpaying customs duties.[57] The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ...


English language

The station launched an English-language edition of its online content in March 2003. This English language website was relaunched on November 15, 2006, along with the launch of Al Jazeera English. March 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December - → // Events March 1, 2003 Iraq disarmament crisis: The Turkish speaker of Parliament voids the vote accepting U.S. troops involved in the planned invasion of Iraq into Turkey on constitutional grounds. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ...


Web site attacked

Immediately after its launch, the English site was attacked by one or several hackers, who launched denial-of-service attacks, and by a social engineer, who redirected visitors to a site featuring an American flag.[58][59] Both events were widely reported as Al Jazeera's website having been attacked by "hackers".[60] In November 2003, John William Racine II, also known as 'John Buffo', was sentenced to 1000 hours of community service and a $1,500 U.S. fine for the online disruption. Racine posed as an Al Jazeera employee to get a password to the network's site, then redirected visitors to a page he created that showed an American flag shaped like a U.S. map and a patriotic motto, court documents said.[61] In June 2003, Racine pleaded guilty to wire fraud and unlawful interception of an electronic communication.[62] As of 2007, the perpetrators of the denial-of-service attacks remain unknown. This article is about computer hacking. ... DoS redirects here. ... Social engineering is a collection of techniques used to manipulate people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. ... Union Jack. ... The terms hacker and hacking have controversial definitions. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for November, 2003. ... Social engineering is a collection of techniques used to manipulate people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. ... Patriotism is a feeling of love and devotion to ones own homeland (patria, the land of ones fathers). ... Wire fraud is a legal concept in the United States Code which provides for enhanced penalty of any criminally fraudulent activity if it is determined that the activity involved electronic communications of any sort, at any phase of the event. ...


Web host changes

The English-language site was forced to change internet hosting providers several times, due, in Al Jazeera's opinion, to political pressure. Initially, hosting for the English-language site was provided by the U.S.-based company DataPipe, which gave Al Jazeera notice, soon followed by Akamai Technologies.[59] Al Jazeera later shifted to the French branch of NavLink, and then to (the as of 2007 current host) AT&T WorldNet Services. Web hosting is a service that provides Internet users with online systems for storing information, images, video, or any content accessible via the web. ... Akamai Technologies, Inc. ... This article is about the current AT&T. For the 1885-2005 company, see American Telephone & Telegraph. ... the worldnet is the coolest internet provider in the world!!! hi is born`ed in romania. ...


Documentaries

Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Control Room is a 2004 documentary film about Al Jazeera and its relations with the US Central Command (CENTCOM), as well as the other news organizations that covered the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Egyptian Americans are Americans of Egyptian ancestry, first-generation Egyptian immigrants, or descendants of Egyptians who immigrated to the U.S. One large community of Egyptian Americans is located in northeastern Virginia, in the Washington DC metropolitan area. ... Jehane Noujaim is an Egyptian-American documentary film director best-known for her films Control Room and Startup. ... Wide Angle is a weekly one-hour PBS series hosted by Bill Moyers and broadcast via the WNET PBS station since 2002. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...

Awards

  • In December 1999, Ibn Rushd (Averoes) Fund for Freedom of Thought in Berlin awarded the "Ibn Rushd Award" for media and journalism for the year to Al Jazeera.[65]
  • In March 2003, Al Jazeera was awarded by Index on Censorship for its "courage in circumventing censorship and contributing to the free exchange of information in the Arab world."[66]
  • In April 2004, Webby Awards nominated Al Jazeera as one of the five best news Web sites, along with BBC News, National Geographic, RocketNews and The Smoking Gun. According to Tifanny Schlain, the founder of the Webby Awards, this caused a controversy as [other media organisations] "felt it was a risk-taking site".[67]
  • In 2004, Al Jazeera was voted by brandchannel.com readers as the fifth most influential global brand behind Apple Computer, Google, Ikea and Starbucks.[68]

Averroes (1126 - December 10, 1198) was an Andalusi philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics and medicine. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Index on Censorship is a magazine founded by the British writer Stephen Spender in 1972 to monitor and promote freedom of speech. ... Presented by The International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences, the Webby Awards are a set of awards presented to the worlds best websites. The awards have been given out since 1996. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Screenshot from The Smoking Gun The Smoking Gun is a website that posts legal documents, arrest records, and police mugshots on a daily basis. ... For other uses, see Brand (disambiguation). ... Apple Inc. ... This article is about the corporation. ... World Map showing locations of IKEA stores, where green in currently in operation and blue is proposed, as at 2007 IKEA is a privately-held, international home products retailer that sells low-price products, including flat pack furniture, accessories, bathrooms and kitchens at retail stores around the world. ... For other meanings of the name Starbuck, see Starbuck. ...

Competitors

  • In response to Al Jazeera, a group of Saudi investors created Al Arabiya in the first quarter of 2003. Despite (especially initial) scepticism over the station's Saudi funding (cf. History) and a perception of censorship of anti-Saudi content,[69] Al Arabiya has successfully emulated Al Jazeera, garnered a significant audience share, and has also gotten similarly involved in controversy – Al Arabiya has been severely criticised by the Iraqi and US authorities and has also had journalists killed on the job.[70]
  • In order to counter a perceived bias of Al Jazeera, the U.S. government in 2004 founded Al Hurra (="the free one"), a competing Arabic-language satellite TV station variably seen as a public diplomacy tool or a propaganda outlet. Al Hurra is forbidden to broadcast to the US under the provisions of the Smith-Mundt Act. A Zogby poll found that 1% of Arab viewers watch Al Hurra as their first choice.[71]
  • A further competitor is the Rusiya Al-Yaum channel - the first Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia. Rusiya Al-Yaum started broadcasting on May 4, 2007 at 7:00 (Moscow time). The Channel is established and operated by RIA Novosti, the same news agency that launched Russia Today TV in December 2005 to deliver a Russian perspective on news to English-speaking audiences, and "Rusiya Al-Yaum" is indeed a translation of "Russia Today" into Arabic.
  • The BBC is scheduled to debut an Arabic-language news channel in North Africa, the Middle East and the Persian Gulf on March 13, 2008.[72] This is the second time that the BBC is launching an Arabic language TV channel; as mentioned above, the demise of the original BBC World Service Arabic TV channel had at least contributed to the founding of the original Al Jazeera Arabic TV channel.

Al-Arabiya is an Arabic-language satellite news channel based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates which began broadcasting in February 2003, launched with an investment of $300 million from the Saudi-owned MBC, the Lebanese Hariri Group, and others. ... Alhurra or Al Hurra (الحرّة, United States-based satellite TV channel, sponsored by the U.S. government, that began broadcasting on February 14, 2004 in 22 countries across the Middle East. ... In international relations, the term public diplomacy is a term coined in the 1960s to describe aspects of international diplomacy other than the interactions between national governments. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... The Smith-Mundt Act of 1948 was a piece of federal legislation in the United States. ... John Zogby (born 1948) is a noted American political pollster. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... World News bulletins form the main part of the channels daily schedule. ... CNN International (CNNI) is an English language television network that carries news, current affairs and business programming world-wide. ... International broadcasting is broadcasting deliberately aimed at a foreign, rather than a domestic, audience. ... Russia Today TV, more often known as Russia Today is a global English-language news channel from Russia, owned and operated by the TV Novosti division of Russias state news agency, RIA-Novosti. ... PRESS TV is an English-language international television news channel which is based in Tehran and broadcasts in English on a round-the-clock schedule. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Arab States redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Rusiya Al-Yaum News Rusiya Al-Yaum (Arabic: روسيا اليوم meaning Russia Today) - is the first Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Moscow Time (Russian: ) is the time zone for the city of Moscow, Russia and most of western Russia, including Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... RIA (Russian Information Agency) Novosti is a Russian press agency based in Moscow. ... Russia Today TV, more often known as Russia Today is a global English-language news channel from Russia, owned and operated by the TV Novosti division of Russias state news agency, RIA-Novosti. ...

References

  1. ^ Lyngsat page showing, among others, Al Jazeera's channels
    Lyngsat page showing Qatari TV channels, including Al Jazeera's
  2. ^ Al Jazeera plans to launch Arab newspaper Arabian Business; published Saturday 4, November 2006
  3. ^ Qatar's Al-Jazeera livens up Arab TV scene BBC News - Monitoring; published Thursday, January 7, 1999
    In defense of al-Jazeera MSNBC; by Michael Moran; published October 18, 2001
  4. ^ a b c El-Nawawy and Iskandar. Al-Jazeera: How the free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East. Westview.  cf. Further reading
  5. ^ a b c Books of our Time: Al-Jazeera at Google Video; TV programme feat. Lawrence Velvel, Dean of the Mass. School of Law, interviewing author Hugh Miles who reveals a lot about the channel (a, c: 48:30, b: 55:00)
  6. ^ a b The Rise of Al JazeeraPDF (502 KiB) by Nicolas Eliades; Peace & Conflict Monitor; University for Peace
    Qatar's Al-Jazeera TV: The Power of Free Speech
  7. ^ E.g. in 1999, New York Times reporter Thomas L. Friedman called Al-Jazeera "the freest, most widely watched TV network in the Arab world." – Friedman, Thomas L. (12 February 1999). "Fathers and Sons". New York Times: A27.
  8. ^ Al Jazeera and Bin Laden
  9. ^ Tutwiler's mission impossible
  10. ^ According to pravda.ru [1], a tabloid-style website unrelated to the original Pravda, "Al Jazeera received $20,000 per minute for Bin Laden's speech."
  11. ^ Al-Jazeera - "The opinion, and the other opinion" - Sustaining a Free Press in the Middle EastPDF (966 KiB) by Kahlil Byrd and Theresse Kawarabayashi; MIT's Media in Transition 3; published May 2-4, 2003
  12. ^ Al Jazeera turns its signal West
  13. ^ Is Al Jazeera alternative? Mainstream alterity and Assimilating discourses of dissent
  14. ^ The Minotaur of 'Contextual Objectivity': War coverage and the pursuit of accuracy with appeal
  15. ^ BBC in news deal with Arabic TV BBC News, published 17 January 2003
  16. ^ Audience Demographics and Viewership Profile
  17. ^ Release:We break 100million barrier
  18. ^ Al Jazeera TV Footprint - Coverage
  19. ^ Al Jazeera Youtube Channel
  20. ^ Al Jazeera under fire
  21. ^ Mosaic Intelligence Report - November 17, 2006; NB: the poll figures quoted in the report are from a poll analysis apparently commissioned by Accuracy in Media with the goal of exploring how the US public could be mobilised against Al Jazeera (cf. section "In Conclusion…" of survey analysis documentPDF (39.1 KiB)).
  22. ^ Anderson Cooper 360 on Al Jazeera International
  23. ^ a b Rumsfeld blames Al Jazeera over Iraq
  24. ^ Was George Bush serious about attack on Al Jazeera?
  25. ^ by Brent Bozell at 12.30 ET during the Fox Online program (YouTube video)
  26. ^ The Guardian's Corrections and clarifications column, Wednesday November 30 2005
  27. ^ RSF strongly condemns ban on al-Jazeera
  28. ^ Bahrain bans Al Jazeera TV
  29. ^ CPJ News Alert - Missing journalist's wife demands more information
  30. ^ Militia dig in as fighting rages in holy city The Sydney Morning Herald; published August 9, 2004
  31. ^ Iraqi Government Shuts Al-Jazeera Station by Rawya Rageh; Associated Press; published August 7, 2004
  32. ^ Iraq extends al-Jazeera ban and raids offices by Luke Harding; The Guardian; published Monday September 6, 2004
  33. ^ Al-Jazeera Under Fire: IFJ Condemns Iraqi Ban and Canada’s “Bizarre” Restrictions International Federation of Journalists; published September 6, 2004
  34. ^ Secret Dubai diary: into exile
  35. ^ Robert F. Worth. "Al Jazeera No Longer Nips at Saudis", NY Times, 2008-02-04. Retrieved on 2008-01-04. 
  36. ^ [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]
  37. ^ Al-Jazeera Arrest CNN; published September 5, 2003
  38. ^ Spanish judge orders Al-Jazeera reporter to jail by Mar Roman; Associated Press; published Thursday, September 11, 2003
  39. ^ Aljazeera reporter placed in detention Al Jazeera; published Wednesday, January 19, 2005
  40. ^ Special Reports - Taysir Alluni Al Jazeera
  41. ^ A fight for justice - Al Jazeera
  42. ^ e.g. Al Jazeera journalist re-arrested 10 days before trial verdict
  43. ^ a b c Al-Jazeera: News channel in the news BBC News; published Saturday, 29 March, 2003
  44. ^ World and America watching different wars Christian Science Monitor
  45. ^ Al-Jazeera Kabul offices hit in US raid
  46. ^ Call for Sami Al-Haj’s release from Guantanamo after lawyer provides new information
    Call for release of cameraman Sami Al Hajj as he completes fourth year in Guantanamo
    Call for Al-Jazeera cameraman's release from Guantanamo on fifth anniversary of arrival of first detainees
  47. ^ North Korea, Turkmenistan, Eritrea the worst violators of press freedom
  48. ^ Sami Al Haj - Petition - Reporters Sans Frontieres
  49. ^ More news is good news at New Age BD
  50. ^ The Man Who Sold the War by James Bamford; Rolling Stone; published November 17, 2005
  51. ^ Al Jazeera banned from NYSE floor at Arab Press Freedom Watch]
    Al Jazeera ousted from NYSE (March 25, 2003
  52. ^ Al Jazeera banned from two Wall Street exchanges (March 26, 2003)
  53. ^ Al-Jazeera 'hit by missile'
  54. ^ Did the US murder these Journalists? by Robert Fisk; SF Bay Guardian; published April 26, 2003
  55. ^ The war on al-Jazeera Comment by Dima Tareq Tahboub, the widow of Tareq Ayyoub, The Guardian, October 4, 2003
  56. ^ Under Pressure, Qatar May Sell Jazeera Station, New York Times, January 30, 2005
  57. ^ Elisha Brothers convictedPDF (63.1 KiB)
  58. ^ Al-Jazeera hacker pleads guilty BBC News; published Friday, June 13, 2003
  59. ^ a b Al Jazeera and the Net - free speech, but don't say that by John Lettice; The Register; published Monday, April 7, 2003
  60. ^ Al-Jazeera websites 'hit by hackers' by Dominic Timms; Guardian Unlimited; published Wednesday, March 26, 2003
  61. ^ Al-Jazeera cracker charged by John Leyden; The Register; published Thursday, June 12, 2003
  62. ^ Southern California Man Who Hijacked Al Jazeera Website Agrees to Plead Guilty to Federal Charges
    Guilty plea in Al Jazeera site hack
    Al Jazeera hacker gets community service
  63. ^ Wide Angle - Exclusive to Al Jazeera
  64. ^ "Al-Jazeera, An Arab Voice for Freedom or Demagoguery? The UNC Tour"
  65. ^ Ibn Rushd prize 1999
  66. ^ Index: Free speaking voices in the wilderness
  67. ^ The Webby Awards
  68. ^ Apple bites big
  69. ^ Attacks on the Press - 2004: Mideast
  70. ^ Profile: Al Arabiya TV
    Shock over Iraqi reporter's death
  71. ^ Time for the Last Hurrah for US' Al-Hurra
  72. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/7288062.stm

Google Video logo Google Video is a free video sharing and video search engine service from Google that allows anyone to upload video clips to Googles web servers as well as make their own media available free of charge; some videos are also offered for sale through the Google... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Headquartered in Costa Rica, the United Nations-mandated University for Peace (UPEACE) was established in 1980 as a Treaty Organization by the UN General Assembly. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist, and author, currently working as an Op-Ed columnist for the New York Times. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... For other uses, see Pravda (disambiguation). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Accuracy In Media (AIM) is an American organization which monitors the news media in the United States. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Leo Brent Bozell III[1] (born July 14, 1955 in Washington, DC[1]), better known as L. Brent Bozell III[2], L. Brent Bozell, or simply Brent Bozell[3], is the founder and president of the Media Research Center, the Conservative Communications Center, and the Cybercast News Service. ... Metronome, a public art installation showing the time in New York City The Eastern Time Zone (ET) of the Western Hemisphere falls mostly along the east coast of Northern America and the west coast of South America. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... International Federation of Journalists, IFJ, is global union federation of journalists trade unions - the largest in the world. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to freedom of the press. ... This article is about the magazine. ... Robert Fisk during a lecture at Carleton University, Canada, 2004 Robert Fisk (born July 12, 1946 in Maidstone, Kent) is a British journalist and is currently a Middle East correspondent for the British newspaper The Independent. ... // The San Francisco Bay Guardian (also known as the SF Bay Guardian, Bay Guardian, and the Guardian) is a free alternative newspaper published weekly in San Francisco, California. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Further reading

  • M. Arafa, P.J. Auter, & K. Al-Jaber (2005), Hungry for news and information: Instrumental use of Al-Jazeera TV among viewers in the Arab World and Arab Diaspora, Journal of Middle East Media, 1(1), 21-50
  • Marc Lynch (2005), Voices of the New Arab Public: Iraq, al-Jazeera, and Middle East Politics Today, Columbia University Press
  • N. Miladi (2004), Al-Jazeera, ISBN 1-86020-593-3
  • Hugh Miles (2004), Al Jazeera: How Arab TV news challenged the world, Abacus, ISBN 0-3491-1807-8,
    • aka Al Jazeera: How Arab TV News challenges America, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-1789-9 (2005 reprint),
    • aka Al Jazeera: The inside story of the Arab news channel that is challenging the West, Grove Press, ISBN 0-8021-4235-4 (2006 reprint)
  • Mohammed el-Nawawy and Adel Iskandar (2002), Al-Jazeera: How the Free Arab News Network Scooped the World and Changed the Middle East, Westview Press, ISBN 0-8133-4017-9,
    • aka Al-Jazeera: The story of the network that is rattling governments and redefining modern journalism, aka Al-Jazeera: Ambassador of the Arab World, Westview Press/Basic Books/Perseus Books, ISBN 0-8133-4149-3 (2003 reprint)
  • Erik C. Nisbet, Matthew C. Nisbet, Dietram Scheufele, and James Shanahan (2004), Public diplomacy, television news, and Muslim opinionPDF (187 KiB), Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 9 (2), 11-37
  • Donatella Della Ratta (2005), Al Jazeera. Media e società arabe nel nuovo millennio (Italian), Bruno Mondadori, ISBN 8-8424-9282-5
  • Naomi Sakr (2002), Satellite Realms: Transnational Television, Globalization and the Middle East, I.B. Tauris, ISBN 1-8606-4689-1
  • Tatham, Steve (2006), Losing Arab Hearts & Minds: The Coalition, Al-Jazeera & Muslim Public Opinion, Hurst & Co (London), Published 1 Jan 2006, ISBN 0-9725-5723-7
  • Mohamed Zayani (2005), The Al Jazeera Phenomenon: Critical Perspectives On New Arab Media, Paradigm Publishers, ISBN 1-5945-1126-8

Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab diaspora refers to the numbers of Arab immigrants, and their descendants, who voluntarily or as refugees emigrated from their native countries and now reside in non-Arab nations, primarily in Western countries as well... Dietram A. Scheufele is Professor of Life Sciences Communication and Journalism & Mass Communication at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ...

External links

  • Official Al Jazeera websites:
    • (Arabic) general Al Jazeera website
    • (Arabic) Arabic Al Jazeera TV channel
    • (English) Al Jazeera English website
    • (Arabic) Al Jazeera Sports website
    • (English) Al JazeERA NewERA website
    • (Arabic)/(English) Al Jazeera Children's Channel website
    • (Arabic) Al Jazeera Documentary Channel website
Note that the websites aljazeera.com and aljazeerah.info are not affiliated with Al Jazeera.
  • Watch Al Jazeera online:
    • Al Jazeera via TV Darija
    • Al Jazeera English (in the US) via real.com
    • Al Jazeera English (in Europe) via real.com
    • Al Jazeera English (in the UK) via real.com
  • How to watch Al Jazeera English via Satellite in North America
  • Al Jazeera English at YouTube - the English channel's official YouTube account featuring clips of past programs
  • Al Jazeera: demographics, programs, history
  • Al Jazeera demographics
  • Al Jazeera profile, USC PublicDiplomacyWiki, retrieved January 6, 2007
  • Al Jazeera, Radio Sawa Founders Report on Media in the Middle East, UCLA Ronald W. Burkle Center for International Relations, posted 11/4/2003, retrieved 01/26/2007
  • US-Arab Relations – October 4, 2006 lecture by Hafez Al Mirazi, host of the Al Jazeera (Arabic) talk show "From Washington", at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (Realplayer video).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Al Jazeera bombing memo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1094 words)
The Al Jazeera bombing memo is an unpublished memorandum made within the British government which purports to be the minutes of a discussion between United States President George W. Bush and Prime Minister Tony Blair.
Al Jazeera reporters were in the city providing video footage of the conflict.
Al Jazeera's offices have previously been hit by United States weaponry, although there is no proof that they were ever deliberately targeted.
Inside Al Jazeera (3188 words)
Al Jazeera, which translates as "the Peninsula," was established by emiri decree in February 1996.
Al Jazeera's journalists do not seem particularly worried about this or any criticism, but they do say that critics frequently confuse the network with the newsmakers and talk-show guests that appear on it.
Al Jazeera had not aired the interview on the ground that it was not newsworthy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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