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Encyclopedia > Aktiengesellschaft
Companies law
Basic forms:
Sole proprietorship
Corporation
Partnership
(General · Limited · LLP)
Cooperative
USA:
Business trust · LLC · LLLP
Series LLC
Delaware corporation
Nevada corporation
United Kingdom / Commonwealth / Ireland:
Limited company
(By shares · By guarantee)
(Public · Proprietary)
Civil law countries:
AB · AG · ANS · A/S · AS
K.K. · N.V. · OY · S.A. · GmbH
European Company Statute
Doctrines
Corporate governance
Limited liability · Ultra vires
Business judgment rule
De facto corporation and
corporation by estoppel
Piercing the corporate veil
Rochdale Principles
Related areas of law
Contract · Civil procedure

Aktiengesellschaft (IPA: ['aktsiəngəzεlʃaft]; abbreviated AG) is a German term that refers to a corporation that is limited by shares, i.e., owned by shareholders. It may be traded on a stock market. The term is used in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The United States equivalent term is "public company." The equivalent term in the UK is PLC. It is generally considered equivalent to an S.A. when comparing to other civil-law jurisdictions. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... Corporations law (also called companies law and corporate law) is the field of law concerning the creation and regulation of corporations and other business organizations. ... A sole proprietorship, or simply proprietorship, is a type of business entity which legally has no separate existence from its owner. ... Corporate redirects here. ... A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... A limited partnership is a form of partnership similar to a general partnership, except that in addition to one or more general partners (GPs), there are one or more limited partners (LPs). ... A limited liability partnership (LLP) has elements of partnerships and corporations. ... For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... A Massachusetts business trust or MBT is a legal trust set up for the purposes of business in the state of Massachusetts. ... This article is about a U.S.-specific corporate form; for limited liability companies in general, see corporation. ... The limited liability limited partnership (LLLP) is a relatively new modification of the limited partnership, a form of business entity recognized under US commercial law. ... A Series LLC is a special form of a Limited liability company that provides extra protection for personal assets comprised of multiple business entities. ... A Delaware corporation is a corporation chartered in the U.S. state of Delaware. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Nevada. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Limited liability company. ... A limited company by shares (limited or Ltd. ... In British or Irish company law, a Limited Company is a person on its own right. ... The initials PLC after a UK or Irish company name indicate that it is a public limited company, a type of limited company whose shares may be offered for sale to the public. ... A Proprietary limited company or abbreviated as under Australian law is a business structure that has at least one shareholder with a limited number of shares. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ... Aktiebolag is the Swedish term for a corporation, i. ... An ansvarlig selskap is a Norwegian personal responsibility company model, mainly used in small-to-medium businesses, which translates directly into Responsible Company. This reflects that the participants - or owners - are personally responsible for any outstanding debts the company would aquire. ... An Aktieselskab (abbreviated A/S) is the Danish name for a stock-based corporation. ... An aksjeselskap is the Norwegian term for a stock-based corporation. ... Business corporation ) is a type of corporation ) defined under Japanese law. ... The term Naamloze Vennootschap (usually abbreviated NV) is the Dutch terminology for a public limited liability company. ... Osakeyhtiö, directly translated as share corporation, is the Finnish equivalent of Limited company (Ltd or LLC) or Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH). ... S.A. is the abbreviation of Société Anonyme in French, Spółka Akcyjna in Polish, Sociedad Anónima in Spanish, Sociedade Anónima in Portuguese, or Naamloze Venootschap (N.V.) in Dutch, generally designating corporations in various countries. ... Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH or GesmbH) is a type of legal entity created in Germany in 1892. ... The Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Company of the European Union (adopted October 8, 2001; OJ L 294, 10 November 2001, pp. ... Corporate governance is the set of processes, customs, policies, laws and institutions affecting the way a corporation is directed, administered or controlled. ... Limited liability (LL) is liability that is limited to a partner or investors investment. ... Ultra vires is a Latin phrase that literally means beyond the power. ... The business judgment rule is a case law-derived concept in Corporations law whereby a court will refuse to review the actions of a corporations board of directors in managing the corporation unless there is some allegation of conduct that (1) violates (a) the directors duty of care, (b... De facto corporation and corporation by estoppel are both terms that are used by courts to describe circumstances in which is a business organization that has failed to become a de jure corporation (a corporation by law) will nonetheless be treated as a corporation, thereby shielding shareholders from liability. ... The corporate law concept piercing (Lifting) the corporate veil describes a legal decision where an officer, director, or shareholder of a corporation is held liable for the debts of the corporation despite the general principle that those persons are immune from suits in contract or tort that otherwise would only... The Rochdale Principles are a set of ideals for the operation of cooperatives. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Civil procedure is the body of law that sets out the process that courts will follow when hearing cases of a civil nature (a civil action, as opposed to a criminal action). ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Corporate redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... A shareholder or stockholder is an individual or company (including a corporation) that legally owns one or more shares of stock in a joint stock company. ... A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... A public company usually refers to a company which is permitted to offer its securities (stock, bonds, etc. ... The initials PLC after a UK or Irish company name indicate that it is a public limited company, a type of limited company whose shares may be offered for sale to the public. ... S.A. is the abbreviation of Société Anonyme in French, Spółka Akcyjna in Polish, Sociedad Anónima in Spanish, Sociedade Anónima in Portuguese, or Naamloze Venootschap (N.V.) in Dutch, generally designating corporations in various countries. ... Civil law or continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. ...


The equivalents of the AG/S.A. in Italy (Società per Azioni, S.p.A.), Denmark (Aktieselskab, A/S), Norway (Aksjeselskap, AS), Sweden (Aktiebolag, AB), Mexico ('Sociedad Anonima', S.A.) the Czech Republic (Akciová společnost, a.s.), and Finland (Osakeyhtiö, OY), among others. All have names that more or less literally translate to "Aktiengesellschaft" though there structures differ (for instance, an Italian S.p.A. is closer to a French S.A. than a German AG). An Aktieselskab (abbreviated A/S) is the Danish name for a stock-based corporation. ... An aksjeselskap is the Norwegian term for a stock-based corporation. ... Aktiebolag is the Swedish term for a corporation, i. ... Osakeyhtiö, directly translated as share corporation, is the Finnish equivalent of Limited company (Ltd or LLC) or Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung (GmbH). ...

Contents

Meaning of the word

Aktien means shares, and Gesellschaft means business association in this context. See stock (disambiguation) for other meanings of the term stock A stock, also referred to as a share, is commonly a share of ownership in a corporation. ... Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft are sociological categories introduced by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies for two normal types of human association. ...


Reasons for setting up a corporation

When a corporation is started, it often must collect a lot of money to pay for startup costs, and banks provide only a limited amount, especially if it is unknown whether that corporation is going to earn enough money to repay all the loans plus interest on time. However, some members of the public will take a risk and provide money in exchange for a piece of paper, or just a book entry, that can be sold to others on the stock market, and that has a value that fluctuates, depending on, for example, whether the shares concerned will pay dividends, and if so, how much per year, or what percentage of the current price of the shares. Also, shares usually come with voting rights, so shareholders can dictate the direction of the company, and the power one holds depends on the amount of shares that one possesses. A stock market is a market for the trading of company stock, and derivatives of same; both of these are securities listed on a stock exchange as well as those only traded privately. ... It has been suggested that ex-dividend date be merged into this article or section. ...


Legal basis

The legal basis of the AG is, in Germany and Austria, the respective Aktiengesetz (abbr. AktG), in Switzerland a part of the Obligationenrecht (OR). As the law requires all corporations to specify their legal form (which gives the limitation of liability) in the name, all German and Austrian stock corporations bear Aktiengesellschaft or AG as part (usually suffix) of their name. In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Aktiengesellschaft - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (253 words)
The German term Aktiengesellschaft (IPA /'aktsiəngəzεlʃaft/) (abbreviated AG) means a corporation which is limited by shares, i.e.
It may be traded on the stock market.
As the law requires all corporations to specify their legal form (which gives the limitation of liability) in the name, all German and Austrian stock corporations bear Aktiengesellschaft or AG as part (usually suffix) of their name.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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