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Encyclopedia > Akko
The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. Al Jazzar Mosque in the foreground. See also Map  (http://www.akko.org.il/English/Map/default.asp)

Akko (Hebrew עַכּוֹ; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St.-Jean d'Acre), is a city in Western Galilee in the North District, Israel. According to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), at the end of 2003 the city had a total population of 45,600. It stands on a low promontory at the northern extremity of the Bay of Acre, 95 miles N.N.W. from Jerusalem. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Arabic is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Galilee (Hebrew hagalil הגליל, Arabic al-jaleel الجليل), meaning circuit, is a large area located in what is currently northern Israel (Tzafon), traditionally divided into three parts: Upper Galilee, Lower Galilee and Western Galilee. ... North District can refer to: North District of Israel North District, Hong Kong This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Israel Central Bureau of Statistics is a state organization for the creation and maintenance of numeric data related to populations vis a vis the ethnic makeup of Israel and its cities. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. ... Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם Yerushalayim; Arabic: القدس al-Quds; see also names of Jerusalem) is an ancient Middle Eastern city of key importance to the religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. ...


It was long regarded as the "Key of Palestine," on account of its commanding position on the shore of the broad coastal plain that joins the inland plain of Esdraelon, and so affords the easiest entrance to the interior of the country. The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ...

Contents

Notable sights and places in Akko

The harbour at Acco in 2005


The old city of Akko has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site and contains, among other sites, a tunnel leading to a 13th-century fortress of the Knights Templar. the harbour at Acco, Israel. ... the harbour at Acco, Israel. ... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ...


Since the 1990s there are vast works of archeological excavations and preservations of ancient structures in progress. The works are carried out by the Old Acre Development Company (OADC). 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Walls

The first notable thing which comes to sight when coming to Akko is the heavy land defense wall, built north and east to the city. This wall was built in 1800-1814 by Jezzar Pasha (called by the locals Al-Jezzar) and his Jewish advisor Haim Farkhi. This is a modern counter artillery fortification which includes a thick defensive wall, a dry moat, cannons' outposts and three Burges (large defensive towers). The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... --66. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... The defensive wall of Braşov, Romania. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats were deep and wide trenches, usually filled with water, to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... A small cast-iron cannon on a carriage A cannon is a modern day rifled machine gun with a calibre of 20 mm or more (see autocannon). ... A tower is a high structure, usually man-made. ...


In 1750, Daher El-Omar, the ruler of Akko, utilized the remnants of the Crusader walls as a foundation for his walls. They were reinforced between 1775 and 1799 by Jezzar Pasha and survived Napoleon's siege. The wall was thin, its height was 10-13 meters and its thickness was only 1 meter. Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex to... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Events February 9 - American Revolutionary War: British Parliament declares Massachusetts in rebellion March 23 - American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his speech - give me liberty or give me death in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


The sea wall, which remained mostly complete, is the original El-Omar's wall that was reinforced by al-Jezzar. However, the land wall which survived Napoleon's siege was replaced in 1800 with a modern wall by al-Jezzar. --66. ...


See also: Akko Walls (http://www.akko.org.il/English/Trips/Napoleon-Walls.asp) (OADC)


The Great Mosque

The Al Jezzar mosque was built by Jezzar Pasha (d. 1804) from materials taken from Caesarea Palaestina: his tomb is within. Acre is the seat of the head of the Bahá'í Faith. A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... 1804 is a leap year starting on Sunday. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Known in India as the Lotus Temple, the Bahai House of Worship attracts an average of three and a half million visitors a year. ...


Hamam al Basha

Hamam is a hot Turkish bath. Akko's Hamam is notable mainly because it was used by the Irgun as bridge to break into the citadel's prison. This article is about hammam, the Turkish bath. ... This article is about hammam, the Turkish bath. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Palladian Pulteney Bridge and the weir at Bath Bath is a city in southwest England, most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ...   Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai-Leumi), Hebrew for Military-National Organization, was a Zionist rebel group that existed in the early 20th century. ...


The Citadel

The current building which consists the citadel of Akko is an Ottoman forification, built on the foundation of the Hospitallerian citadel. The citadel was part of the city's defensive formation, reinforcing the northern wall. The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care...


During the 20th century the citadel was used mainly as prison and a gallows. During the British mandate period, activists of Jewish Zionist resistance movements were held prisoner there; some were executed there. In 1947, members of the Irgun broke into the citadel and released many prisoners. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... The British Mandate of Palestine was a swathe of territory in the Middle East, formerly belonging to the Ottoman Empire, which the League of Nations entrusted to the United Kingdom to administer in the aftermath of World War I as a Mandate Territory. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...   Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai-Leumi), Hebrew for Military-National Organization, was a Zionist rebel group that existed in the early 20th century. ...


Today, the citadel of Akko contains the following:

  • The Ottoman fortifications (including the tower and the moat).
  • Akko Old City Visitor Centers.
  • The "enchanted garden": a new garden that is planted according to historical description of the garden that was there during the Crusades period.
  • Akko's British prison and the gallows.
  • Memorial for Jewish resistance fighters, executed by the British mandate.
  • A Museum for the Jewish resistance prisoners, מוזיאון אסירי המחתרות .
  • Knights' Halls (see below).

As of August 2004, the citadel is partly closed, due to preservation works. This article is about historical Crusades . ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Knights' Halls

Under the citadel and prison of Akko, archeological excavations revealed a complex of halls, which was built and used by the Hospitallers Knights. This complex was a part of the Hospitallers' citadel, which was combined in the northern wall of Akko. This article is about a type of fortification. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... This article is about a type of fortification. ... This article is about structural, boundary and retaining walls. ...


The complex includes:

  • Six semi-joint halls.
  • One large hall, recently excavated.
  • Dungeon.
  • Dining room (with an underground tunnel).
  • Posta and Crypta (remains of an ancient Gothic church).

History

Few towns have had a more chequered or calamitous history. Of great antiquity, Akko is probably to be identified with the Aak of the tribute-lists of Thutmoses III (c. 1500 B.C.), and it is certainly the Akka of the Amarna letters. To the Hebrews it was known as Acco (Revised Version spelling), but it is mentioned only once in the Old Testament, namely Judges 1:31, as one of the places from which the Israelites did not drive out the Canaanite inhabitants. Theoretically it was in the territory of the tribe of Asher, and Josephus assigns it by name to the district of one of Solomon's provincial governors. Throughout the period of Hebrew domination, however, its political connections were always with Syria rather than with the Philistines: thus, about 725 BC it joined Sidon and Tyre in a revolt against Shalmaneser V. It had a stormy experience during the three centuries preceding the Christian era. Thutmose III (also written as Tuthmosis III; called Manahpi(r)ya in the Amarna letters) (? - 1426 BC), was Pharaoh of Egypt in the Eighteenth Dynasty. ... The Amarna letters is the name popularly given to a cache of correspondence, mostly diplomatic, found at Amarna, the modern name for the capital of the Egyptian New Kingdom primarily from the reign of pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known as Akhenaten (1369 - 1353 BCE). ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures constitutes the first major part of the Christian Bible, usually divided into the categories law, history, poetry (or wisdom books) and prophecy. ... Judges (Hebrew: שֹּׁפְטִים) is a book of the Bible originally written in Hebrew. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ... In the Book of Genesis, Asher (אָשֵׁר, Standard Hebrew Ašer, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀšēr) is a son of Jacob and Zilpah, and the founder of the Tribe of Asher. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Solomon or Shlomo (Hebrew: שְׁלֹמֹה; Standard Hebrew: Šəlomo; Tiberian Hebrew: Šəlōmōh, meaning peace) in the Tanakh (Old Testament), is the third king of Israel (including Judah), builder of the temple in Jerusalem, renowned for his great wisdom and wealth and power, but also blamed for falling away from worshipping the... The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers... Sidon, Zidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا Ṣaydā; Standard Hebrew צִידוֹן Ẓidon, Tiberian Hebrew צִידֹן Ṣîḏōn) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... Tyre (native Phoenician Ṣur, Latin Tyrus, Akkadian Ṣurru, Tiberian Hebrew צר Ṣōr, Greek Τύρος Týros, Arabic الصور aṣ-Ṣūr) is an ancient Phoenician city in Lebanon on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, about 23 miles, in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. ... Shalmaneser V first appears as governor of Zimirra in Phoenicia in the reign of Tiglath-Pileser III and is supposed by H. Winckler to have been the son of the latter king. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ...


The Greek and Roman Periods

The Greek historians name it Ake (Josephus calls it also Akre); but the name was changed to Ptolemais, probably by Ptolemy Soter, after the partition of the kingdom of Alexander the Great. Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Greats generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexanders death in 323 BC. In 305 BC he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as Soter (saviour). ... Bust of Alexander III in the British Museum. ...


Strabo refers to the city as once a rendezvous for the Persians in their expeditions against Egypt. About 165 BC Simon Maccabaeus defeated the Syrians in many battles in Galilee, and drove them into Ptolemais. About 153 BC Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him. Demetrius offered many bribes to the Maccabees to obtain Jewish support against his rival, including the revenues of Ptolemais for the benefit of the Temple in Jerusalem, but in vain. Jonathan threw in his lot with Alexander, and in 150 BC he was received by him with great honour in Ptolemais. Some years later, however, Tryphon, an officer of the Syrians, who had grown suspicious of the Maccabees, enticed Jonathan into Ptolemais and there treacherously took him prisoner. Strabo (squinty) was a term employed by the Romans for anyone whose eyes were distorted or deformed. ... Persian art is conscious of a great past, and monumental in many respects. ... The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Miṣr or Maṣr, in Egyptian dialect) is a republic mostly located in north-eastern Africa. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 170 BC 169 BC 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC - 165 BC - 164 BC 163 BC 162... Simon Maccabaeus (died 134 BC) was a member of the Maccabees family. ... Galilee (Hebrew hagalil הגליל, Arabic al-jaleel الجليل), meaning circuit, is a large area located in what is currently northern Israel (Tzafon), traditionally divided into three parts: Upper Galilee, Lower Galilee and Western Galilee. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 158 BC 157 BC 156 BC 155 BC 154 BC - 153 BC - 152 BC 151 BC... Silver coin of Alexander I Balas Alexander Balas (i. ... Coin of Antiochus IV Epiphanes (reigned 175 - 163 BC). ... A number of notables in classical antiquity are named Demetrius: Demetrius, a writer of Old Comedy ca. ... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... Jonathan (יְהוֹנָתָן / יוֹנָתָן Whom the LORD gave, Standard Hebrew Yəhonatan, Tiberian Hebrew Yəhônāṯān) was a prince of the Kingdom of Israel, son of King Saul, and beloved of the subsequent David (see Jonathan and David). ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 155 BC 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC - 150 BC - 149 BC 148 BC...


The city was also assaulted and captured by Alexander Jannaeus, by Cleopatra VII of Egypt and by Tigranes II of Armenia. Here Herod built a gymnasium, and here the Jews met Petronius, sent to set up statues of the emperor in the Temple, and persuaded him to turn back. St Paul spent a day in Ptolemais (Acts 21:7). Coin of Alexander Jannaeus (103-76 BC). ... Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( December, 70 BC or January, 69 BC– August 12?, 30 BC) was queen of ancient Egypt. ... This article is about a king of Armenia in the first century B.C. For other historical figures with the same name (including other kings of Armenia) see Tigranes Coin of Tigranes II Tigranes the Great (ruled 95-56 BC) (also called Tigranes II and sometimes Tigranes I) was a... Herod I, also known as Herod the Great was an ancient king of Judaea. ... The gymnasium of the Greeks originally functioned as the school where competitors in the public games received their training, and was so named from the circumstance that these competitors exercised naked (gymnos). ... This article is about the Roman author Petronius. ... The word temple has different meanings in the fields of architecture, religion, geography, anatomy, and education. ... Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (d. ...


The Arab Period and Crusades

The Arabs captured the city in AD 638, and held it until they lost it to the crusaders in 1110. The latter made the town their chief port in Palestine. It was re-taken by Saladin in 1187, besieged by Guy of Lusignan in 1189 at the Battle of Acre, and again captured by Richard the Lionheart in 1191. It then became the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. In 1229 it was placed under the control of the Knights Hospitaller (whence came one of its alternative names), but was finally lost by the Franks to the Mameluks in 1291. The Ottomans under Sultan Selim I captured the city in 1517, after which it fell into almost total decay. Maundrell in 1697 found it a complete ruin, save for a khan occupied by some French merchants, a mosque and a few poor cottages. For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Jerusalem, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Dagobert II, king of the Franks Categories: 638 ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Events December 4 - First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon. ... Saladin, king of Egypt from a 15th century illuminated manuscript; the globus in his left hand is a European symbol of kingly power. ... Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Guy of Lusignan (died 1194) was a French knight who, through marriage, became king of Jerusalem, and led the Kingdom to disaster at the Battle of Hattin in 1187. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... The Battle of Acre of 1189 was fought on the ground to the east of Acre, and affords a good example of a battle of the Crusades. ... Richard I of England, as a bronze, brandishes his sword outside the Palace of Westminster Richard I (September 8, 1157 - April 6, 1199) was King of England from 1189 to 1199. ... Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade. ... Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Events May 10 - Scottish nobles recognize the authority of King Edward I of England. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October 29, 1923... Selim I Selim I (1465 – September 22, 1520; also known as the Grim, nicknamed Yavuz, the Brave in Turkish) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Events January 22 - Battle of Ridanieh. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


The Ottoman Period

Towards the end of the 18th century it revived under the rule of Daher El-Omar, the local sheikh: his successor, Jezzar Pasha, governor of Damascus, improved and fortified it, but by heavy imposts secured for himself all the benefits derived from his improvements. About 1780 Jezzar peremptorily banished the French trading colony, in spite of protests from the French government, and refused to receive a consul. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. ... Events January 16 - Sweden, and Russia. ...


In 1799 Napoleon, in pursuance of his scheme for raising a Syrian rebellion against Turkish domination, appeared before Acre, but after a siege of two months (March--May) was repulsed by the Turks, aided by Sir Sidney Smith and a force of British sailors. Having lost his siege cannons to Smith, Napoleon attempted to lay siege to the walled city defended by Ottoman troops on 20 March 1799, using only his infantry and small-caliber cannons, a strategy which failed, leading to his retreat two months later on May 21. 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about Sidney Smith, the English naval officer. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (142nd in leap years). ...


Jezzar was succeeded on his death by his son Suleiman, under whose milder rule the town advanced in prosperity till 1831, when Ibrahim Pasha besieged and reduced the town and destroyed its buildings. On November 4, 1840 it was bombarded by the allied British, Austrian and French squadrons, and in the following year restored to Turkish rule. Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566); in Turkish Süleyman , (nicknamed the Magnificent in Europe and the Lawgiver in the Islamic World, in Turkish Kanuni) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 and successor to Selim I. He was born at... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... See Grand Vizier Ibrahim Pasha for details of the Grand Visier to Suleiman the Magnificent. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ...


The British Mandate

The citadel of Akko was used by the British as a prison and a gallows, mainly for political prisoners. Jewish underground movement activists, such as Zeev Jabotinsky and Shlomo Ben-Yosef (Irgun activist) were jailed in the citadel-prison of Akko. Ben-Yosef was the first Jew to be executed by the British mandate. This article is about a type of fortification. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ... Shlomo Ben-Yosef was born in Poland as Shalom Tabachnik on May 7, 1913. ...   Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai-Leumi), Hebrew for Military-National Organization, was a Zionist rebel group that existed in the early 20th century. ...


On May 4, 1947, the Irgun broke into the Akko citadel prison in order to release Jewish activist imprisoned there by the British. 27 inmates succeeded in escaping (20 from the Irgun and 7 from Lehi). 9 were killed and 5 were captured during the raid. May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...   Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai-Leumi), Hebrew for Military-National Organization, was a Zionist rebel group that existed in the early 20th century. ...   Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai-Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai-Leumi), Hebrew for Military-National Organization, was a Zionist rebel group that existed in the early 20th century. ... Lehi refers to: Lehi, a prophet in the Book of Mormon Lehi, a city in Utah Lehi, a Zionist paramilitary group in Palestine/Israel Lehi, a location in southwest Palestine/Israel Lehi, a traditionally Mormon agricultural neighborhood in northern Mesa, Arizona This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which...


Despite the heavy toll in human lives, the action was described by foreign journalists as "the greatest jail break in history." The London Ha'aretz correspondent wrote on May 5: Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...

"The attack on Acre jail has been seen here as a serious blow to British prestige... Military circles described the attack as a strategic masterpiece."

The New York Herald Tribune wrote that the underground had carried out "an ambitious mission, their most challenging so far, in perfect fashion." The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper created when the New York Tribune acquired the New York Herald. ...


Prison break (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Acre.html)


Under Israeli Rule (1948 and henceforth)

  • Modern city outside of the Old City walls. See: Akko (modern city).
  • Archeological reservation works and excavations. See: Old Acre Development Company.

Incomplete, need to elaborate


Other transliterations

The Modern Hebrew language is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Bible, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early middle ages, beginning in the 8th century. ...

See also

See also: Israel, Palestine, Crusade, District of Acre. The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... The District of Acre (also known as the Province of Acre) was one of the Districts of Palestine, established by the Ottoman Empire, was located within the boundaries of the modern State of Israel. ...


People:

  • Daher El-Omar
  • Ahmed al-Jazzar a.k.a Jezzar Pasha
  • Haim Farkhi
  • Napoleon

For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

External Links

  • Old City of Acre - The Official Website (http://www.akko.org.il/hebrew/main/default.asp) (Old Acre Development Company - OADC )
  • Akko's History (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vie/Acco.html) (Jewish Virtual Library)
  • The Akko prison break (http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/Acre.html) (Jewish Virtual Library)

 
 

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