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Encyclopedia > Akhenaten
Akhenaten / Amenhotep IV
Amenophis IV, Naphu(`)rureya, Ikhnaton[1]
Preceded by:
Amenhotep III
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Smenkhkare
Statue of Akhenaten depicted in a style typical of the Amarna period, on display at the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo
Statue of Akhenaten depicted in a style typical of the Amarna period, on display at the Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, Cairo
Reign 1353 BC1336 BC[4] or
1352 BC1336 BC[5] or
13511334 BC[6]
Praenomen



Neferkheperure-waenre
Beautiful are the Manifestations of Re[3]
the one of Re
Nomen




Akhenaten
Servant of the Aten[2]
(after Year 4 of his reign)



Amenhotep
Horus
name




Image:srxtail2.GIF
Kanakht-Meryaten
The strong bull, beloved of the Aten
Nebty
name





Wernesytemakhetaten
Great of kingship in Akhetaten
Golden
Horus





Wetjesrenenaten
Who displays the name of the Aten
Consort(s) Nefertiti, Kiya
Meritaten, Ankhesenpaaten
Issue Smenkhkare? Meritaten, Meketaten,
Ankhesenpaaten,
Neferneferuaten Tasherit,
Neferneferure, Setepenre, Tutankhamun,
Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit?
Father Amenhotep III
Mother Tiye
Died 1336 BC or 1334 BC
Burial Royal Tomb of Akhenaten[7]
Major
Monuments
Akhetaten, Gempaaten, Hwt-Benben

Akhenaten (or rarely alt: Ikhnaton)[1] meaning Effective spirit of Aten, first known as Amenhotep IV (sometimes read as Amenophis IV and meaning Amun is Satisfied) before his first year, was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, especially notable for attempting to compel the Egyptian population to monotheistically worship the Aten. Although there are doubts as to how successful he was at this, it was the first known attempt at monotheism the world had seen. He was born to Amenhotep III and his Chief Queen Tiye and was their younger son. Akhenaten was not originally designated as the successor to the throne until the untimely death of his older brother, Thutmose. Akhenaton or Akhenaten may refer to: Akhenaten, Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Akhenaton, the name of a french rapper Akhnaten, a Philip Glass opera about the Egyption pharaoh. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 666 KB) Antiquité égyptienne, Akhénaton, Musée égyptien du Caire, (Égypte). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 666 KB) Antiquité égyptienne, Akhénaton, Musée égyptien du Caire, (Égypte). ... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ... Nickname: Egypt: Site of Cairo (top center) Coordinates: , Government  - Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area  - City 214 km²  (82. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1353 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... (Redirected from 1336 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1352 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... (Redirected from 1336 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1351 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... (Redirected from 1334 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Kiya was a wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... Meketaten was the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... hieroglyphic ligature spelling out setepenre. Common title used by kings of Egypt meaning Elect of Re. Also the name of the youngest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (or Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit) was the daughter of Ankhesenpaaten and (probably) the Pharaoh Akhenaten, father and husband of Ankhesenpaaten. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tiye. ... (Redirected from 1336 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1334 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... The Royal Tomb of Akhenaten is the burial place of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, in the Royal Wadi in Amarna. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of ancient Egypt are often combined under the group title, New Kingdom. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tiye. ... Crown Prince Tuthmose (or, more accurately, Djehutymos) was the eldest son of pharaoh Amenhotep III, who lived during the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt. ...


Amenhotep IV succeeded his father after Amenhotep III's death at the end of his 38-year reign, possibly after a coregency lasting between either 1 to 2 or 12 years. Suggested dates for Akhenaten's reign (subject to the debates surrounding Egyptian chronology) are from 1353 BC-1336 BC or 1351 BC1334 BC. Akhenaten's chief wife was Nefertiti, made world-famous by the discovery of her exquisitely moulded and painted bust, now displayed in the Altes Museum of Berlin, and among the most recognised works of art surviving from the ancient world. A Co-regency is the situation where a monarchical position (such as King, Queen, Emperor or Empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1353 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... (Redirected from 1336 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... (Redirected from 1351 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1400s BC 1390s BC 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC - 1350s BC - 1340s BC 1330s BC 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1350 BC - Pharaoh Amenhotep IV Akhenaton rises to... (Redirected from 1334 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Bust of Richard Bently by Roubiliac A bust is a sculpture depicting a persons chest, shoulders, and head, usually supported by a stand. ... Berlin, Old Museum, June 2003 The Altes Museum or Old Museum (until 1845 Royal Museum) located on Berlins Museum Island was built between 1825 and 1828 by the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel in the neoclassical style to house the Prussian Royal familys art collection. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...

Contents

Atenist revolution

Main article: Atenism

A political and religious revolutionary, Amenhotep IV introduced Atenism in the fourth year of his reign, raising the previously obscure god Aten (sometimes spelled Aton) to the position of supreme deity, and attacking the power of the Amen-Ra priestly establishment. The early stage of Atenism appears to be a kind of henotheism (the exaltation of one god above all others) familiar in Egyptian religion, but the later form suggests a monotheism (belief in the existence of only one deity or god). Aten was the name for the sun-disk itself; hence the fact that it is often referred to in English in the impersonal form "the Aten". The Aten was by this point in Egyptian history considered to be an aspect of the composite deity Ra-Amun-Horus. These previously separate deities had been merged with each other. Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... Atenism (or the Amarna heresy) is one of the earliest monotheistic religions, associated above all with the eighteenth dynasty Pharaoh Amenhotep IV, better known under the name he later adopted, Akhenaten. ... [1] Aten (or Aton) was the disk of the sun in ancient Egyptian mythology, and originally an aspect of Ra. ... Henotheism (Greek heis theos one god) is a term coined by Max Müller, to mean devotion to a single God while accepting the existence of other gods. ... Egyptian mythology or Egyptian religion is the succession of tentative beliefs held by the people of Egypt for over three thousand years, prior to major exposure to Christianity and Islam. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ...

Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten
Pharaoh Akhenaten and his family adoring the Aten

Amun was identified with Ra, who was also identified with Horus. Akhenaten simplified this syncretism by proclaiming the visible sun itself to be the sole deity, thus introducing a type of monotheism. Akhenaton might have had the first idea of the shape of the world. Some commentators interpret this as a proto-scientific naturalism, based on the observation that the sun's energy is the ultimate source of all life. Others consider it to be a way of cutting through the previously ritualistic emphasis of Egyptian religion to allow for a new "personal relationship" with god; this interpretation is hampered by the fact that only the Royal family was able to interact with and perform rituals pertaining to the Aten. Others interpret it as a pragmatic political move designed to further centralise power by crushing the independent authority of the traditional Amun priesthood who controlled Egypt's wealth and produce. However, Akhenaten did not formally break with the Amun priests and still used his old Amun inspired royal name--Amenhotep IV--until Fourth Year when the latter defied his authority, according to the text on one of his Amarna border stela. Painting of the Aten from Amarna The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Painting of the Aten from Amarna The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Horus (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ...


This religious reformation appears to have begun with his decision to celebrate a Sed festival in his third regnal year — a highly unusual step, since a Sed-festival, a sort of royal jubilee intended to reinforce the Pharaoh's divine powers of kingship, was traditionally held in the thirtieth year of a Pharaoh's reign. The sed festival (or heb sed) was an Ancient Egyptian ceremony held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. ...


His Year 5 marked the beginning of his construction of a new capital, Akhetaten ('Horizon of Aten'), at the site known today as Amarna. In the same year, Amenhotep IV officially changed his name to Akhenaten ('Effective Spirit of Aten') as evidence of his new worship. Very soon afterward he centralized Egyptian religious practices in Akhetaten, though construction of the city seems to have continued for several more years. In honor of Aten, Akhenaten also oversaw the construction of some of the most massive temple complexes in ancient Egypt, including one at Karnak, close to the old temple of Amun. In these new temples, Aten was worshipped in the open sunlight, rather than in dark temple enclosures, as had been the previous custom. Akhenaten is also believed to have composed the Great Hymn to the Aten. Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ...


Initially, Akhenaten presented Aten as a variant of the familiar supreme deity Amun-Ra (itself the result of an earlier rise to prominence of the cult of Amun, resulting in Amun becoming merged with the sun god Ra), in an attempt to put his ideas in a familiar Egyptian religious context. However, by Year 9 of his reign Akhenaten declared that Aten was not merely the supreme god, but the only god, and that he, Akhenaten, was the only intermediary between Aten and his people. He ordered the defacing of Amun's temples throughout Egypt, and in a number of instances inscriptions of the plural 'gods' were also removed. Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Ἄμμων Ammon, and Ἅμμων Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities in Ancient Egypt, before fading into obscurity. ... For other uses, see Ra (disambiguation). ...


Aten's name is also written differently after Year 9, to emphasise the radicalism of the new regime, which included a ban on idols, with the exception of a rayed solar disc, in which the rays (commonly depicted ending in hands) appear to represent the unseen spirit of Aten, who by then was evidently considered not merely a sun god, but rather a universal deity. It is important to note, however, that representations of the Aten were always accompanied with a sort of "hieroglyphic footnote", stating that the representation of the sun as All-encompassing Creator was to be taken as just that: a representation of something that, by its very nature as something transcending creation, cannot be fully or adequately represented by any one part of that creation. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Akhenaten's international relations

Important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy has been provided by the discovery of the Amarna Letters, a cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna, the modern designation of the Akhetaten site. This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets, sent to Akhetaten from various subject ruler through Egyptian military outposts, and from the foreign rulers (recognized as "Great Kings") of Mitanni, Babylon, Assyria and Hatti. The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from Pharaoh, and also complained of being snubbed and cheated by him. EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ... Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ...


Early on in his reign, Akhenaten fell out with the king of Mitanni, Tushratta, who had been courting favor with his father against the Hittites. Tushratta complains in numerous letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed part of the dowry which Tushratta received for letting his daughter Tadukhepa be married to Amenhotep III and then Akhenaten. Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ... Tadukhipa, in Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. ...

I...asked your father, Mimmureya, for statues of solid cast gold, one of myself and a second statue, a statue of Tadu-Heba (Tadukhepa), my daughter, and your father said, "Don't talk of giving statues just of solid cast gold. I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli. I will give you, too, along with the statues, much additional gold and (other) goods beyond measure." Every one of my messengers that were staying in Egypt saw the gold for the statues with their own eyes. Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold....He showed much additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to me. He said to my messengers, "See with your own eyes, here the statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending to my brother." And my messengers did see with their own eyes! But my brother (ie: Akhenaten) has not sent the solid (gold) statues that your father was going to send. You have sent plated ones of wood. Nor have you sent me the goods that your father was going to send me, but you have reduced (them) greatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in which I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear the greetings of my brother, that day I make a festive occasion...May my brother send me much gold. [At] the kim[ru fe]ast...[...with] many goods [may my] brother honor me. In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dust. May my brother cause me no distress. May he send me much gold in order that my brother [with the gold and m]any [good]s, may honor me.(EA 27)[8] Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Tadukhipa, in Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. ...

While Akhenaten was certainly not a close friend of Tushratta, he was evidently concerned at the expanding power of the Hittite Empire under its powerful ruler Suppiluliuma I. A successful Hittite attack on Mitanni and its ruler Tushratta would have disrupted the entire international balance of power in the Ancient Middle East especially at a time when Egypt had made peace with Mitanni; this would cause some of Egypt's vassals to switch their allegiances to the Hittites as time would prove. A group of Egypt's allies who attempted to rebel against the Hittites were captured, and wrote letters begging Akhenaten for troops, but he did not respond to most of their pleas. Evidence suggests that the troubles on the northern frontier led to difficulties in Canaan, particularly in a struggle for power between Labaya of Shechem and Abdi-Heba of Jerusalem, which required the Pharaoh to intervene in the area by dispatching Medjay troops northwards. Akhenaten pointedly refused to save his vassal Rib-Hadda of Byblos whose kingdom was being besieged by the expanding state of Amurru under Abdi-Ashirta and later Aziru, son of Abdi-Ashirta, despite Rib-Hadda's numerous pleas for help from the pharaoh. Rib-Hadda wrote a total of 60 letters to Akhenaten pleading for aid from the pharaoh. Akhenaten wearied of Rib-Hadda's constant correspondences and once told Rib-Hadda: "You are the one that writes to me more than all the (other) mayors" or Egyptian vassals in EA 124.[9] What Rib-Hadda did not comprehend was that the Egyptian king would not organize and dispatch an entire army north just to preserve the political status quo of several minor city states on the fringes of Egypt's Asiatic Empire.[10] Rib-Hadda would pay the ultimate price; his exile from Byblos due to a coup led by his brother Ilirabih is mentioned in one letter.[11] When Rib-Hadda appealed in vain for aid to Akhenaten and then turned to Aziru, his sworn enemy to place him back on the throne of his city, Aziru promptly had him dispatched to the king of Sidon where Rib-Hadda was almost certainly executed.[12] Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Labaya (also transliterated as Labayu or Libayu) was a Canaanite warlord who lived about contemporaneously with Pharaoh Akhenaten (14th century BCE). ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... Abdi-Heba (Abdi-Kheba, Abdi-Hepat, or Abdi-Hebat) was king of Jerusalem during the Amarna period (mid-1330s BC). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Medjai were an ancient people of Nubia. ... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... Abdi-Ashirta was the ruler of Amurru, a new kingdom in southern Syria subject to nominal Egyptian control that was in conflict with king Rib-Hadda of Byblos. ... Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ... Abdi-Ashirta was the ruler of Amurru, a new kingdom in southern Syria subject to nominal Egyptian control that was in conflict with king Rib-Hadda of Byblos. ... Rib-Hadda (also rendered Rib-Addi, Rib-Addu, Rib-Adda) was king of Byblos during the mid fourteenth century BCE. He is the author of some sixty of the Amarna letters all to Akhenaten. ... Ili-Rapih was the follow on mayor in Gubla-(modern Byblos), and the brother of Rib-Hadda, the former mayor of Gubla, (who was the prolific author of letters to pharaoh); Ili-Rapih is in the 1350-1335 BC Amarna letters correspondence, and wrote 2 follow-on letters to the...


The Amarna corpus of 380+ letters counters the conventional view that Akhenaten neglected Egypt's foreign territories in favour of his internal reforms notes William L. Moran.[13] There are several letters from Egyptian vassals notifying Pharaoh that the king's instructions have been followed: William Lambert Moran (August 11, 1921 — December 19, 2000), was an American Assyriologist, he was born in Chicago, USA. In 1939, Moran joined the Jesuit order. ...

To the king, my lord, my god, my Sun, the Sun from the sky: Message of Yapahu, the ruler of Gazru, your servant, the dirt at your feet. I indeed prostrate myself at the feet of the king, my lord, my god, my Sun...7 times and 7 times, on the stomach and on the back. I am indeed guarding the place of the king, my lord, the Sun of the sky, where I am, and all the things the king, my lord, has written me, I am indeed carrying out--everything! Who am I, a dog, and what is my house...and what is anything I have, that the orders of the king, my lord, the Sun from the sky, should not obey constantly? (EA 378)[14] Gezer was a town in ancient Israel. ...

When the loyal but unfortunate Rib-Hadda was killed at the instigation of Aziru[15], Akhenaten sent an angry letter to Aziru containing a barely veiled accusation of outright treachery on the latter's part.[16] Akhenaten wrote: Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the fourteenth century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru. ...

Say to Aziru, ruler of Amurru: Thus the king, your lord (ie: Akhenaten), saying: The ruler of Gubla (ie: Byblos), whose brother had cast him away at the gate, said to you, "Take me and get me into the city. There is much silver, and I will give it to you. Indeed there is an abundance of everything, but not with me [here]." Thus did the ruler (Rib-Hadda) speak to you. Did you not write to the king, my lord saying, "I am your servant like all the previous mayors (ie: vassals) in his city"? Yet you acted delinquently by taking the mayor whose brother had cast him away at the gate, from his city. Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ...

He (Rib-Hadda) was residing in Sidon and, following your own judgment, you gave him to (some) mayors. Were you ignorant of the treacherousness of the men? If you really are the king's servant, why did you not denounce him before the king, your lord, saying, "This mayor has written to me saying, 'Take me to yourself and get me into my city'"? And if you did act loyally, still all the things you wrote were not true. In fact, the king has reflected on them as follows, "Everything you have said is not friendly." View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...

Now the king has heard as follows, "You are at peace with the ruler of Qidsa. (Kadesh) The two of you take food and strong drink together." And it is true. Why do you act so? Why are you at peace with a ruler whom the king is fighting? And even if you did act loyally, you considered your own judgment, and his judgment did not count. You have paid no attention to the things that you did earlier. What happened to you among them that you are not on the side of the king, your lord? Consider the people that are training you for their own advantage. They want to throw you into the fire....If for any reason whatsoever you prefer to do evil, and if you plot evil, treacherous things, then you, together with your entire family, shall die by the axe of the king. So perform your service for the king, your lord, and you will live. You yourself know that the king does not fail when he rages against all of Canaan. And when you wrote saying, 'May the king, my Lord, give me leave this year, and then I will go next year to the king, my Lord. (ie: to Egypt) If this is impossible, I will send my son in my place'--the king, your Lord, let you off this year in accordance with what you said. Come yourself, or send your son [now], and you will see the king at whose sight all lands live. (EA 162)[17] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

This letter shows that Akhenaten paid close attention to the affairs of his vassals in Canaan and Syria. Akhenaten commanded Aziru to come to Egypt and proceeded to detain him there for at least one year.[18] In the end, Akhenaten was forced to release Aziru back to his homeland when the Hittites advanced southwards into Amki thereby threatening Egypt's series of Asiatic vassal states including Amurru.[19] Sometime after his return to Amurru, Aziru defected to the Hittite side with his kingdom.[20] While it is known from an Amarna letter by Rib-Hadda that the Hittites "seized all the countries that were vassals of the king of Mitanni",[21] Akhenaten managed to preserve Egypt's control over the core of her Near Eastern Empire which consisted of present day Palestine as well as the Phoenician coast while avoiding conflict with the increasingly powerful Hittite Empire of Suppiluliuma I. Only the Egyptian border province of Amurru in Syria around the Orontes river was permanently lost to the Hittites when its ruler Aziru defected to the Hittites. Finally, contrary to the conventional view of a ruler who neglected Egypt's international relations, Akhenaten is known to have initiated at least one campaign into Nubia in his regnal Year 12.[22] The Amqu, also Amka, Amki, Amq, etc. ... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ...


Plague and pandemic

This Amarna period is also associated with a serious outbreak of a pandemic, possibly the plague, or polio, or perhaps the world's first recorded outbreak of influenza, which came from Egypt and spread throughout the Middle East, killing Suppiluliuma I, the Hittite King. Influenza is a disease associated with the close proximity of water fowl, pigs and humans, and its origin as a pandemic disease may be due to the development of agricultural systems that allow the mixing of these animals and their wastes.[23] Some of the first archaeological evidence for this agricultural system is during the Amarna period of Ancient Egypt, and the pandemic that followed this period throughout the Ancient Near East may have been the earliest recorded outbreak of influenza.[24] However, the precise nature of this Egyptian plague remains unknown and Asia has also been suggested as a possible site of origin of pandemic influenza in humans.[25][26][27]The prevalence of disease may help explain the rapidity with which the site of Akhetaten was subsequently abandoned. It may also explain why later generations considered the gods to have turned against the Amarna monarchs. The black plague has also been suggested by Zahi Hawass due to the fact that at Amarna the traces of the plague have been found.[28] Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Poliomyelitis (polio), or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Influenza, commonly known as flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). ... Suppiluliuma I (Shuppiluliuma) was king of the Hittites (ca. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from Kaneš who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... This article is about large epidemics. ... Overview map of the Ancient Near East The term Ancient Near East or Ancient Orient encompasses the early civilizations predating Classical Antiquity in the region roughly corresponding to that described by the modern term Middle East (Egypt, Iraq, Turkey), during the time roughly spanning the Bronze Age from the rise... Dr. Zahi Hawass signs an autograph (Aug. ...


Pharaoh and family depictions

A portrait of Akhenaten (or possibly his successor Smenkhkare) depicted in the naturalistic style of the late-Amarna period, associated with the sculptor Thutmose

Styles of art that flourished during this short period are markedly different from other Egyptian art, bearing a variety of affectations, from elongated heads to protruding stomachs, exaggerated ugliness and the beauty of Nefertiti. Significantly, and for the only time in the history of Egyptian royal art, Akhenaten's family was depicted in a decidedly naturalistic manner, and they are clearly shown displaying affection for each other. Nefertiti also appears beside the king in actions usually reserved for a Pharaoh, suggesting that she attained unusual power for a queen. Artistic representations of Akhenaten give him a strikingly bizarre appearance, with an elongated face, slender limbs, a protruding belly, wide hips, and an overall pear-shaped body. It has been suggested that the pharaoh had himself depicted in this way for religious reasons. Until Akhenaten's mummy is located and identified, proposals of actual physical abnormalities are likely to remain speculative. Image File history File links photo of late-Amarna style sculpture of Akhenaten, probably from the workshop of Thutmose. ... Image File history File links photo of late-Amarna style sculpture of Akhenaten, probably from the workshop of Thutmose. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Thutmoses bust of Nefertiti, now in Berlins Egyptian Museum The Kings Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor Thutmose (also spelled Djhutmose and Thutmosis) was apparently the court sculptor of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten in the latter part of his reign. ...


Following Akenaten's death, a comprehensive political, religious and artistic reformation returned Egyptian life to the norms it had followed previously during his father's reign. Much of the art and building infrastructure that was created during Akhenaten's reign was defaced or destroyed in the period immediately following his death. Stone building blocks from his construction projects were later used as foundation stones for subsequent rulers temples and tombs.


Family and relations

Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children
Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children
See also: Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family Tree

Amenhotep IV was married to Nefertiti at the very beginning of his reign, and the couple had six known daughters and possibly two sons (the sons with his other wife Kiya). This is a list with suggested years of birth: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1313 KB) Die königliche Familie: Echnaton, Nofretete und ihre Kinder The royal family: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children Neues Reich, 18. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2592x1944, 1313 KB) Die königliche Familie: Echnaton, Nofretete und ihre Kinder The royal family: Akhenaten, Nefertiti and their children Neues Reich, 18. ... The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ... Kiya was a wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ...

His known consorts were: Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... Meketaten was the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... A painting of the princesses Neferneferuaten (left) and Neferneferure (right) discovered in a private house at Tell el Amarna. ... hieroglyphic ligature spelling out setepenre. Common title used by kings of Egypt meaning Elect of Re. Also the name of the youngest daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... A portrait of the young Tutankhamun by Winifred Brunton. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun...

Also suggested as his consorts were his daughters: Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ... Kiya was a wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ...

  • Meritaten, recorded as Great Royal Wife late in his reign, though it is more likely that she got this title due to her marriage to Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's co-regent;
  • Meketaten, Akhenaten's second daughter. The reason for this assumption is Meketaten's death due to childbirth in the fourteenth year of Akhenaten's reign.
  • Ankhesenpaaten, his third daughter. After his death, Ankhesenpaaten married Akhenaten's successor Tutankhamun.

Both Meritaten and Ankhesenpaaten apparently had children – Meritaten-ta-sherit and Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit, respectively –, but there are doubts not only regarding their parentage but their existence as well. Both appear only in texts which had belonged to Kiya, and were usurped by the princesses later, and it was suggested that they might have been the daughters of Kiya, or were fictional, replacing Kiya's daughter in those scenes.[29] Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Meketaten was the second daughter of Akhenaten and Nefertiti. ... Ankhesenamun, also known as Ankhesepaaten, was the third of six known daughters of the Pharaoh Akhenaten by his wife Nefertiti. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... Meritaten Tasherit, which means Meritaten the Younger, is the probable daughter of Meritaten. ... Ankhesenpaaten Tasherit (or Ankhesenpaaten-ta-sherit) was the daughter of Ankhesenpaaten and (probably) the Pharaoh Akhenaten, father and husband of Ankhesenpaaten. ...


Two other lovers have been suggested, but are not widely accepted:

  • Smenkhkare, Akhenaten's successor and/or co-ruler for the last years of his reign. Rather than a lover, however, Smenkhkare is likely to have been a half-brother or a son to Akhenaten. Some have even suggested that Smenkhkare was actually an alias of Nefertiti or Kiya, and therefore one of Akhenaten's wives.
  • Tiye, his mother. Twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, she is still mentioned in inscriptions as Queen and beloved of the King. It has been suggested that Akhenaten and his mother acted as consorts to each other until her death. This would have been considered incest at the time. Supporters of this theory (notably Immanuel Velikovsky) consider Akhenaten to be the historical model of legendary King Oedipus of Thebes, Greece and Tiye the model for his mother/wife Jocasta.

Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may... Tiye. ... Incest is sexual activity between two persons related by close kinship. ... Immanuel Velikovsky photographed by Fima Noveck, ca. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Thebes (Demotic Greek: Θήβα — Thíva; Katharevousa: — Thêbai or Thívai) is a city in Greece, situated to the north of the Cithaeron range, which divides Boeotia from Attica, and on the southern edge of the Boeotian plain. ... For other uses, see Jocasta (disambiguation). ...

Burial and succession

Akhenaten planned to relocate Egyptian burials on the East side of the Nile (sunrise) rather than on the West side (sunset), in the Royal Wadi in Akhetaten. His body was probably removed after the court returned to Thebes, and reburied somewhere in the Valley of the Kings. His sarcophagus was destroyed but has since been reconstructed and now sits outside in the Cairo Museum. He was buried In 1336 B.C., in a pink granite sarcophagus. The Royal Wadi (known locally as Wadi Abu Hassah el-Bahari) at Amarna is a where the Royal Family of Amarna were to be buried. ... Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna) is the name given to an extensive archaeological site that represents the remains of the capital city built by the Pharaoh Akhenaten of the late Eighteenth Dynasty (c. ... Thebes Thebes (, Thēbai) is the Greek designation of the ancient Egyptian niwt (The) City and niwt-rst (The) Southern City. It is located about 800 km south of the Mediterranean, on the east bank of the river Nile (). Thebes was the capital of Waset, the fourth Upper Egyptian nome... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ...


There is much controversy around whether Amenhotep IV succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, Amenhotep III, or whether there was a coregency (lasting as long as 12 years according to some Egyptologists). Current literature by Eric Cline, Nicholas Reeves, Peter Dorman and other scholars comes out strongly against the establishment of a long coregency between the 2 rulers and in favour of either no coregency or a brief one lasting 1 to 2 years, at the most.[30] Other literature by Donald Redford, William Murnane, Alan Gardiner and more recently by Lawrence Berman in 1998 contests the view of any coregency whatsoever between Akhenaten and his father.[31] Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Egyptologist is the designation given to an archaeologist or historian who specialises in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... Peter Fitzgerald Dorman is an epigraphist, philologist, and cultural anthropologist. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (March 29, 1879 Eltham - December 19, 1963 Oxford) was one of the premier British Egyptologists of the early and mid-Twentieth century. ...


Similarly, although it is accepted that Akhenaten himself died in Year 17 of his reign, the question of whether Smenkhkare became co-regent perhaps 2 or 3 years earlier or enjoyed a brief independent reign is unclear. If Smenkhkare outlived Akhenaten, and became sole Pharaoh, he likely ruled Egypt for less than a year. The next successor was certainly Tutankhaten (later, Tutankhamun), at the age of 9, with the country perhaps being run by the chief vizier (and next Pharaoh), Ay. Tutankhamun is believed to be a younger brother of Smenkhkare and a son of Akhenaten, and possibly Kiya although one scholar has suggested that Tutankhamun may have been a son of Smenkhkare instead. It has also been suggested that after the death of Akhenaten, Nefertiti reigned with the name of Neferneferuaten.[32] Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun... The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Kiya was a wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...


With Akhenaten's death, the Aten cult he had founded gradually fell out of favor. Tutankhaten changed his name to Tutankhamun in Year 2 of his reign (1332 BC) and abandoned the city of Akhetaten, which eventually fell into ruin. His successors Ay and Horemheb disassembled temples Akhenaten had built, including the temple at Thebes, using them as a source of easily available building materials and decorations for their own temples. (Redirected from 1332 BC) Centuries: 15th century BC - 14th century BC - 13th century BC Decades: 1380s BC 1370s BC 1360s BC 1350s BC 1340s BC - 1330s BC - 1320s BC 1310s BC 1300s BC 1290s BC 1280s BC Events and Trends Significant People 1338 BC - Queen Tiy of Egypt, Chief Queen... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ...


Finally, Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were excised from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb. This is thought to be part of an attempt by Horemheb to delete all trace of Atenism and the pharaohs associated with it from the historical record. Akhenaten's name never appeared on any of the king lists compiled by later Pharaohs and it was not until the late 19th century that his identity was re-discovered and the surviving traces of his reign were unearthed by archaeologists. Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Djeserkheperure Setepenre Holy are the Manifestations of Re, Chosen of Re Nomen Horemheb Meryamun Horus is in Jubilation, Beloved of Amun Consort(s) Mutnedjmet Amenia Died 1292 BC Burial KV57 Djeserkheperure Horemheb was the last Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 18th Dynasty from c. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Speculative theories

Akhenaten's status as a religious revolutionary has led to much speculation, ranging from the mainstream to New Age esotericism. New Age describes a broad movement characterized by alternative approaches to traditional Western culture. ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


First "individual"

Akhenaten has been called "the first individual in history", as well as the first monotheist, first scientist, and first romantic.[33] As early as 1899 Flinders Petrie declared that, Egyptologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (3 June 1853 - 28 July 1942) was a pioneer of systematic methodology in archaeology. ...

If this were a new religion, invented to satisfy our modern scientific conceptions, we could not find a flaw in the correctness of this view of the energy of the solar system. How much Akhenaten understood, we cannot say, but he certainly bounded forward in his views and symbolism to a position which we cannot logically improve upon at the present day. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new worship evolved out of the old Aton of Heliopolis, the sole Lord of the universe.[34]

H.R. Hall even claimed that the pharaoh was the "first example of the scientific mind".[35]


Moses and Akhenaten

The idea of Akhenaten as the pioneer of a monotheistic religion that later became Judaism has been considered by some scholars.[36][37][38][39][40][41][42] One of the first to mention this was Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, in his book Moses and Monotheism.[43] Freud argued that Moses had been an Atenist priest forced to leave Egypt with his followers after Akhenaten's death. Following his book, the concept entered popular consciousness and serious research. Recently, Ahmed Osman has claimed that Moses and Akhenaten were the same individual. For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... Moses and Monotheism is a book by Sigmund Freud. ... Ahmed Osman (born 1934) is an Egyptian-born author, most noted for literally identifying the Hebrew liberator Moses with the Egyptian monotheist pharaoh Akhenaten. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


While these alternative views have gained acceptance in various quarters[44][45] most scholars do not take them seriously. An example of such skepticism has been stated by Savitri Devi, who insisted in her book The Lightning and the Sun that Akenaten's god bore no resemblance to, Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... The Lightning and the Sun is a book written by Savitri Devi outlining her philosophy of history with her critique of the modern world. ...

"...the jealous tribal god Jehovah, created in the image of the Jews, — but the equivalent of the immanent, impersonal Tat — That — of the Chandogya Upanishad, no less than of das Gott (as opposed to “der Gott”) of the ancient Germans, and the one conception of Divinity that modern science, far from disproving, on the contrary, suggests.[46] The Chandogya Upanishad is one of the main ten Upanishads of Hinduism. ...

Other scholars and mainstream Egyptologists point out that there are direct connections between early Judaism and other Semitic religious traditions.[47] They also state that two of the three principal Judaic terms for God, Yahweh (meaning "I am [that I am]"), Elohim , (meaning roughly "the lofty ones", plural) and Adonai (meaning "our lord") have no connection to Aten.[citation needed] In linguistics and ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical Shem, Hebrew: שם, translated as name, Arabic: سام) was first used to refer to a language family of largely Middle Eastern origin, now called the Semitic languages. ... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hebrew word. ...


Akhenaten does seem to appear, according to the conventional Egyptian chronology, in history almost two-centuries before the first archaeological and written evidence for Judaism and Israelite culture is found in the Levant. Abundant visual imagery of the Aten disk was central to Atenism, which celebrated the natural world, while such imagery is not a feature of early Israelite culture [48]. Osman also claimed that Akhenaten's maternal grandfather Yuya was the same person as the Biblical Joseph. Egyptologists reject this view because Yuya had strong connections to the city of Akhmin in Upper Egypt, which is indicated in his title "Overseer of the Cattle of Min at Akhmin.[49] Hence, he most likely belonged to the regional nobility of Akhmim. This makes it very unlikely that he was an Israelite, as most Asiatic settlers tended to cloister around the Nile delta region of Lower Egypt [50][51]. Some Egyptologists, however, give him a Mitannian origin. It is widely accepted that there are strong similarities between Akhenaten's Great Hymn to the Aten and the Biblical Psalm 104, though this form is found widespread in ancient Near Eastern hymnology both before and after the period and whether this implies a direct influence or a common literary convention remains in dispute. This is a Conventional Egyptian chronology. ... Yuya (sometimes Iouiya) also known as Yaa, Ya, Yiya, Yayi, Yu, Yuyu, Yaya, Yiay, Yia, Yuy[1] was a powerful Egyptian courtier of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (circa 1390 BC). ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... Akhmim Akhmim (Arabic اخميم) is a town of Upper Egypt, on the right bank of the Nile, 67 mi by river south of Asyut, and 4 mi above Suhaj, on the opposite side of the river where there is railway communication with Cairo and Aswan. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Map of Lower and Upper Egypt Lower Egypt is the northern-most section of Egypt. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... The Great Hymn to the Aten was found in the tomb of Ay, in the rock tombs at Akhetaten. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Psalm 104 Psalm 104 (Psalm 103 in Septuagint based translations) is a poem in the Bible. ... A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a god or other religiously significant figure. ...


Oedipus theory

Another claim was made by Immanuel Velikovsky.[52] Velikovsky argued that Moses was neither Akhenaten, nor one of his followers. Instead, Velikovsky identifies Akhenaten as the history behind Oedipus and moved the setting from the Greek Thebes to the Egyptian Thebes. His theory also includes that Akhenaten had an incestuous relationship with his mother, Tiye. Velikovsky also posited that Akhenaten had elephantiasis, producing enlarged legs – Oedipus being Greek for "swollen feet." As part of his argument, Velikovsky uses the fact that Akhenaten viciously carried out a campaign to erase the name of his father, which he argues could have developed into Oedipus killing his father. This point seems to be disproved, however, in that Akhenaten in fact mummified and buried his father in the honorable traditional Egyptian fashion prior to beginning his monotheistic revolution. Immanuel Velikovsky photographed by Fima Noveck, ca. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ... Tiye. ... Elephantiasis (Greek ελεφαντίασις, from ελέφαντας, the elephant) is a disease that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs and genitals. ... For other uses, see Oedipus (disambiguation). ...


Akhenaten's genetic make-up

The rather strange and eccentric portrayals of Akhenaten, with a sagging stomach, thick thighs, larger breasts, and long, thin face - so different from the athletic norm in the portrayal of Pharaohs - has led certain Egyptologists to suppose that Akhenaten suffered some kind of genetic abnormality. Various illnesses have been put forward. Cyril Aldred [53], on the basis of his longer jaw and his feminine appearance suggested he may be suffering from Froelich's Syndrome. However, this is unlikely because this disorder results in sterility and Akhenaten is believed to have fathered numerous children - at least six daughters by Nefertiti, and possibly his successor Tutankhamen by a minor wife. Cyril Aldred, (1914-1991), a noted Egyptologist and art historian, was born in 1914 at Fulham in London), the son of Frederick Aldred and Lilian Ethel Underwood (Aldred). ... Adiposogenital dystrophy is a condition characterized by Feminine obesity Growth retardation and retarded sexual development, atrophy or hypoplasia of the gonads, and altered secondary sex characteristics, headaches mental retardation, problems with vision polyuria, polydipsia. ... The term Sterility has several meanings: The quality or state of being unable to reproduce; of being infertile. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Tutankhamun (alternate transcription Tutankhamen), named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (1334 BC/1333 BC - 1323 BC), during the period known as the New Kingdom. ...


Another suggestion by Burridge [54] is that Akhenaten may have suffered from Marfan's Syndrome. Marfan's syndrome, unlike Froelich's does not result in any lack of intelligence or sterility. It is associated with a sunken chest, long curved spider-like fingers (arachnodactyly), occasional congenital heart difficuties, a high curved or slightly cleft palate, and a highly curved cornea or dislocated lens of the eye, with the requirement for bright light to see well. Marfan's sufferers tend towards being taller than average, with a long, thin face, and elongated skull, overgrown ribs, a funnel or pigeon chest, and larger pelvis, with enlarged thighs and spindly calves are all occasional symptoms[55]. Marfan's syndrome is a dominant characteristic, and sufferers have a 50% chance of passing it on to their children[56]. All of these symptoms appear in depictions of Akhenaten and of his children. It is interesting that recent CT scans of Tutankhamun report a cleft palate and a longer head than normal. Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by unusually long limbs. ... Marfan syndrome is a connective tissue disorder, affecting many structures, including the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart and blood vessels. ... Nebkheperure Lord of the forms of Re Nomen Tutankhaten Living Image of the Aten Tutankhamun Hekaiunushema Living Image of Amun, ruler of Upper Heliopolis Horus name Kanakht Tutmesut The strong bull, pleasing of birth Nebty name Neferhepusegerehtawy One of perfect laws, who pacifies the two lands[1] Wer-Ah-Amun...


A third alternative [57] relates to some form of religious symbolism. Because the god Aten was referred to as "The mother and father of all human kind," it has been suggested that Akhenaten was made to look androgynous in artwork as a symbol of the androgyny of the god. Akhenaten did refer to himself as "The Unique One of Re," and it maybe that he used his control of the artistic expression to distance himself from the populace and the common people, though such a radical departure from the idealised traditional representation of the image of the Pharaoh would be truly extraordinary. It should be observed that representations of other persons than Akhenaten in the 'Amarna style' are equally less than flattering - a carving of his father Amenhotep III as a languid, overweight figure may be noted. Equally, Nefertiti is shown in some statues as well past her prime, with a severe face and a stomach swollen by repeated pregnancies. If referring to a flower, see disambiguation under bisexual Androgyny is the state of indeterminate gender, or characteristics of gender. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...


In the arts

Paul Thomas Mann (June 6, 1875 – August 12, 1955) was a German novelist, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and often ironic epic novels and mid-length stories, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and intellectual. ... Joseph and His Brothers is a four part novel by Thomas Mann, published in over the course of 16 years. ... Joseph interprets the dream of the Pharaoh. ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... --70. ... Tom Holland was born on July 11th, 1943 in Phoughkeepsie, New York, USA. He has directed five movies including: Childs Play Fright Night External Links Tom Holland at the Internet Movie Database Categories: Movie stubs ... --70. ... Mika Toimi Waltari ( ) (September 19, 1908 – August 26, 1979) was a Finnish historical novelist, best known for his magnum opus The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen in Finnish) . // Waltari was born in Helsinki and lost his father, a Lutheran pastor, at the age of five. ... --70. ... The Egyptian (in Finnish Sinuhe egyptiläinen) is a historical novel by Mika Waltari. ... Independent Publishers Group, or IPG, is a book distributor, founded in 1971 to exclusively market titles from independent client publishers to the book trade. ... Blake and Mortimer, The Yellow M Edgard Félix Pierre Jacobs, (b. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... The Egyptian is a 1954 epic film made in Cinemascope by 20th Century Fox, directed by Michael Curtiz and produced by Darryl F. Zanuck. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... Michael Curtiz (December 24, 1886 - April 10, 1962) was a Hungarian-American film director, whose best known films include The Adventures of Robin Hood, Casablanca, and White Christmas. ... Mika Toimi Waltari ( ) (September 19, 1908 – August 26, 1979) was a Finnish historical novelist, best known for his magnum opus The Egyptian (Sinuhe egyptiläinen in Finnish) . // Waltari was born in Helsinki and lost his father, a Lutheran pastor, at the age of five. ... Gwendolyn MacEwen (September 1, 1941-November 29, 1987) was a Canadian novelist and poet. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), mainly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime fiction writer. ... For other uses, see Play (disambiguation). ... Akhnaton, a play by Agatha Christie, was set in Ancient Egypt, and followed the exploits of Tutankhamun and his father. ... Frank Howard Dodd, (1844-1916), was the leading publisher at Dodd, Mead and Company of New York City from 1870 until his death, January 16, 1916. ... William Collins was a Scottish schoolmaster and publisher, founder in 1819 of Collins, one of the firms whose amalgamation produced HarperCollins. ... Christopher Gore (September 21, 1758 - March 1, 1827) was a prominent Massachusetts lawyer, Federalist politician, and diplomat. ... David Spangler is an American spiritual philosopher and self-described practical mystic. ... Allen Stuart Drury (September 2, 1918 _ September 2, 1998) was a U.S. novelist. ... This article is about the Egyptian novelist. ... Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth is a novel written and published by Nobel Prize-winning author Naguib Mahfouz in 1985. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is about Opera, the art form. ... Akhnaten is an opera based on the life and religious convictions of the pharaoh Akhenaten (a. ... Andrée Chedid is a poet and novelist, born in 1920 in Cairo from Lebanese parents. ... == == == == Wolfgang Hohlbein es un putoooooo == == == == Wolfgang Hohlbein (* August 11, 1953) is a German writer of fantasy and horror fiction who was born in Weimar, Thuringia and today lives near Neuss, North Rhine-Westphalia with his Family and a large number of cats and dogs. ... Kheperkheperure–Irimaat Everlasting are the Manifestations of Re, who does what is right Nomen Itinetjer Ay Gods father, Ay Horus name Kanakht Tekhenkhau The strong bull, the one of glittering crowns Nebty name Sekhempehti dersetet Who is mighty of strength, who subdues the Asiatics Golden Horus Heqamaat sekhepertawy The... Moyra Caldecott (June 1, 1927) is a British author of historical fiction, fantasy, science fiction and non-fiction. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Akhenaten: Son of the Sun is a novel written by Moyra Caldecott in 1986. ... The Akhenaten Adventure The Akhenaten Adventure is a novel by P.B. Kerr which tells the story of John and Philippa Gaunt and their adventures as djinn. ... Philip Kerr (born 1956 in Edinburgh) is a British author. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Genie is the anglicized word for the Arabic jinni. In Semitic mythology and Islamic religion, a jinni (also djinni or djini) is a member of the jinn (or djinn), a race of spirits. ... Pauline Gedge (born 1945) is an award-winning and best-selling Canadian novelist who lives in Edgerton, Alberta. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Tiye. ... Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare, and means Strong is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, successor of the heretic Akhenaten, and predecessor of Tutankhamen. ... Dorothy Porter (born 1954) is one of Australias best-known poets. ... Verse novels are a contemporary genre combining the power of narrative with the rich, evocative language of verse or poetry. ... Julian Cope (born Julian David Cope, on 21 October 1957) is a British rock musician, writer, antiquary, musicologist, and poet who came to prominence as singer of Liverpool post-punk band The Teardrop Explodes in 1978. ... Jehovahkill is the eighth album by Julian Cope, released in 1992. ... Judith Tarr, (1955 - ) has a B.A. in Latin and English from Mount Holyoke College, an M.A. in Classics from Cambridge University, and an M.A. and Ph. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Pillar of Fire is a 1995 historical fantasy by Judith Tarr. ... The Eye of Horus is a second demo of Polish heavy metal band Decapitated. ... Moyra Caldecott (June 1, 1927) is a British author of historical fiction, fantasy, science fiction and non-fiction. ... This article is about the literary concept. ... Lynda S. Robinson is the author of mystery and romance novels (the latter under the name Suzanne Robinson). ... Mystery fiction is a distinct subgenre of detective fiction that entails the occurrence of an unknown event which requires the protagonist to make known (or solve). ... Paul C. Doherty (born 1946, Middlesbrough) is an English writer, with a doctorate in history from the University of Oxford, who writes historical mysteries and novels under the pennames Anna Apostolou, Michael Clynes, Ann Dukthas, C. L. Grace, Paul Harding, and Vanessa Alexander. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Annihilation of the Wicked is the fourth full length album from the American death metal band Nile. ... Therion is a Swedish symphonic metal band founded by Christofer Johnsson in 1987. ... This article is about the star. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b In English, IPA: [ˌɑkəˡnɑtən], or approximately "AHK-en-AHT-en";[1] his royal name Amenhotep in English is IPA: [ˌɑmənˈhotɛp], or approximately "AH-mun-HOE-tep"[2]
  2. ^ Peter Clayton, Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson, 2006 paperback, p.120
  3. ^ Clayton, op. cit., p.120
  4. ^ Encylopaedia Brittanica
  5. ^ Michael Rice, Who's Who in Ancient Egypt, Routledge, 1999
  6. ^ Jürgen von Beckerath, Chronologie des Pharaonischen Ägypten. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz, (1997) p.190
  7. ^ Amarna Royal Tomb
  8. ^ William L. Moran, The Amarna Letters, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992., pp.87-89
  9. ^ Moran, op. cit., pp.203
  10. ^ [3]
  11. ^ Trevor Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Clarendon Press, 1998. p.186
  12. ^ Bryce, op. cit., p.186
  13. ^ Moran, op. cit., p.xxvi
  14. ^ Moran, op. cit., pp.368-69
  15. ^ Bryce, op. cit., p.186
  16. ^ Moran, op. cit., pp.248-250
  17. ^ Moran, op. cit., pp.248-249
  18. ^ Bryce, op. cit., p.188
  19. ^ Bryce, op. cit., p.188
  20. ^ Bryce, op. cit., p.189
  21. ^ Moran, op. cit., EA 75, p.145
  22. ^ A.R. Schulman, "The Nubian War of Akhenaten" in L'Egyptologie en 1979: Axes prioritaires de recherchs II (Paris: 1982), pp.299-316 Akhenaten's Year 12 campaign is mentioned in Amada stela CG 41806 and on a separate companion stela at Buhen.
  23. ^ Scholtissek C, Naylor E (1988). "Fish farming and influenza pandemics". Nature 331 (6153): 215. PMID 2827036. 
  24. ^ Ancient Egypt Online Akhenaten Accessed 21 Feb 2007
  25. ^ Choi B, Pak A (2001). "Lessons for surveillance in the 21st century: a historical perspective from the past five millennia". Soz Praventivmed 46 (6): 361-8. PMID 11851070. 
  26. ^ Webby R, Webster R (2001). "Emergence of influenza A viruses". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356 (1416): 1817-28. PMID 11779380. 
  27. ^ Shortridge K (1992). "Pandemic influenza: a zoonosis?". Semin Respir Infect 7 (1): 11-25. PMID 1609163. 
  28. ^ Arielle Kozloff, in "Bubonic Plague in the Reign of Amenhotep III?" (KMT, 17, 3 (Fall 2006), pp. 36-46) discusses the evidence, arguing that the epidemic was caused by Bubonic plague over polio. However, her argument that "polio is only fractionally as virulent as some other diseases" ignores the evidence that diseases become less virulent the longer they are present in the human population, as demonstrated with syphilis and tuberculosis.
  29. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson (2004), p.154
  30. ^ Nicholas Reeves, Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet, Thames & Hudson, 2000. p.77
  31. ^ Lawrence M. Berman, 'Overview of Amenhotep III and His Reign,' in Amenhotep III: Perspectives on his Reign, ed: David O'Connor & Eric Cline, op. cit, p.23
  32. ^ Pocket Guides: Egypt History, p.37, Dorling Kindersley, London 1996.(the Neferneferuaten part is taken from Wikipedia Nefertiti entry)
  33. ^ Discussions of such Akenatenolatry can be found on Akhenaten, Deep Thought
  34. ^ Sir Flinders Petrie, History of Egypt (edit. 1899), Vol. II, p. 214.
  35. ^ H. R. Hall, Ancient History of the Near East, p. 599.
  36. ^ Freud, S. (1939). Moses and Monotheism: Three Essays.
  37. ^ A. Osman, Moses and Akhenaten: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus. Bear & Company, 2002.
  38. ^ Gunther Siegmund Stent, Paradoxes of Free Will. American Philosophical Society, DIANE, 2002. 284 pages. Pages 34 - 38. ISBN 0871699265
  39. ^ Jan Assmann, Moses the Egyptian: The Memory of Egypt in Western Monotheism. Harvard University Press, 1997. 288 pages. ISBN 067458739
  40. ^ N. Shupak, The Monotheism of Moses and the Monotheism of Akhenaten. Sevivot, 1995.
  41. ^ Dominic Montserrat, Akhenaten: History, Fantasy, and Ancient Egypt. Routledge, 2000. 219 pages. ISBN 0415301866
  42. ^ William F. Albright, From the Patriarchs to Moses II. Moses out of Egypt. The Biblical Archaeologist, Vol. 36, No. 2 (May, 1973), pp. 48-76. doi 10.2307/3211050
  43. ^ S. Freud, The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XXIII (1937-1939), "Moses and monotheism". London: Hogarth Press, 1964.
  44. ^ Laurence Gardner, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, Lost Secrets of the Sacred Ark,
  45. ^ Gary Greenberg, The Moses Mystery: The African Origins of the Jewish People
  46. ^ Savitri Devi, The Lightening and the Sun, p. 142
  47. ^ Curtis, Samuel (2005), "Primitive Semitic Religion Today" (Kessinger Publications)
  48. ^ The first commandment prohibits the making of images of God. Judaism is an aniconic religion.
  49. ^ [4]
  50. ^ Montete, Pierre (1964), "Eternal Egypt" (New American Press)
  51. ^ Redford, Donald B. (1993), "Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times" (Princeton University Press)
  52. ^ Immanuel Velikovsky, Oedipus and Akhnaton, Myth and History, Doubleday, 1960
  53. ^ Aldred, C. (1988). "Akhenaten, King of Egypt". (Thames and Hudson, Ltd.,)
  54. ^ Burridge, A., (1995) "Did Akhenaten Suffer From Marfan's Syndrome?" (Akhenaten Temple Project Newsletter No. 3, Sept. 1995)
  55. ^ Lorenz, Maegara "The Mystery of Akhenaton: Genetics or Aesthetics" [5]
  56. ^ "Did Akhenaton Suffer from Marfan's Syndrome" [6]
  57. ^ Reeves, Nicholas (2005) "Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet" (Thames and Hudson)

Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Jürgen von Beckerath (born 19 February 1920) is a prominent German Egyptologist. ... William Lambert Moran (August 11, 1921 — December 19, 2000), was an American Assyriologist, he was born in Chicago, USA. In 1939, Moran joined the Jesuit order. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ... Inner Traditions - Bear & Company (or just Inner Traditions) is a book publisher founded in 1975 and based in Rochester, Vermont in the United States. ... The American Philosophical Society is a discussion group founded as the Junto in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The Hogarth Press was founded in 1917 by Leonard and Virginia Woolf. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Further reading

  • Aldred, Cyril [1988] (1991). Akhenaten: King of Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27621-8. 
  • Bilolo, Mubabinge [1988] (2004). "Sect. I, vol. 2", Le Créateur et la Création dans la pensée memphite et amarnienne. Approche synoptique du Document Philosophique de Memphis et du Grand Hymne Théologique d'Echnaton, new ed. (in French), Munich-Paris: Academy of African Thought. 
  • Rita E. Freed, Yvonne J. Markowitz, and Sue H. D'Auria (ed.) (1999). Pharaohs of the Sun: Akhenaten - Nefertiti - Tutankhamen. Bulfinch Press. ISBN 0-8212-2620-7. 
  • Devi, Savitri, A Son of God (full text) (Philosophical Publishing House [London], 1946); subsequent editions published as Son of the Sun: The Life and Philosophy of Akhnaton, King of Egypt (Supreme Grand Lodge of A.M.O.R.C., 1956); part III of The Lightning and the Sun is focused on Akhnaten.
  • Holland, Tom, The Sleeper in the Sands (novel), (Abacus, 1998, ISBN 0-349-11223-1), a fictionalised adventure story based closely on the mysteries of Akhenaten's reign
  • Hornung, Erik, Akhenaten and the Religion of Light, translated by David Lorton (Cornell University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-8014-3658-3)
  • Montserrat, Dominic (2000). Akhenaten: History, Fantasy and ancient Egypt. Routledge. OCLC 0-415-30186-6. 
  • O'Connor, David; Eric Cline (1998). Amenhotep III: Perspectives on His Reign. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10742-9. 
  • Phillips, Graham, Act of God: Moses, Tutankhamun and the Myth of Atlantis, (London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1998, ISBN 0-283-06314-9); republished as Atlantis and the Ten Plagues of Egypt: The Secret History Hidden in the Valley of the Kings (Bear & Co., 2003, paperback, ISBN 1-59143-009-7)
  • Redford, Donald B., Akhenaten: The Heretic King (Princeton University Press, 1984, ISBN 0-691-03567-9)
  • Reeves, Nicholas (2001). Akhenaten: Egypt's False Prophet. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05106-2. 
  • Velikovsky, Immanuel (1960). Oedipus and Akhnaton: Myth and History. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-00529-6. 

Cyril Aldred, (1914-1991), a noted Egyptologist and art historian, was born in 1914 at Fulham in London), the son of Frederick Aldred and Lilian Ethel Underwood (Aldred). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Paul Gauguin, Where Do We Come From? What Are We? Where Are We Going? (Doù venons-nous? Que faisons-nous? Où allons-nous?) (1897). ... Savitri Devi (September 30, 1905 - October 22, 1982) was a Franco-Greek woman who became enamored with Hinduism and National Socialism, linking the Aryan invasion theory to Adolf Hitler, and proclaiming him an avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. ... The Rosicrucian Order, Ancient Mystical Order Rosæ Crucis (AMORC) is a worldwide mystical, Rosicrucian, educational, humanitarian and fraternal organisation founded by Harvey Spencer Lewis in 1915. ... The Lightning and the Sun is a book written by Savitri Devi outlining her philosophy of history with her critique of the modern world. ... Tom Holland was born on July 11th, 1943 in Phoughkeepsie, New York, USA. He has directed five movies including: Childs Play Fright Night External Links Tom Holland at the Internet Movie Database Categories: Movie stubs ... This article is about the literary concept. ... See also: 1997 in literature, other events of 1998, 1999 in literature, list of years in literature. ... “Cornell” redirects here. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Graham Phillips is an Australian television presenter. ... Donald B. Redford is an influential Canadian Egyptologist and archaeologist, currently Professor of Classics and Ancient Mediterranean Studies at Pennsylvania State University. ... Carl Nicholas Reeves (born 28 September 1956) is an English Egyptologist. ... Immanuel Velikovsky photographed by Fima Noveck, ca. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pharaoh Akhenaten - Crystalinks (4427 words)
Akhenaten was the son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiy, a descendent of a Hebrew tribe.
Akhenaten is principally famous for his religious reforms, where the polytheism of Egypt was to be supplanted by monotheism centered around Aten, the god of the solar disc.
Tutankhaten succeeded Akhenaten and Smenkhkare and was married to Akhenaten's daughter Ankhesenpaaten.
Akhenaten (1043 words)
Akhenaten (alternatively spelled Akhnaten, Akhenaton, Akhnaton, Ikhnaton, and so on), known as Amenhotep IV at the start of his reign (and called Naphu(`)rureya in the Amarna letters), was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.
Artistic representations of Akhenaten give him a very feminine appearance, giving rise to controversial theories such that he may have actually been a woman masquerading as a man, which had been known to happen in Egyptian politics once or twice, or that he was a hermaphrodite or had some other phenotypic sexual disorder.
Akhenaten, Smenkhkare, Tutankhamun, and Ay were omitted from the official lists of Pharaohs, which instead reported that Amenhotep III was immediately succeeded by Horemheb.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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