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Encyclopedia > Akbar
Akbar
Birth name: Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar
Family name: Timurid
Title: Emperor of Mughal Empire
Birth: October 15, 1542
Place of birth: Umerkot
Death: October 12, 1605
Burial: Akbar's Tomb
Succeeded by: Jahangir
Marriage:

Ruqayya Sultan Begum
Salima Sultan Begum
Mariam-uz-Zamani
Jodha Bai
Sakina Banu Begum
Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... The name Akbar may refer to any of the following: The Mughal emperor Akbar of India; The Mughal emperor Akbar II of India; The Star Wars character Admiral Ackbar. ... Download high resolution version (600x810, 136 KB)Akbar - Project Gutenberg eText 14134 - http://www. ... Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Umerkot or Omarkot (Urdu: عمرکوٹ ) a (25. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Sikandra is a town and a nagar panchayat in Kanpur Dehat district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... n ... Mariam-uz-Zamani (born Rajkumari Hira Kunwari, eldest daughter of Raja Bihar Mal, Raja of Amber) was the senior wife of Akbar, married in 1562, and mother of Jahangir. ... Jodha Bai, one of Akbars major wives, was the daughter of Rao Mal Deo of Jodhpur by the concubine Tipu Paswan. ...

Children:

Jahangir, son
Shah Murad, son
Danyal, son
Shahzada Khanim, daughter
Shakarunnisa Begum, daughter
Aram Banu Begum, daughter
Jahan Begum, daughter
Ximini Begum, daughter
little girl Khanum, daughter
n ...

Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar (Persian: جلال الدین محمد اکبر Jalāl ud-Dīn Moḥammad Akbar), also known as Akbar the Great (Akbar-e-Azam) (October 15, 1542 – October 12 1605) was the son of Nasiruddin Humayun whom he succeeded as ruler of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1605. His lineage was Turkic, and more distantly Mongolian. Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... the Greats The following people normally have the words the Great appended to their names. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nasiruddin Humayun (Persian: نصيرالدين همايون) (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), was the second Mughal Emperor and ruled northern parts of India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. ... It has been suggested that Mughal Era be merged into this article or section. ...


Only 13 when he ascended to the throne (because of the death of his father Humayun by falling from the stairs of his library), he is widely considered the greatest of the Mughal emperors.[1][2] During his reign, he eliminated external military threats from the Afghan descendants of Sher Shah (an Afghan who was able to temporarily oust Humayun from 1540-1555), and at the Second Battle of Panipat defeated the Hindu leader Hemu.[3][4][5] In addition to his military gains, the emperor solidified his rule by repealing the jizya tax on non-Muslims and courting the favour of the powerful Rajput caste, to the extent of marrying Rajput princesses.[4][6] Sher Shah Suri Sher Shah Suri (1486 – 1545) (Pashto/Persian: - Šīr-Šāh Ṣūrī) also known as Sher Khan and as The Lion King, was founder of the Sur Dynasty of northern Indian rulers. ... The Second Battle of Panipat took place on November 5, 1556. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Rajput is a Caste among Hindus and Muslims in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ...


Akbar's most lasting contributions were to the arts. He initiated a large collection of literature, including the Akbar-nama and the Ain-i-Akbari, and incorporated art from around the world into the Mughal collections. He also commissioned the building of widely admired buildings, including the Panj Mahal. Having a greatly tolerant attitude toward religion, Akbar preserved Hindu temples. He also began a series of religious debates where Muslim scholars would debate religious matters with Sikhs, Hindus, Carvaka atheists and even Jesuits from Portugal. He founded his own religion, the Din-i-Ilahi or the "Divine Faith"; the religion, however, amounted only to a form of personality cult for Akbar, and quickly dissolved after his death.[7][4] Akbarnama or Akbar Nameh (Persian: اکبر نامہ), which literally means History of Akbar, is a biographical account of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor. ... The Ain-e-Akbari is a detailed document recording the administration of emperor Akbars empire written by Abul-Fazl ibn Mubarak, it also contains details of Hindu beliefs and practices as well as a history of India. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi and Hindi A Sikh( or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, is a thoroughly materialistic and atheistic school of thought with roots in ancient India. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... Adolf Hitler built a strong cult of personality, based on the Führerprinzip. ...

Contents

Early years

Akbar was born on October 15, 1542, at the Rajput Fortress of Umarkot in Sind where the Mughal Emperor Humayun and his recently wedded wife, Hamida Banu Begum were taking refuge. In 1540, Humayun had been driven into exile, following decisive battles, by the Afghan leader Sher Shah.[8] Akbar did not go to Persia with his parents, and was raised for a time instead by his uncle Askari and his wife in the rugged country of Afghanistan rather than in the splendor of the Persian court. He spent his youth learning to hunt, run and fight, but he never learned to read or write, the sole exception in Babur's line.[9] Nonetheless, Akbar matured into a well-informed ruler, with refined tastes in the arts, architecture and music, a love for literature, and a breadth of vision that tolerated other opinions. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events War resumes between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V. This time Henry VIII of England is allied to the Emperor, while James V of Scotland and Sultan Suleiman I are allied to the French. ... Rajput is a Caste among Hindus and Muslims in India, Pakistan and Nepal. ... Le de de Sind de ou de Sindh de (Sindhi: ‎, Urdu: ‎, Hindi: ) peut se rapporter : * Sindh de le Pakistan (de 1970), retitré du ** de province de Sind dedans 1990 * [[provinces de |Sind] de province de Sind (1936-1955)] de lInde britannique (1936-04-01 - 1947-08-13) ** de le... Nasiruddin Humayun (March 6, 1508 – February 22, 1556), second Mughal Emperor, ruled in India from 1530–1540 and 1555–1556. ... For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see Sher Shah (VC) Sher Shah Suri (born Fahrid Khan; later renamed Sher Khan after killing a tiger; 1486 - 1545) was the Afghani son of Hasan Khan. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


Following the chaos over the succession of Islam Shah (Sher Shah's son), Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555, leading an army partly provided by his Persian ally Shah Tahmasp. Only a few months later, Humayun died from an accident. Akbar succeeded his father on February 14, 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah for the reclamation of the Mughal throne. Here, in Kalanaur the 13 year old Akbar donned a golden robe and Dark Tiara and sat on a newly constructed platform, which still stands[3], and was proclaimed "Shahanshah" (Persian for "King of Kings").The mosque built at the time of Akbar can still be seen and the place where he played can be visited. Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


Early conquests

Early into Akbar's career, he decided that he should eliminate the threat of Sher Shah's dynasty, and decided to lead an army against the strongest of the three, Sikandar Shah Suri, in the Punjab. He left the city of Delhi under the regency of Tardi Beg Khan. For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see Sher Shah (VC) Sher Shah Suri (born Fahrid Khan; later renamed Sher Khan after killing a tiger; 1486 - 1545) was the Afghani son of Hasan Khan. ... Sikandar Shah Suri was the sixth ruler of Sur dynasty. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 Punjab (Persian: ‎, meaning Land of the five Rivers) (c. ... Tardi Beg was a Military commander who served under the Mughal Emperors Humayun and Akbar. ...


Sikandar Shah Suri presented no major concern for Akbar, and often withdrew from territory as Akbar approached; however, back in Delhi Hemu, a Hindu warrior, succeeded in launching a surprise attack on the unprepared Tardi Beg Khan, who promptly fled the city. Hemu, who had launched the attack on behalf of Adil Shah Suri, one of Sikandar's brothers, had won 22 successive battles and appointed himself ruler, or Raja Vikramaditya, instead of Adil Shah. Sikandar Shah Suri was the sixth ruler of Sur dynasty. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... Adil Shah Suri was seventh ruler of Sur dynasty. ...


Word of the capitulation of Delhi spread quickly to the new Mughal ruler, and he was advised to withdraw to Kabul, which was relatively secure. However, Bairam Khan differed and urged Akbar to fight the invaders and reclaim the capital. Akbar sided with Bairam, and began to march on Delhi. In order to bolster troop morale, Akbar took the curious step of ordering that someone "prepare fireworks as a treat for the soldiers" and that one should "make an image of Hemu, fill it with gunpowder, and set it on fire". On the march forward, he was joined by Tardi Beg and his retreating troops, who also urged him to retreat to Kabul, but Akbar refused again; later, Bairam Khan had the former regent executed for cowardice, though Abul Fazl and Jahangir both record that they believed that Bairam Khan was merely using the retreat from Delhi as an excuse to eliminate a rival. For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Firework be merged into this article or section. ... Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... n ...


On November 5, 1556 Akbar's Mughal army defeated the numerically superior forces of General Hemu at the Second Battle of Panipat, fifty miles north of Delhi, thanks to a chance arrow into Hemu's eye. Hemu was brought before Akbar unconscious, and was beheaded. Some sources say that it was actually Bairam Khan who killed the man, but Akbar certainly did use the term "Ghazi", warrior for the faith, a term used by both Babur, his grandfather, and Timur when fighting the Kafir (non-Muslims) in India. Hemu's head was sent to Kabul while his body was displayed on a type of gallows specially constructed to display this dead body. Even more gruesomely Akbar followed an old Khanate tradition, one which pre-dates even Genghis Khan, and constructed a "victory pillar" made from the heads of the dead soldiers. November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Hemuchandra or Hemu was an Indian military leader. ... The Second Battle of Panipat took place on November 5, 1556. ... , Delhi (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... Ghazw (plural ghazawāt) (Arabic: غزو) is an Arabic word meaning an armed incursion for the purposes of conquest, plunder, or the capture of slaves and is cognate with the terms ghāziya and maghāzī. In pre-Islamic times it signified the plundering raids organized by nomadic Bedouin warriors against... Zāhir ud-Dīn Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... Statue of Timur in Shahrisabz, Uzbekistan Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas (Chagatai Turkic: تیمور - Tēmōr, iron) (1336 – February 1405) was a 14th-century warlord of Turco-Mongol descent[1][2][3][4], conqueror of much of Western and central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire (1370–1405... This article is about an Islamic term. ... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


The victory also left Akbar with over 1,500 war elephants which he used to re-engage Sikandar Shah at the siege of Mankot. Sikandar surrendered and so was spared death, and lived the last remaining two years of his life on a large estate granted to him by Akbar. In 1557 the only other threat to Akbar's rule, Adil Shah, brother of Sikandar, died during a battle in Bengal. Thus, by the time Akbar was 15 his rule over Hindustan was secured[citation needed]. The elephants thick hides made them difficult to injure or kill and the high position made them favored by commanding officers War elephants were important, although not widespread, weapons in ancient military history. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ...


Bairam Khan

Akbar was only 13 years old when he became emperor, and so his general ruled on his behalf till he came of age. The regency belonged to Bairam Khan, a Shia Turkoman noble who successfully dealt with pretenders to the throne and improved the discipline of the Mughal armies. He ensured power was centralised and was able to expand the empires boundaries with orders from the capital. These moves helped to consolidate Mughal power in the newly recovered empire. Bairam Khan (Persian: بيرام خان) (d. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... The Turkmen (Türkmen or Түркмен, plural Türkmenler or Түркменлер) are a Turk people found primarily in the Central Asian states of Turkmenistan and Afghanistan and in northeastern Iran. ... This article is about pretender as applied to a monarchy. ...


Respect for Bairam's regency was not, however, universal. There were many people plotting his demise in order to assume the apparent absolute rule they saw in him. Much was written, critically, of his religion. The majority of the early court were Sunni Muslims, and Bairam's Shia'ism was disliked. Bairam knew about this, and perhaps even to spite that, appointed a Shia Sheikh, Gadai to become the Administrator General, one of the more important roles in the empire. Further Bairam lived a rather opulent lifestyle, which appeared to be even more excessive than that of Akbar. Kamboj or Kambohs (Urdu: کمبوہ ) is an ancient tribe settled in South Asia. ...


The most serious of those opposed to Bairam was Maham Anga, Akbar's aunt, chief nurse and mother of his foster brother, Adham Khan. Maham was both shrewd and manipulative and hoped to rule herself by proxy through her son. In March 1560 the pair of them urged Akbar to visit them in Delhi, leaving Bairam in the capital, Agra. While in Delhi Akbar was bombarded by people who told him he was now ready to take full control of the empire and to dismiss Bairam. He was persuaded to fund an excursion for Bairam to go on Hajj to Mecca, which was to act, essentially, as a form of ostracism. Bairam was shocked at the news from Delhi, but was loyal to Akbar, and despite Akbar's refusal to even meet with the General, refused the suggestions by some of his commanders to march on Delhi and "rescue" Akbar. We dont have an article called MAHAM ANGA Start this article Search for MAHAM ANGA in. ... Adham Khan was the cruel general of Akbar. ... , Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ... The Hajj (Arabic: , transliteration: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: , Bosnian: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Bairam left for Mecca, but was quickly met by an army sent by Adham Khan, but approved by Akbar, which was sent to "escort" him from the Mughal territories. Bairam saw this as the last straw, and led an attack on the army, but was captured and sent as a rebel back to Akbar to be sentenced. Bairam Khan, whose military genius had seen the Mughals regain their lands in India, who had served both Humayun and Akbar loyally, and laid the foundation for a strong empire, was now before the emperor as a prisoner. Maham Anga urged Akbar to execute Bairam, but Akbar refused. Instead, in defiance of Anga, he laid down full honours to the General, and gave him robes of honour, and agreed to fund him a proper Hajj excursion. However, shortly after Bairam Khan's Hajj journey got underway, just before he reached the port city of Khambhat (then known as "Cambay") he encountered an Afghan whose father had been killed five years earlier in a battle led by Bairam. The Afghan saw a chance to reap vengeance, and promptly stabbed Bairam, who died on January 31, 1561. We dont have an article called MAHAM ANGA Start this article Search for MAHAM ANGA in. ... Khambhat, formerly known as Cambay, is a town in Gujarat state, India. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ...


Adham Khan and Maham Anga

With the demise of Bairam Khan, Maham Anga saw an opportunity for herself, and attempted to wrest the control that Bairam had had. Her attempts at absolute rule, however, were not particularly successful.


In February 1561, her son Adham was sent to capture Malwa, which was being incompetently ruled by Baz Bahadur. Baz Bahadur was a talented musician but had no ability to govern an area, and many of the people of the area had fled to Mughal territories, alerting the Mughals to the possibility of taking the area. As the army of Adham Khan approached Baz Bahadur fled, leaving behind his wealth and his wives in their Harem, and instructions that they were to be killed if the city of Sarangpur (now a part of the Rajgarh District) fell to the Mughals. However, despite the best attempts by the Eunuch in charge of the Harem, many of the women survived; even Rupmati, who was famed through many of Baz Bahadurs songs for her beauty, survived multiple slash wounds to be captured by the invading Mughals. However, when Adham Khan came to claim his prize, Rupmati drank poison rather than be raped by Akbar's brother. Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur was a sultan of Malwa from 1555 to 1562. ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... Rajgarh District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. ... Rani Rupmati, also spelt Roopmati, was a Hindu singer of Malwa. ...

Akbar as a boy around 1557
Akbar as a boy around 1557

However, aside from this instance when he was thwarted, Adham engaged in some thoroughly grotesque abuses of the captured Harem and populace. The least attractive members of the women were brought before the senior members of the invading army and killed, as they drank alcohol, took opium pellets, and generally treated the event as if it were a festive occasion. Badauni records that on at least one occasion members present tried to stop the slaughter but were shackled. The slaughter was not only of the women in the harem, and Badauni records that "Sayyids and Sheikhs came out to meet him with their Qur'ans in hand, but Khan put them all to death and burnt them". Besides, Adham kept the vast majority of the wealth and captives for himself and sent a mere three elephants to his Emperor. Along with the elephants, Akbar received word of what Adham had done, and became enraged. He decided to ride out to Malwar himself, along with a small band of loyal soldiers, racing and beating a group of courtiers sent by Maham Anga to warn Adham of Akbar's rage. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (389x727, 54 KB) Akbar as a boy, c. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (389x727, 54 KB) Akbar as a boy, c. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Adham became terrified and quickly begged for Akbar's forgiveness. Akbar forgave him, and received the booty he had seized. However, Adham secretly kept two of the women he decided were the most attractive in his own Harem. When Akbar found out about this, Maham Anga killed the women, fearing what they might reveal about Adham to Akbar.


These events left Akbar with no option but to begin assuming absolute control for himself. The conflict came to a head when in 1562, Atkah Khan, an Afghan appointed by Akbar to be the equivalent of Prime Minister, was dealing with affairs of his position when Adham burst forth, had Atkah Khan stabbed, and tried to storm the Harem of Akbar. The Eunuch who guarded the section went in, closed the door and locked it from the inside. Akbar became aware of the disturbance, and entered the room. Here Adham laid his hand on his foster brother's arm, a sign of apparent disrespect, to which Akbar responded by punching him in the face, possibly knocking him unconscious. Seeing his Prime Minister stabbed, Akbar had had enough of Adham and ordered that he be thrown from a height, over a parapet. This failed to kill him, so Akbar ensured that the second attempt succeed by ordering he be dropped head first. Akbar then went straight to Maham Anga and informed her that her son was dead. With this act, the 19 year old Akbar assumed complete control over his empire.


Restoration

While previous Muslim rulers, in particular the Mughal founder Babur, did not allow freedom of worship for Hindus and other religious groups, Akbar engaged in a policy of actively encouraging members of the varying religious groups to enter his government. In one instance, he persuaded the Kacchwaha Rajput rulers of Amber (modern day Jaipur) into a matrimonial alliance: The King of Amber's daughter, Hira Kunwari, became Akbar's queen. She took the name Jodhabai, and was the mother of Prince Salim, who later became the Mughal emperor Jahangir. He also married a Christian woman, Maryam Uz Zamani, who is widely thought to be an Armenian lady. Zāhir ud-DÄ«n Mohammad, commonly known as Bābur (February 14, 1483 – December 26, 1530) (Chaghatay/Persian: ; also spelled ), was a Muslim Emperor from Central Asia who founded the Mughal dynasty of India. ... The Kachwaha (also Kachhwaha or Kachhvaha) are a Rajput clan who formerly ruled the kingdom of Jaipur in Rajasthan, India. ... Amber Fort Interior of one of the palaces in Amber Fort Amber is a ruined city of Rajasthan state, India. ... , Jaipur   (Hindi: जयपुर, Urdu: جے پور), also popularly known as the Pink City, historically sometimes rendered as Jeypore, is the capital of Rajasthan state, India. ... Jodhabai was the first wife of Akbar and the mother of Jahangir. ... n ...


The other Rajput kingdoms also gave their daughters' hands to Akbar, until only two Rajput clans remained against him, the Sisodiyas of Mewar and Hadas (Chauhans) of Ranthambore. The Rajputs were a famed group of Hindu warriors, who, like the Afghans took opium prior to battle to ward off fear. Entering into an alliance with these groups helped to secure Akbar's control, as for the next 100 years Rajput soldiers served on behalf of the Mughal empire. The Sisodia (also known as Sisodya or Sisodhya) are a Rajput clan who ruled the kingdom of Mewar in Rajasthan. ... Mewar is a region of south-central Rajasthan state in western India. ... Hada is the name of a clan of rajputs. ... Chauhan or Chahaman(a) is a clan that ruled parts of Northern India in the Middle Ages. ... Ranthambore is a wildlife sanctuary, about 500 kms from Jaipur, in Rajasthan, India. ...


Finally Raja Man Singh of Amber went with Akbar to meet the Hada leader, Surjan Hada, to effect an alliance. Surjan grudgingly accepted an alliance on the condition that Akbar did not marry any of his daughters. Surjan later moved his residence to Banaras. Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha rajput raja of Amber, Near Jaipur. ... VārāṇasÄ«   (Hindi: , IPA: ), also known as Benares, Banaras, or Benaras (Hindi: , , IPA: ), or Kashi or Kasi (Hindi: , ), is a famous Hindu holy city situated on the banks of the river Ganges (Ganga) in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Akbar is recorded as saying "A monarch should be ever intent on conquest, lest his neighbours rise in arms against him", and he went on to expand the Mughal empire to include Malwa (1562), Gujarat (1572), Bengal (1574), Kabul (1581), Kashmir (1586), and Kandesh (1601), among others. Akbar installed a governor over each of the conquered provinces, under his authority. Malwa (Malvi:माळवा) is a region in western India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin in the western part of Madhya Pradesh state and the south-eastern part of Rajasthan. ... , Gujarāt (GujarātÄ«: , IPA:  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... Kandesh (also Khandesh) is a region of central India, which forms the northwestern portion of Maharashtra state. ...


Akbar did not want to have his court tied too closely to the city of Delhi. He ordered the court moved to Fatehpur Sikri, near Agra, but when this site proved untenable, he set up a roaming camp that let him keep a close eye on what was happening throughout the empire. He developed and encouraged commerce, in part by abolishing religious restrictions on the conduct of business between Muslims and Hindus. , Delhi (Hindi: , Urdu: , Punjabi: ), sometimes referred to as Dilli, is the second-largest metropolis in India after Mumbai with a population of 13 million. ... View across Fatehpur Sikri Fatehpur Sikri (Hindi: ) was the political capital of Indias Mughal Empire under Akbars reign, from 1571 until 1585, when it was abandoned, ostensibly due to lack of water. ... , Agra   (Hindi: , Urdu: ), (IPA: ) is a city on the banks of the Yamuna River in Uttar Pradesh, India. ...


Akbar's tax reforms were an especially noteworthy achievement, and formed the basis of the Mughal Empire's immense wealth in succeeding generations. His officials prepared a detailed and accurate cadaster (land register) noting each land parcel's soil quality, water access, etc., and then converted those characteristics to money, taking account of the different prevailing prices for various crops in each region of the Empire. This was a distinct improvement on earlier land tax systems, including the Egyptian and Roman ones, which had levied land taxes as an in-kind share of the harvest. By making land tax payments more accurately reflect the economic rent of the land in money rather than the actual harvest, Akbar's innovations had the effect of stimulating both investment in improvements and more productive use of the land. He also abolished the jizyah (a discriminatory tax on non-Muslims) and gave strict orders to prevent extortion by tax collectors. The salutary economic effect of these reforms was such that the revered Qing emperor Kang Xi adopted similar measures a century later in China, with similar success. A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ...


Personality

Akbar is said to have been a benevolent and wise ruler, a man of new ideas, and a sound judge of character. As a ruler, he was able to win the love and reverence of his subjects.

The court of Akbar, an illustration from Akbarnama

Abul Fazal, and even the hostile critic Badayuni, described him as having a commanding personality. He was fearless in the chase as well as in the field of battle, and, "like Alexander of Macedon, was always ready to risk his life, regardless of political consequences". He often plunged his horse into the full-flooded river during the rainy seasons and safely crossed over to the other side. Though a mighty conqueror, he did not usually indulge in cruelty. He is said to have been affectionate towards his relatives. He pardoned his brother Hakim, who was a repented rebel. However, on some rare occasions, he dealt cruelly with the offenders, as is shown by his behavior towards his maternal uncle, Muazzam, and his foster-brother, Adham Khan. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (380x640, 81 KB) Source of the image: [1] Credits: The Art Institute of Chicago This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (380x640, 81 KB) Source of the image: [1] Credits: The Art Institute of Chicago This work is copyrighted and unlicensed. ... Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... Alexander the Great (Greek: ,[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of the most successful military commanders in history. ...


He is said to have been extremely moderate in his diet. According to records, he was fond of fruits and had little liking for meat, which he ceased to eat altogether in his later years.


Views on religion

Islam in India


Islam in India is the second-most practiced religion after (after Hinduism 80. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2040x1681, 2396 KB) Description: Taj Mahal Source: Dhirad, picture edited by J. A. Knudsen Uploaded to en: on March 1, 2005, 14:30, by Deep750 who added the following comment On April 9, 2005, 19:22 Nichalp added that heemailed Deep750...


History The Islamic conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the seventh to the twelfth centuries. ...

Architecture

Mughal architecture • Indo-Islamic Architecture Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... The Lotus Mahal at Hampi is a example of Indo-Islamic architecture. ...

Major figures

AkbarAhmed Raza KhanMaulana AzadSir Syed Ahmed Khan Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin Aĥmed Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-Barelwī al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (1856–1921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late... Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (1888 - August 1958) was a freedom fighter in Indias struggle for Independence from Britain. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ...

Communities

North Indian MuslimsMappilasTamil Muslims
Konkani Muslims • Marathi Muslims • Memons
North East Muslims • Kashmiris • Hyderabadi Muslims
Dawoodi BohrasKhojaNawayathMeo
Sunni BohrasKayamkhani • Bengali Muslims The gate of the Jami mosque built in 1571 in Fatehpur Sikri, a city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar. ... The Mappilas (historically called Moplahs in Malayalam :മാപ്പിള) are a Muslim community in Kerala and neighbouring states and territories of India. ... Marakkar or Maraikayar is a common title, surname or name of a sub group of Tamil speaking Muslim people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other uses, see Kashmiri (disambiguation) Kashmiri is a Dardic language spoken primarily in Kashmir, an Asian region now split between India, Pakistan and China. ... Dawoodi Bohras (Arabic: داؤدی بوہرہ, Hindi: दवूदि बोह्रा) are the main branch of the Bohras, a MustaˤlÄ« subsect of IsmāīlÄ« Shīˤa Islām, and are based in India. ... The Khwajahs or officially Khojas (Urdu: خوجہ) are a (mostly Muslim) community that are mainly concentrated in South Asia, but due to migrations over the centuries have spread to many parts of the globe. ... The Nawayaths (also spelled as Navayath or Nawayat) are a small Muslim community found living in and around the town of Bhatkal, a prosperous little picturesque town with quaint old abodes and villas on the west coast of Uttara Kannada, Karnataka, India. ... Meo (Hindi: मेव, Urdu: میو) is a prominent Muslim Rajput tribe from Northern India and Pakistan. ... Sunni Bohras are a Sunni Muslim community in Sindh province of Pakistan and Gujarat state of India. ... Kayamkhani is a community of Muslims living in Shekhawati region of Rajasthan. ...

Islamic Sects

DeobandiBarelviShia The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) is an Islamic revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... A name given to the Sunni Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ...

Culture

Muslim culture of Hyderabad Makkah masjid on the last Friday of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ...

Other Topics

Ahle Sunnat Movement in South AsiaIndian Muslim nationalism
Indian Wahabi movementMuslim chronicles for Indian history Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sunni Islam in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ... Indian Muslim nationalism refers to the political and cultural expression of nationalism, founded upon the religious tenets and identity of Islam, of the Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

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At the time of Akbar's rule, the Mughal Empire included both Hindus and Muslims. Profound differences separate the Islamic and Hindu faith. When Akbar commenced his rule, a majority of the subjects in the Mughal Empire were Hindu. However, the rulers of the empire were almost exclusively Muslim. In this highly polarized society, Akbar fostered tolerance for all religions. He not only appointed Hindus to high posts, but also tried to remove all distinctions between the Muslims and non-Muslims. He abolished the pilgrim tax in the eighth year and the jizya in the ninth year of his reign, and inaugurated a policy of universal toleration. He also enjoyed a good relationship with the Roman Catholic Church, who routinely sent Jesuit priests to debate in his court, and at least three of his Grandsons were baptized as Catholics (though they did become Muslim later in life). This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...


Akbar built a building called Ibadat Khana (House of Worship), where he encouraged religious debate. Originally, this debating house was open only to Sunnis, but following a series of petty squabbles which turned ugly, Akbar encouraged Hindus, Roman Catholics and even atheists to participate. He tried to reconcile the differences of both religions by creating a new faith called the Din-i-Ilahi ("Faith of the Divine"), which incorporated both 'pantheistic' versions of Islamic Sufism (most notably the Ibn Arabi's doctrine of 'Wahdat al Wajood' or Unity of existence) and 'bhakti' or devotional cults of Hinduism. Even some elements of Christianity - like crosses, Zoroastrianism - fire worship and Jainism were amalgamated in the new religion. Akbar the Great was particularly famed for this. Akbar was greatly influenced by the teachings of Jain Acharya Hir Vijay Suri and Jin Chandra Suri. Akbar gave up non-vegetarian food by their influence. Akbar declared "Amari" or non-killing of animals in the holy days of Jains like Paryushan and Mahavir Jayanti. He rolled back Zazia Tax from Jain Pilgrim places like Palitana. This faith, however, was not for the masses. In fact, the only "converts" to this new religion were the upper nobility of Akbar's court. Historians have so far been able to identify only 18 members of this new religion. Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Carvaka, also frequently transliterated as Charvaka or Cārvāka, and also known as Lokayata or Lokyāta, is a thoroughly materialistic and atheistic school of thought with roots in ancient India. ... Din-i-Ilahi (دين إلهي) or Divine Faith, was a syncretic religion propounded by the Mughal emperor Akbar, intended to merge the best elements of the religions of his empire (primarily Hinduism and Islam; elements were also taken from Christianity, Jainism and Zoroastrianism), and thereby reconcile the sectarian differences that divided his... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... An acharya (आचार्य) is a prominent guru, teacher and scholar who teaches by his own example (from Sanskrit achara, behavior). ...


He also married several Hindu princesses, though many consider that to be politically motivated rather than a genuine attempt at religious reconciliation.


Navratnas

As with many Indian rulers Akbar's court had Navaratnas ("Nine Jewels"), a term denoting a group of nine extraordinary people. Akbar's Navratnas were: The term Navaratnas is used generally for denoting the group of nine extraordinary people in Akbars darbar. Navaratnas or Nine Gems (nine (nav), jewels (ratnas)) was also the collective title of the nine most valuable members in the court of Emperor Vikramaditya. ...

  • Abul-Fazel - Akbars's chief advisor and author of Akbarnama, the official history of Akbar's reign.
  • Faizi Akbar's poet laureate who is best known for his Nal u Daman, a poetic rendering of the beloved story of Sanskrit story of Nala and Damayanti.
  • Mian Tansen - a Hindu singer who converted to Islam, much beloved by Akbar who even called for him on his death bed
  • Birbal - a high noble known for great wit
  • Raja Todar Mal - Akbar's finance minister
  • Raja Man Singh - trusted general of Akbar's
  • Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana - an important noble and a renowned poet in Persian, Sanskrit, and Hindustani.
  • Fakir Aziao-Din
  • Mullah Do Piaza

Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak (Persian:ابو الفضل) also known as Abul-Fazl, Abul Fadl and Abul-Fadl Allami: the vizier of the great Mughal emperor Akbar, and author of the Akbarnama, the official history of Akbars reign. ... The Akbarnāma (Persian: اکبر نامہ), which literally means History of Akbar, is a biographical account of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, written in Persian. ... Faizi (1547-1595) was historian Abul Fazl’s brother in Akbars court. ... Tansens tomb in Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India Tansen (1506–1589) was a North Indian musician, believed to be the greatest of all time. ... Raja Birbal (1528-1586) was a courtier in the administration of the Mughal emperor Akbar and one of his most trusted members along with being a part of Akbars inner council of nine advisors, known as the navaratana, a Sanskrit word meaning nine jewels. Birbals duties in Akbar... Raja Todar Mal was the Indian Mughal emperor Akbar’s finance minister, who overhauled the revenue system in the kingdom. ... Raja Man Singh was the Kacchwaha rajput raja of Amber, Near Jaipur. ... Abdul Rahim Khan-e-Khana (अब्दुल रहीम खान-ए-खाना), also known as Rahimdas (रहीमदास) was a poet and the son of Akbar’s trusted caretaker, Bairam Khan. ... Faqir Aziao Din (Faqir means Sage or Ascetic in Urdu)was one of Akbars chief advisors, and belonged to his inner circle. ... Mullah Do Piaza was among the Mughal emperor Akbars chief advisors. ...

Final years

The last few years of Akbar's reign were troubled by the misconduct of his sons. Two of them died in their youth, the victims of intemperance. The third, Salim, later known as Emperor Jahangir, was frequently in rebellion against his father. Asirgarh, a fort in the Deccan, proved to be the last conquest of Akbar, taken in 1599 as he proceeded north to face his son's rebellion. Reportedly, Akbar keenly felt these calamities, and they may even have affected his health and hastened his death, which occurred in Agra. His body was interred in a magnificent mausoleum at Sikandra, near Agra. Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... n ... Asirgarh is an Indian fortress situated in the Satpura Range, about 20 km. ... The Deccan Plateau is a vast plateau in India, encompassing most of Central and Southern India. ...


Akbar in media

  • Akbar was portrayed in the Hindi movie Mughal-e-Azam, in which he was played by Prithviraj Kapoor.
  • Akbar and Birbal were portrayed in the Hindi series Akbar-Birbal aired on Zee TV in late 1990s where Akbar's role was essayed by Vikram Gokhale.
  • A television series, called Akbar the Great, directed by Sanjay Khan was aired on Doordarshan in the 1990s.
  • Ashutosh Gowariker is making a film on Akbar and his wife Jodha bai entitled Akbar-Jodha where Akbar's role will be essayed by Hrithik Roshan.
  • A fictionalized Akbar plays an important supporting role in Kim Stanley Robinson's 2002 novel, The Years of Rice and Salt.
  • Amartya Sen uses Akbar as a prime example in his books The Argumentative Indian and Violence and Identity.
  • Bertrice Small is known for incorporating historical figures as primary characters in her romance novels, and Akbar is no exception. He is a prominent figure in two of her novels, and mentioned several times in a third, which takes place after his death. In This Heart of Mine the heroine becomes Akbar's fortieth "wife" for a time, while Wild Jasmine and Darling Jasmine centre around the life of his half-British daughter.

Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Mughal-e-Azam (Urdu: مغلِ اعظم, Hindi: मुग़ल-ए आज़म) is an Indian romance film, a product of the Bollywood movie industry. ... Prithviraj Kapoor as Alexander the Great in Sikander. ... Hindi (Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the official languages of the Union government of India. ... Zee TV is an India-based satellite television channel in the Zee Network umbrella, which carries broadcasts in Hindi and Urdu. ... (Sometimes credited as Vikram Gokhle) A well known theatre and Marathi and Hindi film actor. ... Abbass Khan better known as Sanjay Khan (born January 3) is an actor in the Indian film Industry, Bollywood. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... Ashutosh Gowariker (Marathi: आशुतोष गोवारीकर)is an Indian actor, writer, producer and director. ... Akbar-Jodha is a forthcoming film, to be released in 2007. ... Hrithik Roshan (Hindi: ऋतिक रोशन, Urdu: رتک روشن, pronunciation: ) (born Hrithik Roshanlal Nagrath on January 10, 1974), is a prominent Bollywood actor and five time Filmfare Award winner. ... The Years of Rice and Salt (2002, ISBN 0553580078) is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson, a thought experiment about a world without Christianity. ... Amartya Sen Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon) (Bengali: Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933 in Santiniketan, India), is an Indian philosopher, economist and a winner of the Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences (Nobel Prize for Economics) in 1998, for his work on famine, human development theory, welfare... The Argumentative Indian (ISBN 0713996870) is a book written by the Indian Nobel Prize winning economist Amartya Sen. ... Bertrice Small is an American author of historical and erotic romance novels. ...

See also

The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... // The first ruler who is known for certain to have used the great is the Persian conqueror Cyrus the Great. ... Banarasidas (1586-1643) was the first poet in India to write an autobiography - Ardha Kathanaka (The Half Story). ... The Akbarnāma (Persian: اکبر نامہ), which literally means History of Akbar, is a biographical account of Akbar, the third Mughal emperor, written in Persian. ... Touch Pieces are coins and medalets that have attracted superstitious beliefs, such as those with holes in them or those with particular designs. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Women of the Mughal Dynasty - Deborah Hutton - 2002 - Skidmore College.
  2. ^ History of India The Nine Gems of Akbar - Neria Harish Hebbar, MD - Saturday, April 5 2003
  3. ^ The Second Battle of Panipat - Robert W. Martin - about.com.
  4. ^ a b c Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume II
  5. ^ The life and times of Humayun, by Ishwari Prasad (1955, rev.1970)[1]
  6. ^ Akbar - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006
  7. ^ Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume III
  8. ^ S.K. Banjerji: "Humayun Badshah".
  9. ^ Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume I
  1. ^ Women of the Mughal Dynasty - Deborah Hutton - 2002 - Skidmore College.
  2. ^ History of India The Nine Gems of Akbar - Neria Harish Hebbar, MD - Saturday, April 5 2003
  3. ^ The Second Battle of Panipat - Robert W. Martin - about.com.
  4. ^ a b c Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume II
  5. ^ The life and times of Humayun, by Ishwari Prasad (1955, rev.1970)[2]
  6. ^ Akbar - The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006
  7. ^ Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume III
  8. ^ S.K. Banjerji: "Humayun Badshah".
  9. ^ Abul Fazl - Akbarnama Volume I

Skidmores main entrance. ... Screenshot of About. ... Skidmores main entrance. ... Screenshot of About. ...

References

  • Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak Akbar-namah Edited with commentary by Muhammad Sadiq Ali (Kanpur-Lucknow: Nawal Kishore) 1881-3 Three Vols. (Persian)
  • Abu al-Fazl ibn Mubarak Akbarnamah Edited by Maulavi Abd al-Rahim. Bibliotheca Indica Series (Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal) 1877-1887 Three Vols. (Persian)
  • Henry Beveridge (Trans.) The Akbarnama of Ab-ul-Fazl Bibliotheca Indica Series (Calcutta: Asiatic Society of Bengal) 1897 Three Vols.
  • Haji Muhammad 'Arif Qandahari Tarikh-i-Akbari (Better known as Tarikh-i-Qandahari) edited & Annotated by Haji Mu'in'd-Din Nadwi, Dr. Azhar 'Ali Dihlawi & Imtiyaz 'Ali 'Arshi (Rampur: Raza Library) 1962 (Persian)

Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...

External links



Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ...

Preceded by
Humayun
Mughal Emperor
1556–1605
Succeeded by
Jahangir
Persondata
NAME Akbar
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Akbar, Jalaluddin Muhammad (full name); Akbar, Jellaladin Muhammad (alternate form); Akbar, Celalettin Muhammad (alternate form); Akbar the Great (honorific); جلال الدین محمد اکب (Persian)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Mughal emperor
DATE OF BIRTH October 15, 1542
PLACE OF BIRTH Sindh, Pakistan
DATE OF DEATH October 27, 1605
PLACE OF DEATH Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India

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