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Encyclopedia > Ak Koyunlu
Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative)
Flag of the Ak Koyunlu (Colours are speculative)

The Akkoyunlu or the White Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: A─čqoyunlular/Akkoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled present-day Azerbaijan, eastern Anatolia, northern Iraq and western Iran from 1378 to 1508. Image File history File links Flag of the Ak Koyunlu Confederacy, created by Ingoman AKA James Dahl Colours are conjectural, and it is unknown (at least to me) which colours were used, or if there even was a specific set. ... Image File history File links Flag of the Ak Koyunlu Confederacy, created by Ingoman AKA James Dahl Colours are conjectural, and it is unknown (at least to me) which colours were used, or if there even was a specific set. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... A Turkmen man in traditional clothes, around 1905–1915 Turkmen people (of which the Turkic plural is properly Turkmenler) form an ethnic group, part of the Turkic peoples. ... A federation (from the Latin fÅ“dus, covenant) is a state comprised of a number of self-governing regions (often themselves referred to as states) united by a central (federal) government. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολή anatolÄ“ or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish associated with Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three year truce and cede several territories to Venice December 10 - League of Cambrai formed as an alliance against Venice between...


According to chronicles from the Byzantine Empire, White Sheep Turkomans were present in Anatolia since at least 1340, and most White Sheep Turkoman leaders, including the dynasty's founder, Kara Osman, married Byzantine princesses. Generally a chronicle (Latin chronica) is historical account of facts and events in chronological order. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... Events January 26 - King France June 24 - The Battle of Sluys is fought between the naval fleets of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France. ... A dynasty is a family or extended family which retains political power across generations, or more generally, any organization which extends dominance in its field even as its particular members change. ... This article is about the leader of Ak Koyunlu. ... This article is about the noble title. ...


The White Sheep Turkomans officially first acquired land in 1402, when Tamerlane granted them all of Diyar Bakr, in northern Iraq. For a long time, the White Sheep Turkomans were unable to expand their territory, as the rival Black Sheep Turkoman kept them at bay. However, this changed with the rule of Uzun Hasan, who defeated the Black Sheep Turkoman leader, Jihan Shah, in 1467. Events September 14 - Battle of Homildon Hill. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Diyarbakir (Syriac: ܐܡܝܕ; Greek: Amida; Turkish spelling: Diyarbakır) is a city in Turkey, situated on the banks of the River Tigris. ... The Karakoyunlu or the Black Sheep Turkomans (Azeri-Turkish: Qaraqoyunlular/Karakoyunlular) were a Turkoman tribal federation that ruled what is today Azerbaijan, including present-day northwestern Iran and Iraq from 1375 to 1468. ... Uzun Hassan, prince of the Ak-Koyunla dynasty, or White Sheep Turkmen, ruled parts of western Persia, Iraq and Turkey between 1435 and 1478. ... Jahan Shah (died 1467), was a leader of Turkmen tribal federation Kara Koyunlu. ... Events October 29 - Battle of Brusthem: Charles the Bold defeats Liege Beginning of the Sengoku Period in Japan. ...


After the defeat of a Timurid leader, Abu Sai'd, Uzun Hasan was able to take Baghdad, along with territories around the Persian Gulf. He expanded into Iran as far east as Khorasan. However, around this time, the Ottoman Empire sought to expand eastwards, a serious threat that forced the White Sheep Turkomans into an alliance with the Qaramanids of central Anatolia. Timurid can refer to several entities, related to Timur: Timurid Dynasty Timurid Empire Timurid Emirates This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Abu Said is the name of many rulers. ... A street map of Baghdad Average temperature (red) and precipitations (blue) in Baghdad Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and the Baghdad Province. ... Regional map showing the word Bahr Fars, (Persian Gulf) in Arabic, from the 9th century text Al-aqalim by the great geographer Istakhri. ... Khorasan (also spelled Khurasan and Khorassan; خراسان in Persian) is an area, located in eastern and northeastern Iran. ... The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El-Muzaffer Daima (Ottoman Turkish for the Ever Victorious) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Constantinople (Ä°stanbul) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 6. ... An alliance can be: an agreement between two parties, made in order to advance common goals and to secure common interests. ... A Turkish tribe in Anatolia, Karamanid first arose following the decline of the Seljuq Sultanate of Rüm in the early 13th century. ...


As early as 1464, Uzun Hasan had requested military aid from one of the Ottoman Empire's strongest enemies, Venice, however, despite Venetian promises, this aid never arrived, and as a result, Uzun Hasan was defeated by the Ottomans at Tercan in 1473, though this did not destroy the White Sheep Turkomans. Events February - Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ...


Yaqub, who reigned from 1478 to 1490, sustained the dynasty for a while longer, but following his death the White Sheep Turkomans began to destroy themselves from within, and thanks to years of infighting, they ceased to be a threat to their neighbours. Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ...


The Safavids, who were Shi'ites, began to undermine the allegiance of many White Sheep Turkomans, particularly Sunnis. The Safavids and the White Sheep Turkomans met in battle at Nakhichevan in 1501, and the Safavid leader Ismail I forced the White Sheep Turkomans to withdraw. The Safavids were a long-lasting Turkic-speaking Iranian dynasty that ruled from 1501 to 1736 and first established Shiite Islam as Persias official religion. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... National motto: none Official language Azerbaijani Capital Nakhichevan (city) President Heydar Aliyev Prime Minister Artur Rasizade Area  - Total  - % water 5,500 km² negligible Population  - Total 310,000 Establishment  - Declared  - Recognition 1991 recognized internationally only as part of Azerbaijan Currency Azerbaijani Manat Time zone  - in summer EET (UTC+4) EEST (UTC... Events Alexander becomes King of Poland. ... Shah Ismail I, the founder of the Safavid State. ...


In his retreat from the Safavids, the White Sheep Turkoman leader Alwand destroyed an autonomous White Sheep Turkoman state in Mardin. The last White Sheep Turkoman leader, Murad, brother of Alwand, was also defeated by the same Safavid leader. Though Murad briefly established himself in Baghdad in 1508, he soon withdrew back to Diyar Bakr, signalling the end of the White Sheep Turkomans. Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ... Map showing the location of Mardin Province of Turkey View from Mardin to the Mesopotamian plains Mardin old town Mardin Province is a province of Turkey. ... Events February - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor attacks Venice June 6 - Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor is defeated in Friulia by Venetian forces; he is forced to sign a three year truce and cede several territories to Venice December 10 - League of Cambrai formed as an alliance against Venice between...


See also: Rulers of Ak Koyunlu List of Rulers of Ak Koyunlu (The Horde of the White Sheep) Territory now part of present-day Iraq, Iran and eastern Turkey. ...


Sources

Bosworth, Clifford. The New Islamic Dynasties, 1996. Morby, John. Oxford Dynasties of the World, 2002.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ak (374 words)
Ak Koyunlu (Turkish: "White Sheep"), is a Turkmen tribal federation that ruled northern Iraq, Azerbaijan, and eastern Anatolia from AD 1378 to 1508.
The Ak Koyunlu were present in eastern Anatolia at least from 1340, according to Byzantine chronicles, and most Ak Koyunlu leaders, including the founder of the dynasty, Kara Osman (reigned 1378-1435), married Byzantine princesses.
In 1464 the Ak Koyunlu had already turned to the Venetians, enemies of the Ottomans, in an attempt to stave off the inevitable Ottoman attack.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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