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Encyclopedia > Aisha
Part of a series on Islam:
The Wives of Muhammad

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid Aisha can refer to: Aisha, a wife of Muhammad Aisha Kahlil, a singer Aisha Tyler, the American comedian and actress Aisha, a type of Neopet Aisha Campbell from the Mighty Morphin Power Rangers Aisha (Romancing SaGa), a character in the Romancing SaGa video game Aysha, type of spider Aisha, a... Look up Ayesha in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) is regarded by non-Muslims as the founder of the religion of Islam and by Muslims as the last and greatest of the prophets of Islam. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (555 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ...


Sawda bint Zama* Sawda bint Zama ibn Qayyis ibn Abd Shams (Arabic: سودة بنت زمعة) was a wife of Muhammad, and therefore a Mother of the Believers and one of the early converts to Islam. ...


Aisha bint Abi Bakr*


Hafsa bint Umar Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...


Zaynab bint Khuzayma Zaynab bint Khuzayma (Arabic: زينب ) was married to prophet Muhammad soon after she had been made a widow when her husband was killed at the battle of Badr. ...


Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya Hind bint Abi Umayya, also called as Umm Salama (Mother of Salama) (Arabic: أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


Zaynab bint Jahsh This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Juwayriya bint al-Harith Juwayriyya bint al-Harith (Arabic: جويرية بنت الحارث juwayriyya bint al-ḥārith, born c. ...


Ramlah bint Abi-Sufyan Ramlah binte Abi-Sufyan, رملة بنت أبي سفيان, aka Umm Habiba, أم حبيبة, was the daughter of Abu Sufyan. ...


Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa** Rayhana bint Amr ibn Khunafa was a Jewish woman from the Banu Qurayza tribe. ...


Safiyya bint Huyayy Safiyya bint Huyayy (Arabic: صفية بنت حيي, c. ...


Maymuna bint al-Harith Maymuna bint al-Harith (Arabic: ميمونه بنت الحارث ) (died 50 A.H./670 CE) // Early life Her original name was Burrah, but Muhammad changed it to Maimunah. ...


Maria al-Qibtiyya** Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, especially in non-Arabic traditions, Maria Qupthiya), or Maria the Copt, was a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 CE. According to most Islamic accounts, she was Muhammads wife. ...


*succession disputed


** status as wife or concubine is disputed

Aisha bint Abi Bakr (Arabic عائشة `ā'isha, "she who lives", also transcribed as A'ishah, Ayesha, 'A'isha, or 'Aisha, Turkish Ayşe, Ottoman Turkish Âişe etc.) was a wife of Muhammad. In Islamic writings, she is thus often referred to by the title "Mother of the Believers" (Arabic: أمّ المؤمنين umm-al-mu'minīn), per the description of Muhammad's wives as "Mothers of Believers" in the Qur'an (33.6), and later, as the "Mother of the Faithful", as in Qutb's Ma'alim fi al-Tariq (pps6). She is quoted as source for many hadith (traditions about Muhammad's life), with Muhammad's personal life being the topic of most narrations. Ottoman Turkish (Turkish: or , Ottoman Turkish: ‎ ) was the variant of the Turkish language that was used as the administrative and literary language of the Ottoman Empire. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Mumin is an Arabic Islamic term, frequently referenced in the Quran, meaning beliver and denotes a Muslim that has complete submission to the will of God (Allah), and has faith firmly established in his heart. ... Muhammad (570-632 C.E.) is regarded by non-Muslims as the founder of the religion of Islam and by Muslims as the last and greatest of the prophets of Islam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Maalim fi al-Tariq (Arabic: معالم في الطريق) or Milestones, first published in 1964, is a book by Egyptian Islamist author Sayyid Qutb in which he lays out a plan and makes a call to action to re-create the Muslim world on strictly Quranic grounds, casting off what Qutb calls... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


Aisha is a controversial figure because of differing portrayals of her in Shia versions of Islamic history and her role in the First Fitna (first Islamic civil war) at the head of an army against Ali ibn Abu Talib in the Battle of Bassorah.[1] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces...

Contents

Early life

Aisha was the daughter of Um Ruman and Abu Bakr of Mecca. Abu Bakr belonged to the Banu Taym sub-clan of the tribe of Quraysh, the tribe to which Muhammad also belonged. Aisha is said to have followed her father in accepting Islam when she was still young. She also joined him in his migration to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) in 615 AD; a number of Mecca's Muslims emigrated then, seeking refuge from persecution by the Meccans who still followed their pre-Islamic religions. Um Ruman (born as Zainab) is a sahaba of Muhammad. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Banu Taym or Banu Taim is a sub-clan to the Quraish tribe. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... In seventh Islamic month (Rajab) of 7 BH (614–615 CE)[1] twelve male and twelve female Sahaba, the Muslims who originally converted in Mecca, migrated to Aksumite Ethiopia (in Arabic, al-Habash, or Abyssinia), seeking refuge from persecution [1]. They returned after three month to Arabia due to a... Arabian mythology is the ancient beliefs of the Arabs. ...


According to the early Islamic historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Aisha's father tried to spare her the dangers and discomfort of the journey by solemnizing her marriage to her fiance, Jubayr ibn Mut'im, son of Mut‘im ibn ‘Adi. However, Mut’am refused to honor the long-standing betrothal, as he did not wish his family to be connected to the Muslim outcasts. The emigration to Ethiopia proved temporary and Abu Bakr's family returned to Mecca within a few years. Aisha was then betrothed to Muhammad. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Jubayr ibn Mutim (Arabic: ‎) (d. ... Mut`im ibn `Uday (Arabic: ) was a non-Muslim who met Muhammad and the chief of the Banu Nawfal clan of the Banu Quraish tribe [1]. // Also he died a non-Muslim [2], his son Jubayr ibn Mutim became a Muslim [3]. Main article: Aisha In 12 BH (610...



AISHA BREUER IS STUPIIIDDD :P:P:P


Marriage to Muhammad

See also: Criticism of Muhammad: Aisha

Aisha was initially betrothed to Jubayr ibn Mut'im, a Muslim whose father, though pagan, was friendly to the Muslims. When Khawla bint Hakim suggested that Muhammad marry Aisha after the death of Muhammad's first wife (Khadijah bint Khuwaylid), the previous agreement regarding marriage of Aisha with ibn Mut'im was put aside by common consent.[2] Watt suggests that Muhammad hoped to strengthen his ties with Abu Bakr.[2] This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Khadijah bint Khuwaylid or Khadijah al-Kubra (555 AD – 623 AD) was the first wife of Muhammad. ...


Aisha was six or seven years old when betrothed to Muhammad. She stayed in her parents' home until the age of nine, when the marriage was consummated.[3][2][4][5] The marriage was delayed until after the Hijra, or migration to Medina, in 622. Aisha and her older sister Asma bint Abi Bakr only moved to Medina after Muhammad had already fled there. Abu Bakr gave Muhammad the money to build a house for himself. After this, the wedding was celebrated very simply. After the wedding, Aisha continued to play with her toys, and Muhammad entered into the spirit of these games.[6] For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Asmaa bint Abu Bakr (Arabic: ) was one of the companions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ...


Status as "favorite wife"

Even though the marriage may have been politically motivated, to mark the ties between Muhammad and his companion Abu Bakr, most early accounts say that Muhammad and Aisha became sincerely fond of each other. Aisha is usually described as Muhammad's favorite wife, and it was in her company that Muhammad reportedly received the most revelations.[1] Aisha is believed to have been Muhammad's only virgin wife at the time of marriage. They adduce the following episodes as proof that Muhammad and Aisha's marriage did not always go smoothly, and that Khadija's memory never left Muhammad.[citation needed]


Accusation of adultery

Aisha was traveling with her husband Muhammad and some of his followers. Aisha claimed that she had left camp in the morning to search for her lost necklace, but when she returned, she found that the company had broken camp and left without her. She waited for half a day, until she was rescued by a man named Safwan ibn Al-Muattal and taken to rejoin the caravan. This led to speculation that she had committed adultery with Safwan. Muhammad's adopted son Zayd ibn Harithah defended Aisha's reputation. Shortly after this, Muhammad announced that he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses.[7] These verses also rebuked Aisha's accusers,[8] whom Muhammad ordered to receive forty lashes, among them his poet Hassan ibn Thabit.[9][10] This article is about the act of adultery. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hassan Ibn Thabit (died 674), Arabian poet, was born in Yathrib (Medina), a member of the tribe Khazraj. ...


Story of the honey

Ibn Kathir wrote in his biography of Muhammad that Muhammad's wife Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya was given a skin filled with honey, which she shared with her husband.[11] He was fond of sweets and stayed overlong with Umm Salama Hind bint Abi Umayya; at least in the opinion of Aisha and her co-wife Hafsa bint Umar. Aisha and Hafsa conspired. Each of them was to tell Muhammad that the honey had given him bad breath. When he heard this from two wives, he believed that it was true and swore that he would eat no more of the honey. Soon afterwards, he reported that he had received a revelation, in which he was told that he could eat anything permitted by God.[12] In the following verses, Muhammad's wives are rebuked for their unruliness: "your hearts are inclined (to oppose him)". Ibn Kathir (Arabic : بن كثير ) was an Islamic scholar born in Busra, Syria in 1301 CE. He was taught by the Islamic scholar Ibn Taymiyya in Damascus, Syria. ... Hind bint Abi Umayya, also called as Umm Salama (Mother of Salama) (Arabic: أم سلمة هند بنت أبي أمية) was a wife of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...


Word spread in the small Muslim community that Muhammad's wives were tyrannizing him, speaking sharply to him and conspiring against him. Umar, Hafsa's father, scolded his daughter and also spoke to Muhammad of the matter. Muhammad, saddened and upset, separated from his wives for a month. By the end of this time, his wives were humbled and harmony was restored. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ...


When Muslim commentators on the Qur'an explicate Sura 66, it is usually this story that is told to explain the "occasion of revelation." Surat At-Tahrim (Banning, Prohibition) is the 66th sura of the Quran with 12 ayat. ...


There is a similar but alternative explanation of this chapter, also involving Aisha. In this story, Aisha and her co-wives were unhappy because Muhammad was infatuated with Maria al-Qibtiyya, the Coptic Christian woman who bore Muhammad a brief-lived son. (Some accounts say that she was a slave, some that she converted to Islam, was freed, and was taken as a wife.)[13] Maria al-Qibtiyya (Arabic: مارية القبطية) (alternatively, especially in non-Arabic traditions, Maria Qupthiya), or Maria the Copt, was a Coptic Christian slave who was sent as a gift from Muqawqis, a Byzantine official, to the Islamic prophet Muhammad in 628 CE. According to most Islamic accounts, she was Muhammads wife. ... The word Copt signifies the natives of Egypt as a nationality, and in popular common culture in Egypt it is used to specifically signify Christian Egyptians, although its use to mean Egyptian is not unwitnessed. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


Death of Muhammad

Ibn Ishaq, in his Sirah Rasul Allah, states that during Muhammad's last illness, he sought Aisha's apartments and died with his head in her lap. The Sunni take this as evidence of Muhammad's fondness for Aisha. The Shia deny this, and say that Muhammad died with his head in Ali's lap.[14] Aisha never remarried after Muhammad's death. A passage in the Qur'an forbids any Muslim to marry a widow of Muhammad: Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... Sirah Rasul Allah (Life of the Apostle of God) or Sirat Nabawiyya (Life of the Prophet) (from Arabic سيرة) is the Arabic term used for the various traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad, from which most historical information about his life and the early period of Islam is derived. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ...

Nor is it right for you that ye should annoy God's Apostle, or that ye should marry his widows after him at any time. Truly such a thing is in God's sight an enormity.

Qur'an 33:53

After Muhammad

Aisha's father becomes the first caliph

After Muhammad's death in 632 AD, Aisha's father, Abu Bakr, became the first caliph, or leader of the Muslims. This matter of succession to Muhammad is extremely controversial to the Shi'aas. Shia believe that Ali had been chosen to lead by Muhammad; Sunni maintain that the community chose Abu Bakr, and did so in accordance with Muhammad's wishes. For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ...


Battle of Bassorah

Main article: Battle of Bassorah

Abu Bakr's reign was short, and in 634 AD he was succeeded by Umar, as caliph. Umar reigned for ten years, and was then followed by Uthman Ibn Affan in 644 AD. Both of these men had been among Muhammad's earliest followers, were linked to him by clanship and marriage, and had taken prominent parts in various military campaigns. Aisha, in the meantime, lived in Medina and made several pilgrimages to Mecca. Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces... ‘Usman ibn ‘Affān () (c. ...


In 656 Uthman was killed by rebellious Muslim soldiers. The rebels then asked Ali to be the new caliph. Many reports absolve Ali of complicity in the murder. He is reported to have refused the caliphate. He agreed to rule only after his followers persisted. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


Aisha raised an army which confronted Ali's army outside the city of Basra. Professor Leila Ahmed claims that it was during this engagement that Muslim slaughtered Muslim for the first time.[1] Battle ensued and Aisha's forces were defeated. Aisha was directing her forces from a howdah on the back of a camel; this 656 battle is therefore called the Battle of the Camel. This article is about the city of Basra. ... Leila Ahmed is an Egyptian American professor of Womens Studies and Religion at the Harvard Divinity School. ... A howdah, or houdah, is an ornate carriage which is positioned on the back of an elephant, or occasionally some other animal, used most often in the past for rich people who travelled in India via elephant. ...


Ali captured Aisha but declined to harm her. He sent her back to Medina under military escort. She lived a retired life until she died in approximately 678 under the reign of Muawiyah I. Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ...


Sunni and Shia views of Aisha

Sunni historians see Aisha as a learned woman, who tirelessly recounted stories from the life of Muhammad and explained Muslim history and traditions. She is considered to be one of the foremost scholars of Islam's early age with some historians accrediting up to one-quarter of the Islamic Sharia (Islamic religious law), based on the collection of hadiths, to have stemmed from her narrations. Aisha became the most prominent of Muhammad’s wives and is revered as a role model by millions of women.[1] This article is about Islamic religious law. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ...


Shia historians believe that Ali should have been the first caliph, and that the other three caliphs were usurpers. Aisha not only supported Umar, Uthman, and her father Abu Bakr, she also raised an army and fought against Ali, her step-son-in-law. Shia believe that she did wrong in rebelling against Ali.[15]


See also

Some of the Quranic verses are said to be revealed pertaining to some specific person. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muhammad (A.D. 570-632) is regarded by Muslims as the last prophet of God. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Marriage à-la-mode by William Hogarth: a satire on arranged marriages and prediction of ensuing disaster The purpose of an arranged marriage is to form a new family unit by marriage while respecting the chastity of all people involved. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Goodwin, Jan. Price of Honour: Muslim Women Lift the Veil of Silence on the Islamic World. UK: Little, Brown Book Group, 1994
  2. ^ a b c Watt, Aisha, Encyclopedia of Islam Online
  3. ^ Barlas (2002), p.125-126
  4. ^ Sahih Bukhari 5:58:234, 5:58:236, 7:62:64 7:62:65,7:62:88, Sahih Muslim 8:3309, 8:3310,8:3311,Sunnan Abu Dawud 41:4915, 41:4917
  5. ^ Tabari, Volume 9, Page 131; Tabari, Volume 7, Page 7
  6. ^ Watt, Muhammad, Oxford University Press 1961, page 102.
  7. ^ Surah 24:4
  8. ^ Surah 24:11
  9. ^ Watt, M "Aisha bint Abi Bakr". Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. Ed. P.J. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1573-3912. 
  10. ^ Glubb (2002), p. 264f.
  11. ^ Muhammad's Wives in the Books of al-Sira
  12. ^ Qur'an 66:1
  13. ^ Rodinson 1961, pp. 279-283
  14. ^ Death and Burial
  15. ^ Shia sources:
    a)Al Shafi, Vol. No. 2, Page No. 108
    b) Haqq-ul-Yaqeen, Page No. 139
    c) Hayat-ul-Quloob, Vol. No. 2, Page No. 901

The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan Abu Daud is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is the standard encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

References

  • Barlas, Asma .Believing Women in Islam: Unreading Patriarchal Interpretations of the Qur'an, University of Texas Press, 2002, ISBN 0292709048.*Guillaume, A. -- The Life of Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 1955
  • Rodinson, Maxime -- Muhammad, 1980 Random House reprint of English translation
  • Spellberg, D.A. -- Politics, Gender, and the Islamic Past: the Legacy of A'isha bint Abi Bakr, Columbia University Press, 1994
  • Aisha bint Abi Bakr, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, 2000
  • Rizvi, Syed Saeed Akhtar. -- The Life of Muhammad The Prophet, Darul Tabligh North America, 1971.

Asma Barlas is an author and a professor of politics at Ithaca College, New York. ... The University of Texas Press is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin. ...

External links

  • Biography of Aisha

  Results from FactBites:
 
Aisha - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1522 words)
Aisha is a controversial figure because of differing portrayals of her in Shi'a and Sunni versions of Islamic history and her role in the First Islamic civil war at the head of an army against Ali ibn Abu Talib in the Battle of Bassorah.
Aisha was the daughter of Abu Bakr of Mecca.
Aisha was directing her forces from a howdah on the back of a camel; this 656 battle is therefore called the Battle of the Camel.
Age of Aisha (ra) at time of marriage (3896 words)
Aisha was an exceptionally intelligent and astute woman, a young prodigy, and this was the main reason why she was got married to the Holy Prophet, as is clearly proved by events after the Holy Prophet’s life.
In view of these exceptional qualities of Aisha and the towering role played by her in the transmission of the teachings of Islam, it is simply preposterous and outrageous to suggest that she was the victim of some form of child and marital abuse.
The main accusations regarding the marriage of Aisha are that she was too young in age while the Holy Prophet was a much older man, being fifty years of age, and that consent to marriage was either not obtained from her or she was not capable of giving it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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