FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Airliner" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Airliner
An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica

An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. Such aircraft are usually operated by an airline which owns or leases the aircraft. An airliner of Air Jamaica, the Airbus A340-300 (6Y-JMM), landing at London (Heathrow) Airport. ... An airliner of Air Jamaica, the Airbus A340-300 (6Y-JMM), landing at London (Heathrow) Airport. ... For the road in England, see A340 road. ... Air Jamaica is the national airline of Jamaica based in Kingston, Jamaica, operating scheduled services from Kingston and Montego Bay to 23 destinations in the Caribbean, Canada, the USA and the United Kingdom. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... This article is about a property agreement in private law. ...


The official definition of an airliner varies from country to country, but the common definition is an aircraft with seating for 20 or more passengers and/or an empty weight above 22,680 kg (50,000 lb.), with two or more engines. Flying machine redirects here. ...

Contents

History of airliners

If an airliner is defined as a plane intended for carrying multiple passengers in commercial service, the Russian Sikorsky Ilya Muromets was the first passenger aircraft. The Ilya Muromets was a luxurious aircraft, it had an isolated passenger saloon, comfortable wicker chairs, bedroom, lounge and even a bathroom. The aircraft also had heating and electrical lighting. On December 10, 1913, the Ilya Muromets was tested in the air for the first time, and on February 25, 1914, took off for its first demonstration flight with 16 passengers aboard. From June 21-June 23, it made a round-trip from St Petersburg to Kiev in 14 hours and 38 minutes with just one landing. If it had not been for World War I, the Ilya Muromets would have probably started passenger flights that same year. The Ilya Muromets (Илья Муромец in Russian) was the first mass produced bomber aircraft in the world, a massive four-engined biplane that could penetrate deep into the enemy territory and drop a significant load of bombs. ... Cabin of a Boeing 737 (Economy class) with typical seating arrangement An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel, often just called the cabin. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... Not to be confused with lightning. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


The Ford Trimotor was the second known passenger aircraft. With two engines mounted on the wings and one in the nose and a slabsided body, it carried 8 passengers and was produced from 1925 to 1933. It was used by the predecessor to TWA as well as other airlines long after production ceased. In 1932 the 14 passenger DC-2 flew and in 1935 the more powerful, faster, 21-32 passenger DC-3. DC-3s were produced in quantity for WWII and sold as surplus afterward. Ford Trimotor G-CYWZ of the Royal Canadian Air Force. ... The Twa, also known as Batwa, are a pygmy people who were the oldest recorded inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of central Africa. ... The Douglas DC-2 was a 14-seat, twin-propeller airliner produced by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation starting in 1934. ... Douglas DC-3 VH-AES at Avalon in 2003. ...


Immediately after World War II, airliners were based on the heavy bombers of the war period. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The first jet airliners came in the immediate post war era. Turbojet engines were trialled on piston engine airframes such as the Avro Lancastrian and the Vickers VC.1 Viking the latter becoming the first jet engined passenger aircraft in April 1948. The first purpose built jet airliners were the de Havilland Comet (UK) and the Avro Jetliner (Canada). The former entered production and service while the latter did not. The Comet was unfortunate in that metal fatigue caused crashes. The de Havilland Comet 1, G-ALYP - The first production Comet. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s. ... Note: this is an artice about the Post World War Two twin-engined Vickers Viking airliner. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... Avro Canada C-102 Rolls-Royce Derwent Engine, used in the Avro Jetliner The C-102 Jetliner was a medium-range jet airliner built by Avro Canada in 1949. ...


Jets did not immediately replace piston engines and many designs used the turboprop rather than the turbojet or the later turbofan engines. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...


Types of airliners

Wide-body jets

The largest airliners are wide-body aircraft jets. These aircraft are frequently called twin-aisle aircraft because they generally have two separate aisles running from the front to the back of the passenger cabin. Aircraft in this category are the Boeing 747, Boeing 767, Boeing 777, Airbus A300/A310, Airbus A330, Airbus A340, Airbus A380, Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, McDonnell Douglas DC-10, McDonnell Douglas MD-11, Ilyushin Il-86 and Ilyushin Il-96. These aircraft are usually used for long-haul flights between airline hubs and major cities with many passengers. Future wide-body models include the Boeing 787 and Airbus A350. The European Airbus A380 is the worlds largest and broadest passenger aircraft A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with a fuselage diameter of 5 to 6 metres (16 to 20 ft). ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... American Airlines Boeing 767-300 at Gatwick Airport, England. ... The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... The Airbus A300 is a short to medium range widebody aircraft. ... The Airbus A310 is a medium to long-range widebody airliner manufactured by Airbus S.A.S. It was Airbus second model to be introduced, and is a shortened derivative of the A300. ... The Airbus A330 is a large-capacity, wide-body, medium-to-long-range commercial passenger airliner. ... For the road in England, see A340 road. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ... DC10 redirects here. ... The McDonnell Douglas MD-11 is an American three-engine medium to long-range widebody airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Il-86 of Pulkovo Aviation Enterprise at St. ... The Ilyushin Il-96 is a four-engined long-range Russian widebody airliner. ... The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a mid-sized, wide-body, twin engine jet airliner currently in production by Boeing Commercial Airplanes and scheduled to enter service in November 2008. ... “A350” redirects here. ...


Narrow-body jets

A smaller, more common class of airliners are the narrow-body aircraft or single aisle aircraft. These smaller airliners are generally used for medium-distance flights with fewer passengers than their wide-body counterparts. This Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 is an example of a narrow-body passenger cabin. ...


Examples include the Boeing 717, 737, 757, McDonnell Douglas DC-9 & MD-80/MD-90 series, Airbus A320 family, Tupolev Tu-204, Tu-214 and Tu-334. Older airliners like the Boeing 707, 727, McDonnell Douglas DC-8, Fokker F70/F100, VC10, Tupolev, and Yakovlev jets also fit into this category. The Boeing 717 is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner, developed for the 100-seat market. ... The Boeing 737 is an American short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... The Boeing 757 is an American short to medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. ... McDonnell Douglas MD-80 and MD-90 are twin-engine, medium-range, single-aisle commercial jet airplanes. ... A320 redirects here. ... The Tupolev Tu-204 is a twin-engined medium range Russian airliner capable of carrying 212 passengers. ... Tupolev Tu-214 is a medium range twin-engined Russian airliner. ... Tupolev Tu-334 The Tupolev Tu-334 is a Russian airliner currently under development to replace the aging Tu-134s in service around the world. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... The Fokker F70 is a 70 seat, twin engine regional jet airliner developed as a smaller version of the larger, 100 seat Fokker F100 jetliner. ... The Fokker F100 is a small twin-turbofan regional airliner from the Fokker company. ... The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers in the 1960s. ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... This page is about the aircraft design bureau and manufacturer. ...


Regional airliners

Regional airliners typically seat fewer than 100 passengers and may be powered by turbofans or turboprops. These airliners, though smaller than aircraft operated by major airlines, frequently serve customers who expect service similar to that offered by crew on larger aircraft. Therefore, most regional airliners are equipped with lavatories and have a flight attendant to look after the in-flight needs of the passengers. Flybe Bombardier Q400 Régional ERJ 145 operating for Air France A regional airliner is a small airliner designed to fly between 35 and 100 passengers from point to point, generally within one country. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ...


Typical aircraft in this category are the Embraer ERJ, Bombardier CRJ series and "Q" (DASH-8) series, ATR 42/72 and Saab 340/2000. Airlines and their partners sometimes use these for short flights between small hubs, or for bringing passengers to hub cities where they may board larger aircraft. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Bombardier CRJ (Canadair Regional Jet) is a family of regional airliner manufactured by Bombardier, and based on the Canadair Challenger business jet. ... A DeHavilland DHC-8-102 belonging to Air Inuit at Cornwall Ontario, May 2005 The de Havilland Canada DHC-8, popularly the Dash 8, is a series of twin-turboprop airliners designed by de Havilland Canada in the early 1980s. ... Categories: Stub | International airliners 1980-1989 ... The ATR 72 is a twin-turboprop short-haul regional airliner built in France by the ATR company (Avions de Transport gional). ... The Saab 340 is a two-engine turboprop aircraft designed and initially produced by a partnership between Saab and Fairchild in a 65:35 ratio. ... Carpatair Saab 2000. ...


Commuter aircraft

Passenger aircraft with 19 or fewer passenger seats are called commuter aircraft or air taxis, depending on their size, engines, and seating configurations. The Beechcraft 1900, for example, has only 19 seats. Depending on local and national regulations, a commuter aircraft may not qualify as an airliner and may not be subject to the regulations applied to larger aircraft. Members of this class of aircraft normally lack such amenities as lavatories and galleys and typically do not carry a flight attendant. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Air charter. ... The Beechcraft 1900 Beechliner is a 19-passenger, pressurized twin-engine turboprop airplane manufactured by the Beechcraft Division of the Raytheon Company (now Hawker Beechcraft}. It was designed as and is primarily used as a regional airliner. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


Other aircraft in this category are the Fairchild Metro, Jetstream 31/41, IPTN CN-235, and Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante. The Cessna Caravan, a single-engine turboprop, is sometimes used as a small airliner, although many countries stipulate a minimum requirement of two engines for aircraft to be used as airliners. This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Handley Page HP.137 Jetstream was a small twin turboprop airliner, with a pressurised fuselage, designed to meet the requirements of the United States feederliner and regional airline market. ... Eastern Airways BAe Jetstream 41 The Jetstream 41 is a turboprop-powered feederliner and regional airliner, originally designed by British Aerospace as a stretched version of the popular Handley Page Jetstream. ... The CN-235 is a medium-range turbo-prop aircraft developed jointly between CASA in Spain and IPTN in Indonesia as a regional airliner and military transport. ... EMB110 Bandeirante The EMBRAER EMB 110 Bandeirante is a general purpose 15-21 passenger twin-turboprop light transport aircraft suitable for military and civil duties. ... The Cessna 208 Caravan is a single turboprop short-haul regional airliner and utility aircraft built in the USA by Cessna. ...


Twin piston-engined aircraft made by Cessna, Piper, Britten-Norman, and Beechcraft are also in use as commuter aircraft. Cessna Aircraft Company, headquartered in Wichita, Kansas, is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, from small two-seat, single-engine aircraft to business jets. ... Piper Aircraft, Inc. ... Britten-Norman (officially the Britten-Norman Group or BNG) is a British aircraft manufacturer owned by members of the Zawawi family from the Sultanate of Oman, making it one of the UKs two remaining independent commercial aircraft producers, the other being Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside in Yorkshire. ... The Beech Aircraft Corporation, purchased by Raytheon Aircraft on February 8, 1980, and often called Beechcraft after the name they give their aircraft, is a manufacturer of general aviation and military aircraft, ranging from light single engine aircraft to business jets and light military transports. ...


Engines

Until the beginning of the jet age, piston engines were common on propliners like the Douglas DC-3. Now nearly all modern airliners are powered by turbine engines, either turbofans or turboprops. Gas turbine engines operate efficiently at much higher altitudes, are far more reliable than piston engines, and produce less vibration and noise. Prior to the jet age it was common for the same or very similar engines to be used in civilian airliners as in military aircraft. In recent years, divergence has occurred so that it is now unusual for the same engine to be used on a military type as a civilian type. Usually military aircraft which share engine technology with airliners are transports or tanker types. The jet age is a common description of an historical period beginning with the introduction of airliners powered by turbojets and turbofans for scheduled passenger service. ... Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... A propliner is a large, propeller-powered airliner. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... This machine has a single-stage centrifugal compressor and turbine, a recuperator, and foil bearings. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... Military aircraft are airplanes used in warfare. ...


Airliner variants

Some variants of airliners have been developed for carrying freight or for luxury corporate use. Many airliners have also been modified for government use as "VIP" transports and for military functions such as airborne tankers (for example, the Vickers VC-10, Lockheed L1011, Boeing 707), air ambulance (USAF/USN McDonnell-Douglas DC-9), reconnaissance (Embraer ERJ 145, Saab 340, Boeing 737), as well as for troop-carrying roles. Business jet, private jet or, in slang, bizjet is a term describing a jet aircraft, usually of modest size, designed for transporting small groups of business people for commercial reasons at a time convenient to their business needs. ... The VC-10 airliner was designed and built by Vickers (part of the British Aircraft Corporation) in the 1960s. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 aircraft which was modified in Cambridge, UK, by Marshall Aerospace The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... USN redirects here. ... McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliner. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Saab 340 is a two-engine turboprop aircraft designed and initially produced by a partnership between Saab and Fairchild in a 65:35 ratio. ... The Boeing 737 is an American short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ...


Manufacturers

Front view of a landing Turkmenistan Airlines Boeing 757 airliner

These include: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1029, 529 KB) Front view of a Turkmenistan Airlines Boeing 757 landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1029, 529 KB) Front view of a Turkmenistan Airlines Boeing 757 landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Turkmenistan Airlines is the national airline of Turkmenistan. ... The Boeing 757 is an American short to medium range commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ...

The international market for middle-sized and large-sized airliners is now divided between Airbus and Boeing. Smaller-sized aircraft manufacturers include, in addition to these two, ATR, Embraer and Bombardier. The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Douglas Aircraft Company was founded by Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. ... DC-10, retired from American Airlines fleet at gate McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is a leading multinational aerospace manufacturer and advanced technology company formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ... For other uses, see Bombardier (disambiguation). ... The de Havilland Canada company was an innovative aircraft manufacturer with facilities based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Embraer, the Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. is a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Tupolev (Russian: Туполев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company. ... Ilyushin (Russian: Илью́шин) is a Russian (formerly Soviet) aircraft manufacturer (design office prefix Il), founded by Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin. ... Private Antonov AN-2 in the UK Antonov, aka Antonov Aeronautical Scientific/Technical Complex (Antonov ASTC) (Ukrainian: ) is a Ukraine-based (since 1952) aircraft manufacturing and services company (design office prefix An) with particular expertise in the field of very large aircraft construction. ... Sukhoi (pronounced [suk-oi]) (Сухой) is a major Russian military fighter aircraft manufacturer. ... This page is about the aircraft design bureau and manufacturer. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Airbus S.A.S. is a commercial aircraft manufacturer based in Toulouse, France. ... The Italian-French based aircraft manufacturer Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de Transport Régional (ATR) was formed in 1981, from the consortium formed by Aérospatiale of France (now EADS) and Aeritalia (now Alenia Aeronautica), of Italy. ... Fokker was a Dutch aircraft manufacturer named after its founder, Anthony Fokker. ... For the manufacturer of Saab cars, see Saab Automobile. ... Britten-Norman (officially the Britten-Norman Group or BNG) is a British aircraft manufacturer owned by members of the Zawawi family from the Sultanate of Oman, making it one of the UKs two remaining independent commercial aircraft producers, the other being Slingsby Aviation of Kirkbymoorside in Yorkshire. ... BAE Systems plc is the worlds third largest defence contractor,[3] the largest in Europe and a commercial aerospace manufacturer. ... Let Kunovice (Kunovice is a location) is a Czech (formerly Czechoslovak) civil aircraft manufacturer. ... This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... The Boeing Company (NYSE: BA, TYO: 7661) is a major aerospace and defense corporation, originally founded by William Edward Boeing. ... The Italian-French based aircraft manufacturer Aerei da Trasporto Regionale or Avions de Transport Régional (ATR) was formed in 1981, from the consortium formed by Aérospatiale of France (now EADS) and Aeritalia (now Alenia Aeronautica), of Italy. ... Embraer, the Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A. is a Brazilian aircraft manufacturer. ... For other uses, see Bombardier (disambiguation). ...


(This list may be incomplete.)


Notable disputes

The large (100 seat or greater) airliner market is dominated by two companies: Airbus, a Western European aviation manufacturer (part of EADS, an aerospace company), and Boeing, based in the United States. With the emergence of Airbus as a competitor to Boeing, both companies, backed by their respective governments (the European Union and European governments on one side, the US government on the other side), have recently been engaged in trade disputes. Each side accuses the other of being unfairly subsidized by their respective governments. Owing to its origin as a combination of state-owned aviation enterprises, Airbus receives a significant portion of its operating budget directly from European governments, ostensibly as loans, but without the obligation to repay them. On the other hand, Boeing gets research and development funding from NASA and the US Department of Defense, tax breaks (which all similar US companies receive), and a large volume of military orders, all of which Airbus views as indirect subsidies. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS N.V. (EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation, formed by the merger on July 10, 2000 of Aérospatiale-Matra of France, Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain, and DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG (DASA) of Germany. ... In economics, a subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by a government to lower the price faced by producers or consumers of a good, generally because it is considered to be in the public interest. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to their main headquarters in Europe and the United States, both Airbus and Boeing use subcontractors from many countries. For example, Boeing has long had major components built by companies in Japan with various subsystems coming from Europe and Asia. Airbus aircraft are often equipped with engines, auxiliary power units, and electronic systems built in the US. Thus, while both companies may try to present themselves as strictly national entities, the airliners they build are composed of components manufactured across the globe. The APU exhaust at the tail end of an Airbus A380 An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle whose purpose is to provide energy for functions other than propulsion. ...


Famous airliners

  • The Douglas DC-3 - considered by many to be the first true airliner
  • The triple-tailed Lockheed Constellation of the 1950s
  • The De Havilland Comet - the first jet airliner in service
  • The Sud Caravelle - the first successful jet airliner.
  • The Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 - The first American-built jetliners
  • The Boeing 727 - one of the most successful airliners
  • The Douglas DC-10 and Lockheed L-1011 TriStar - one of the first wide-bodies
  • The Douglas DC-9 - more than 1000 built. Many still in service.
  • The Boeing 737 - the best selling civilian jet airliner
  • The Airbus A320- Pioneer of fly-by-wire
  • The Concorde - flew at twice the speed of sound and operated from 1976 to 2003 by British Airways and Air France
  • The Boeing 747 "jumbo jet" - the largest airliner between 1968 and 2005
  • The Boeing 777 - the first airliner designed entirely by computer (no mockups were used)
  • The Airbus A380 "superjumbo" - The world's largest airliner, featuring two full-length twin-aisle passenger cabins, started service with Singapore Airlines in October 2007.
  • The Boeing 787 - "dreamliner" - Boeing's latest long haul jet touted as the most fuel efficient and environmentally friendly commercial jet in its size (mid sized 210-330 passenger planes). Expected to be in service in late 2008.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1228, 134 KB) Qantas Boeing 747-400 (VH-OJL) landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1228, 134 KB) Qantas Boeing 747-400 (VH-OJL) landing at London Heathrow Airport, England. ... Qantas (Qantas Airways Limited) (IPA: ) is the name and callsign of the national airline of Australia. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... The Douglas DC-3 is a fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft, which revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s and is generally regarded as one of the most significant transport aircraft ever made (also see Boeing 707 and Boeing 747). ... The Lockheed Constellation, affectionately known as the “Connie”, was a four-engine propeller-driven airliner built by Lockheed between 1943 and 1958 at its Burbank, California, USA, facility. ... the first thing that was invented was the automatic DILDO. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... Sud Aviation Caravelle The SE 210 Caravelle was the first short/medium-range jet airliner, produced by the French Sud Aviation firm starting in 1955 (when it was still known as SNCASE). ... The Boeing 707 is an American four-engine commercial passenger jet airliner developed by Boeing in the early 1950s. ... The Douglas DC-8 is a four-engined jet airliner, manufactured between 1959 and 1972. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... Orbital Sciences Stargazer Lockheed L-1011 The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to reach the marketplace, following the Boeing 747 jumbo jet and the Douglas DC-10. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names. ... The Boeing 737 is an American short to medium range, single aisle, narrow body jet airliner. ... The Airbus A320 family of short-to-medium range commercial passenger aircraft are manufactured by Airbus S.A.S.. Family members include the A318, A319, A320, and A321, as well as the ACJ business jet. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The basic fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1976: Events March March 17 - a Japan Air Lines Boeing 747 makes the first non-stop flight from Tokyo to New York, taking 11. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 2003: Events February 1The Space Shuttle Columbia disintegrates, killing all seven occupants. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... Air France (formally Société Air France) is an airline based in Paris, France, and a subsidiary of Air France-KLM Group. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1968: Events January January 21 - a US Air Force B-52 Stratofortress crashes in the sea near Thule AFB Greenland, carrying four nuclear weapons. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 2005: // Events January January 29 - Nonstop flights between mainland China and Taiwan take off for the first time since 1949. ... The Boeing 777 is an American long-range wide-body twin-engine airliner built by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... Singapore Airlines Limited (Abbreviation: SIA; Chinese: ; pinyin: , abbreviated 新航; Malay: ; Tamil: ) (SGX: S55) is the national airline of Singapore. ... The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a mid-sized, wide-body, twin engine jet airliner currently in production by Boeing Commercial Airplanes and scheduled to enter service in November 2008. ...

Airliner recycling

As airliners are very expensive, most are leased out for times typically from 20 to 40 years. Very few go back into service after a long lease is up because evolving aerospace technology leaves older airliners unable to compete against newer machines that can be operated at a lower cost. Many end-of-service airliners end up in the Mojave Desert, at the Mojave Spaceport (also known as "The Airplane Boneyard"). From this, the term "Mojave" has come to refer to the temporary storage of aircraft, e.g. during decreased demand for air travel and between short-term leases. Another common location to retire airliners is Marana, Arizona. Luxair Embraer ERJ-145 (LX-LGX) landing at London (Heathrow) Airport in August 2004. ... Luxair Embraer ERJ-145 (LX-LGX) landing at London (Heathrow) Airport in August 2004. ... Luxair (Luxair Société Luxembourgeoise de Navigation Aérienne SA) is the national airline of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... The Mojave Spaceport (IATA: MHV, ICAO: KMHV) , also known as the Mojave Airport and Civilian Aerospace Test Center, is located in Mojave, California, at an elevation of 2,791 feet. ... Marana is a town located in Pima County, Arizona. ...


While eventually almost every airliner will be reduced to scrap (the exceptions end up as museum pieces or flown by collector groups) they may pass through many owners before they are retired. A well-maintained airliner can operate safely for decades, depending on how often it is flown, its operating environment, and whether damage and wear and tear is properly repaired.


What may end an airliner's working life is a lack of spare parts, as the original manufacturer and third manufacturers may no longer provide or support them. Corrosion and metal fatigue are other issues that become more expensive to deal with as time goes on. Eventually, these factors and advances in aircraft technology lead to older airliners becoming too expensive or inefficient to operate. For the hazard, see corrosive. ... This article is about a computer game. ...


In order to protect the environment, the Airbus company has set up a special centre in France to decommission and recycle older aircraft. More than 200 airliners will finish active life each year, and will be dismantled and recycled under the newly established PAMELA Project. This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Cabin configurations

Interior of a Qatar Airways Airbus. A couple of video Systems (the vertical white panels) are visible above the very centre seats of the aircraft
Boarding an Airbus 380 at the Farnborough Air Show, 2006

An airliner may have several classes of seating: first class, business class, and/or economy class (which may be referred to as coach class or tourist class, and sometimes has a separate "premium" economy section with more legroom and amenities). The seats in more expensive classes are wider, more comfortable, and have more amenities such as "lie flat" seats for more comfortable sleeping on long flights. Generally, the more expensive the class, the better the beverage and meal service. Image File history File links Flight-interior. ... Image File history File links Flight-interior. ... Qatar Airways (Arabic: القطرية) is an airline based in Doha, Qatar. ... This article is about the airliner manufacturer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (780x1000, 113 KB) Taken and donated by John Mullen I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (780x1000, 113 KB) Taken and donated by John Mullen I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The Airbus A380 manufactured by Airbus S.A.S. is a double-decker, four engined airliner capable of flying 800 passengers in a high density format or 555 passengers in a typical three-class configuration. ... Farnborough 2006 Farnborough 2006 The Red Arrows in formation at Farnborough The Airbus A380, at Farnborough The Farnborough International Airshow is a seven-day international trade fair for the aerospace business which is held biannually in England. ... Executive class cabin in Indian (airline), the higher of the two classes offered First Class travel is a particularly high quality travel class offered by passenger airlines, railways and shipping companies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Domestic flights generally have a two-class configuration, usually first or business class and coach class, although many airlines instead offer all-economy seating. International flights generally have either a two-class configuration or a three-class configuration, depending on the airline, route and aircraft type. Many airliners offer movies or audio/video on demand (this is standard in first and business class on many international flights and may be available on economy). Cabins of any class are provided with lavatory facilities (see board toilets). In-flight entertainment (IFE) refers to the entertainment available to aircraft passengers during a flight. ... Bord toilet of an aircraft (Airbus). ...

Main article: aircraft cabin

Cabin of a Boeing 737 (Economy class) with typical seating arrangement An aircraft cabin is the section of an aircraft in which passengers travel, often just called the cabin. ...

Seats

Main article: Airline seat

The types of seats that are provided and how much legroom is given to each passenger are decisions made by the individual airlines, not the aircraft manufacturers. Seats are mounted in "tracks" on the floor of the cabin and can be moved back and forth by the maintenance staff or removed altogether. Naturally the airline tries to maximize the number of seats available in every aircraft to carry the largest possible (and therefore most profitable) number of passengers. Business class seat in a Lufthansa Boeing 747-400 Control screen fixed to the back side of an economy class airline seat (Airbus), the tray is stowed Airline seats are chairs on an airliner in which passengers are accommodated for the duration of the journey. ...


Passengers seated in an exit row (the row of seats adjacent to an emergency exit) usually enjoy substantially more legroom than those seated in the remainder of the cabin, while the seats directly in front of the exit row may have less legroom and may not even recline (for evacuation safety reasons). However, passengers seated in an exit row may be required to assist cabin crew during an emergency evacuation of the aircraft opening the emergency exit and assisting fellow passengers to the exit. As a precaution, many airlines prohibit young people under the age of 15 from being seated in the exit row [1]. Emergency Exit, by Manlio Santanelli, is a play written originally in Italian. ...


The seats are designed to withstand strong forces so as not to break or come loose from their floor tracks during turbulence or accidents. The backs of seats are often equipped with a fold-down tray for eating, writing, or as a place to set up a portable computer, or a music or video player. Seats without another row of seats in front of them have a tray that is either folded into the armrest or that clips into brackets on the underside of the armrests. However, seats in premium cabins generally have trays in the armrests or clip-on trays, regardless of whether there is another row of seats in front of them. Seatbacks now often feature small color LCD screens for videos, television and video games. Controls for this display as well as an outlet to plug in audio headsets are normally found in the armrest of each seat. In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... LCD redirects here. ...


Overhead bins

The overhead bins are used for stowing carry-on baggage and other items. While the airliner manufacturer will normally supply a standard product, airlines may choose to have bins of differing size, shape, or color installed. Over time, these bins evolved out of what were originally overhead shelves used for little more than coat and briefcase storage. As concerns about falling debris during turbulence or in accidents increased, enclosed bins became the norm. Bins have increased in size in order to accommodate the larger carry-on baggage passengers may bring onto the aircraft. New bin designs may include a handrail, useful when moving through the cabin.


Passenger service units

Above the passenger seats are Passenger Service Units (PSU). These typically contain a reading light, air vent, and a flight attendant call button. The units frequently have small "Fasten Seat Belt" and "No Smoking" illuminated signage and may also contain a speaker for the cabin public address system.


The PSU will also normally contain the drop-down oxygen masks which are activated if there is a sudden drop in cabin pressure. These are supplied with oxygen by means of a chemical oxygen generator. By using a chemical reaction rather than a connection to an oxygen tank, these devices supply breathing oxygen for long enough for the airliner to descend to thicker, more breathable air. Oxygen generators do generate considerable heat in the process. Because of this, the oxygen generators are thermally shielded and are only allowed in commercial airliners when properly installed - they are not permitted to be loaded as freight on passenger-carrying flights. ValuJet Flight 592 crashed on May 11, 1996 as a result of improperly loaded chemical oxygen generators. A chemical oxygen generator is a device that releases oxygen created by a chemical reaction. ... ValuJet Flight 592 was a flight that crashed on May 11, 1996 en route from Miami International Airport in Miami, Florida to Hartsfield International Airport (now known as Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport) in Atlanta, Georgia. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Baggage holds

Loading luggage at Boston Logan Airport, during a temporary closure due to heavy snow falls

Airliners must have space on board to store baggage that will not safely fit in the passenger cabin. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Designed to hold baggage as well as freight, these compartments are called "cargo bins", "holds", or occasionally "pits". Occasionally "baggage holds may be referred to as cargo decks on the largest of aircraft. These compartments can be accessed through doors on the outside of the aircraft. Despite what is seen in many movies, access doors between passenger cabins and baggage holds are rare in current modern airliners.


Depending on the aircraft, baggage holds are normally pressurized just like the passenger cabin although they may not be heated. While lighting is normally installed for use by the loading crew, typically the compartment is unlit when the door is closed.


Baggage holds on modern airliners are equipped with fire detection equipment and larger aircraft have automated or remotely activated fire-fighting devices installed.


Narrow-body airliners

Most "narrow-body" airliners with more than 100 seats have space below the cabin floor, while smaller aircraft often have a special compartment separate from the passenger area but on the same level. This Southwest Airlines Boeing 737 is an example of a narrow-body passenger cabin. ...


Baggage is normally stacked within the bin by hand, sorted by destination category. Netting that fits across the width of the bin is secured to limit movement of the bags. Airliners often carry items of freight and mail. These may be loaded separately from the baggage or mixed in if they are bound for the same destination. For securing bulky items "hold down" rings are provided to tie items into place. Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... For other uses, see Mail (disambiguation). ...


Wide-body airliners

"Wide-body", or "jumbo jets", frequently have a compartment like the ones described above, typically called a "bulk bin". It is normally used for late arriving luggage or bags which may have been checked at the gate. The European Airbus A380 is the worlds largest and broadest passenger aircraft A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with a fuselage diameter of 5 to 6 metres (16 to 20 ft). ... The Boeing 747, which is also known as the jumbo jet, is the second largest passenger airliner after the Airbus A380. ...


However, most baggage and loose freight items are loaded into containers called Unit Load Devices (ULDs), often referred to as "cans". ULDs come in a variety of sizes and shapes, but the most common model is the LD-3. This particular container has approximately the same height as the cargo compartment and fits across half of its width. ULD Type AKH Unit Load Devices, or ULDs, are pallets and containers used to load luggage, freight, and mail on wide-body aircraft and specific narrow-body aircraft. ...


ULDs are loaded with baggage and are transported to the aircraft on dolly carts and loaded into the baggage hold by a loader designed for the task. By means of belts, rollers and drive wheels, an operator can maneuver the ULD from the dolly cart, up to the aircraft baggage hold door, and into the aircraft. Inside the hold, the floor is also equipped with drive wheels and rollers that an operator inside can use to move the ULD properly into place. Locks in the floor are used to hold the ULD in place during flight. Belt can refer to the following objects: Look up belt in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Genera Coracias Eurystomus The Rollers are an Old World family of near passerine birds. ... A drive wheel is a wheel in an automotive vehicle that receives power from the power train. ...


For consolidated freight loads, like a pallet of boxes or an item too oddly shaped to fit into a container, flat metal pallets that resemble large baking sheets that are compatible with the loading equipment are used.


See also

A Tarom Boeing 737-300 and a United Airlines Boeing 777-200 taxi side by side at London Heathrow Airport. ... A non-comprehensive list of modern civilian aircraft with descriptions. ... Aircraft spotting or Plane spotting is the enjoyment, observation and photography of aircraft: gliders, powered aircraft, large balloons, airships, helicopters, and microlights. ... Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ... This is a list for civilian airliners (including army-civilian cargos, so C-5 Galaxy is excluded) sorted by Maximum Takeoff Weight. ...

External links and references

  • Boeing
  • Airbus (EADS)
  • Embraer
  • Bombardier
  • ATR
  • Canadian Air Transport Security Authority (CATSA) official website
  • Airliners.net

  Results from FactBites:
 
l a b r a d o r | airliner | (87 words)
On record, this lonely man called himself Airliner.
Airliner will enter the Summersound Studios in May to record his debut album.
The album will be produced by Johan Angergård {Club 8} and is scheduled for an autumn release.
Airliner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2336 words)
Therefore, most regional airliners are equipped with lavatories and have a flight attendant to look after the in-flight needs of the passengers.
As airliners are very expensive, most are leased out for long periods of time (typically from 20 to 40 years) and very few go back into service after a long lease is up because evolving aerospace technology leaves older airliners unable to compete against newer machines that can be operated at a lower cost.
An airliner may have several classes of seating: first class, business class, and/or economy class (which may be referred to as coach class, and sometimes has a separate "premium" section with more legroom and amenities).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m