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Encyclopedia > Aircraft hijacking
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Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847

Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. In most cases the pilot is forced to fly according to the orders of the hijackers. Terrorist redirects here. ... Few words are as politically or emotionally charged as terrorism. ... Bold text Although there are earlier related examples, the history of terrorism in the modern sense seems to have emerged around the mid 19th-century. ... International conventions on terrorism set out obligations of states in respect to defining international counter terrorist offences, prosecuting individuals suspected of such offences, extraditing such persons upon request, and providing mutual legal assistance upon request. ... Anti-terrorism legislation designs all types of laws passed in the purported aim of fighting terrorism. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... This article is about U.S. actions after September 11, 2001. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of terrorist organizations. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Agro-terrorism is a controversial neologism used to describe threats by a terrorist act on the food chain. ... Propaganda of the deed (or propaganda by the deed, from the French propagande par le fait) is a concept of anarchist origin, which appeared towards the end of the 19th century, that promoted terrorism against political enemies as a way of inspiring the masses and catalyzing revolution. ... Bioterrorism is terrorism using germ warfare, an intentional human release of a naturally-occurring or human-modified toxin or biological agent. ... Christian terrorism is terrorism carried out in the name of furthering Christian goals or teachings. ... Cyber-terrorism is the leveraging of a targets computers and information technology, particularly via the Internet, to cause physical, real-world harm or severe disruption. ... Communist terrorism is terrorism carried out in the name of furthering Communist goals or teachings. ... The term eco-terrorism is a neologism used to describe threats and/or acts of violence (both against people and against property), sabotage, vandalism, property damage and intimidation committed in the name of environmentalism. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Narcoterrorism is a term coined by former President Belaunde Terry of Peru in 1983 when describing terrorist-type attacks against his nations anti-narcotics police. ... Nationalist terrorism is a form of terrorism through which participants attempt to form an independent state against what they consider an occupying, imperial, or otherwise illegitimate state. ... Nuclear terrorism can be used to describe any of the following terrorist assaults: Use of nuclear weapons against a target Use of a radiological weapon or dirty bomb against a target. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Terrorism. ... 15:40, 25 January 2007 (UTC)168. ... Religious terrorism refers to terrorism justified or motivated by religion and is a form of religious violence. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... State-sponsored terrorism (SST) is a political term used to refer to finance/bounties, equipment and intelligence material given across international boundaries to terrorist organizations and the families of deceased militants for the purpose of conducting or rewarding attacks on civilians. ... This article describes techniques and tactics associated with terrorism. ... Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck. ... A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker (attacker being either an individual or a group) intends to kill others and intends to die in the process of doing so (see suicide). ... A terrorist front organization is created to conceal activities or provide logistical or financial support to the illegal activities. ... According to the Anti-Defamation League The term Lone-wolf (Lone-wolf activism to proponents, Lone-wolf terrorism to opponents) was popularized by white supremacists Alex Curtis and Tom Metzger in the late 1990s: [On Curtis:] Curtis encouraged fellow racists to act alone in committing violent crimes so that they... TWA 847 June 14 1985 Athens, 2 Hijackers inside flightdeck with Capt. ... TWA 847 June 14 1985 Athens, 2 Hijackers inside flightdeck with Capt. ... Two hijackers in the cockpit with Captain Testrake TWA Flight 847 was an international Trans World Airlines flight which was hijacked by Organization for the Oppressed of the Earth, a group with alleged links to Hezbollah, on Friday morning, June 14, 1985, while flying from Athens, Greece to Rome, Italy. ... Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Alternatively one of the hijackers flies the plane himself. The latter was the case in the September 11, 2001 attacks; hijackers took flying lessons as preparation, or were selected by Al-Qaeda based partly on flying skills. A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ...


In one case the official pilot hijacked the plane: in October, 1998, on an Air China flight from Beijing to Kunming in Yunnan, he flew to Taiwan after threatening to crash the plane killing the passengers if the other members of the crew prevented him from flying to Taiwan.[1][2] Not to be confused with China Airlines, the national airline of the Republic of China. ... Beijing (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: BÄ›ijÄ«ng; IPA: ;  ), a metropolis in northern China, is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Lake Dianchi An old wooden house and a modern skyscraper in the background. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


Unlike the hijacking of land vehicles or ships, skyjacking is usually not perpetrated in order to rob the cargo. Rather, most aircraft hijackings are committed to use the passengers as hostages in an effort to obtain transportation to a given location, to hold them for ransom, or, as in the case of the American planes that were hijacked to Cuba during the 1960s and 70s, the release of comrades being held in prison. Another common motive is publicity for some cause or grievance. Since the use of hijacked planes as suicide missiles in September 11, 2001 attacks, hijacking is a different kind of security threat — though similar usages had apparently been attempted by Samuel Byck in 1974 and on Air France Flight 8969 in 1994. Police often train to recover hostages taken by force, as in this exercise For the 2005 film, see Hostage (film). ... The term ransom refers to the practice of holding a prisoner to extort money or property extorted to secure their release, or to the sum of money involved. ... Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba reached their peak in 1969. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing Look up publicity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Samuel Byck Samuel Joseph Byck (January 30, 1930 – February 22, 1974) was an unemployed former tire salesman who attempted to hijack a plane from Baltimore-Washington International Airport on February 22, 1974. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969, AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


Hijackings for hostages have usually followed a pattern of negotiations between the hijackers and the authorities, followed by some form of settlement -- not always the meeting of the hijackers' original demands -- or the storming of the aircraft by armed police or special forces to rescue the hostages. Prior to September, 2001, the policy of most airlines was for the pilot to comply with hijackers' demands in the hope of a peaceful outcome. Since then, policies have reversed course, in favor of arming and armoring the cockpit.


Options for preventing hijacking include screening to keep weapons off the airplane, putting air marshals on the flight, and fortifying the cockpit to keep hijackers out. The Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS) is a law enforcement agency of the United States federal [[Government of the United States|government] and chicago bears]. The Air Marshal service is meant to promote confidence in civil aviation by effectively deploying Federal Air Marshals (FAMs) and Federal Flight Deck Officers...

Contents

Background

The first recorded aircraft hijack was on February 21, 1931, in Arequipa, Peru. Byron Rickards flying a Ford Tri-Motor was approached on the ground by armed revolutionaries. He refused to fly them anywhere and after a ten day stand-off Rickards was informed that the revolution was successful and he could go in return for giving one of their number a lift to Lima. Most hijackings have not been so farcical. The first hijack of a commercial airliner probably happened on July 16, 1948, when a failed attempt to gain control of the Miss Macao, a seaplane of a Cathay Pacific subsidiary company, caused it to crash into the sea off Macau. On June 30 1948, a Bulgarian commercial Junkers plane was successfully hijacked to Istanbul by a discharged diplomat and his family, who had to shoot dead the co-pilot (who happened to be the head of Bulgaria's civil aviation) and the radio operator in order to escape to the West. On September 12, 1948 a Greek T.A.E Airlines plane was successfully hijacked by 6 pro-communist students who wanted passage to Yugoslavia. The plane landed near Skopje and returned to Thessaloniki later that evening. February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Nickname: La Ciudad Blanca (The White City) Location of the city of Arequipa in Peru Coordinates: Country Peru Region Arequipa Province Arequipa Established 15 August 1540 Government  - Mayor Yamel Romero Peralta Area  - City 9,862. ... The Ford Trimotor was a three engine civil transport aircraft first produced in 1926 by Henry Ford and continued until about 1931. ... Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... July 16 is the 197th day (198th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 168 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Miss Macao was a Catalina seaplane, owned and operated by Cathay Pacific on June 16th, 1948 it became the victim of the first air hijacking. ... Cathay Pacific Airways (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; abbreviation: 國泰/国泰) (SEHK: 0293) is an airline based in Hong Kong, operating scheduled passenger and cargo services to over 90 destinations world-wide. ... Junkers & Co was a major German aircraft manufacturer. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... September 12 is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Olympic Airlines Boeing 737 Olympic Airlines (Ολυμπιακές Αερογραμμές - O.A.) is the state-run, flag carrier of Greece. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in Latin, Југославија in Cyrillic, English: Land of the South Slavs) describes four political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Skopje (Macedonian: ) is the capital and largest city in the Republic of Macedonia, with more than a quarter of the population of the country, as well as the political, cultural, economical and academic centre of the country. ... Thessaloniki, (Greek: Θεσσαλονίκη), is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia and the periphery of Central Macedonia. ...


The first state-hijacking of an airplane is Israel's hijacking of a Syrian airways civilian jet in 1954, with the intent "to get hostages in order to obtain the release of our prisoners in Damascus," who had been captured spying in Syria (Prime Minister Moshe Sharett). Sharett accepted the "factual affirmation of the US State Department that our action was without precedent in the history of international practice." 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Moshe Sharett (Hebrew: משה שרת); born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew: משה שרתוק), (October 15, 1894 – July 7, 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954-1955), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurions two terms. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


Since 1947, 60% of hijackings have been refugee escapes. In 1968-69 there was a massive rise in the number of hijackings. In 1968 there were 27 hijackings and attempted hijackings to Cuba. In 1969 there were 82 recorded hijack attempts worldwide, more than twice the total attempts for the whole period 1947-67. Some were Palestinians using hijacks as a political weapon to publicise their cause and to force the Israeli government to release Palestinian prisoners from jail. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Airliner hijackings have declined since the peak of 385 incidents between 1967-76. In 1977-86 the total had dropped to 300 incidents and in 1987-96 this figure was reduced to 212.


List of well-known hijackings

  • 1958 November 1: First Cuba-to-U.S. hijacking. A Cubana en route from Miami to Varadero to Havana was hijacked by Cuban militants. The hijackers were trying to land at Sierra Cristal in Eastern Cuba to deliver weapons to Raúl Castro's rebels. As night approached, eventually the plane ran out of fuel and tried an emergency landing at the Preston sugar mill, it did not make it and instead landed in the ocean breaking apart killing most passengers and crew.[3]
  • 1970 May 15: Dymshits-Kuznetsov hijacking affair, a group of Soviet refuseniks attempt to hijack aircraft
  • 1970, September: As part of the Dawson's Field hijackings, PFLP members attempt to hijack four aircraft simultaneously. They succeed on three and force the planes to fly to the Jordanian desert, where the hijackers blow up the aircraft after releasing most of the hostages. The final hostages are freed in exchange for seven Palestinian prisoners. The fourth attack on an El Al plane by two people including Leila Khalid is foiled by armed guards aboard.
  • 1971: D. B. Cooper hijacks Northwest Orient Airlines flight 305 and obtains $200,000 ransom for the release of the plane's passengers. Cooper proceeds to parachute from the rear of the Boeing 727 and is never found.
  • 1972 November 15: First airline hijacking in Australia. A lone hijacker armed with a .22 sawn-off rifle and a knife in flight on Ansett Airlines flight 232 from Adelaide to Alice Springs with 28 passengers and a crew of 4. Followed by gun battle at Alice Springs Airport resulting in the death of the hijacker Miloslav Hrabinec and a police officer critically wounded.
  • 1976: The Palestinian hijack of Air France Flight 139 is brought to an end at Entebbe Airport, Uganda by Operation Entebbe: Israeli commandos assault the building holding the hijackers and hostages killing all Palestinian hijackers and rescuing 105 persons, almost all Israeli hostages; three passengers and one commando are killed.
  • 1978: Two Arab guerrillas seized a plane in Cyprus. Egyptian commandos flew in uninvited to try to take the plane. Cypriot troops resisted and 15 Egyptians died in a 45-minute battle.
  • 1979 June 20 and June 21: An American Airlines flight from New York to Chicago was hijacked by Nikola Kavaja, a Serbian nationalist, demanding the release of a jailed fellow nationalist. Unable to secure his comrade's release, the hijacker released all hostages except for the pilot, co-pilot and one flight attendant. They flew from Chicago back to New York where he transferred to a Boeing 707, which flew to Ireland where the hijacker surrendered and was returned to the United States for trial. Weapon used was a home-made bomb. There were no casualties.[4][5]
  • 1981: A Pakistan International Airlines jet is hijacked and taken to Kabul, where one passenger is killed before the plane flies on to Damascus; the hostages are finally released after 13 days when the Pakistani Government agrees to free fifty political prisoners.
  • 1981: The Hijacking of Flight Garuda Indonesia GA 206 on 28 March 1981. This was the first serious Indonesian airline hijacking, since the first case was a desperate Marine hijacker who was killed by the pilot himself. The hijackers, a group called Commando Jihad, hijacked the DC 9 "Woyla", onroute from Palembang to Medan, and ordered the pilot to fly the plane to Colombo, Sri Lanka. But since the plane didn't have enough fuel, it refueled in Penang, Malaysia and then to Don Muang, Thailand. The hijackers demanded the release of Commando Jihad members imprisoned in Indonesia, and US $ 1.5 million, as well as a plane to take those prisoners to an unspecified destination. The Kopassus commandos who took part in this mission trained for only three days with totally unfamiliar weapons, brilliantly executed this fast-paced operation. One of the Kopassus commandos was shot by the hijacker leader, who then shot himself. All the other hijackers were killed. All the hostages were saved.
  • 1981 An Aer Lingus flight from Dublin to London was hijacked and diverted to Le Touquet in France by a man demanding that the Pope release the third secret of Fatima. While authorities negotiated with the hijacker by radio in the cockpit, French special forces entered the rear of the aircraft and overpowered him.
  • 1982 July 1: A Sri Lankan, identified as Sepala Ekanayaka, who was 33 years old, hijacked an Alitalia jumbo jet from Bangkok, Thailand, in order to be united with his wife and child and to return to Sri Lanka.
  • 1982 August 22: A lone Sikh militant, armed with a pistol and a hand grenade, hijacked a Boeing 737 on a scheduled flight from Bombay to New Delhi carrying 69 persons. Indian security forces killed the hijacker and rescued all passengers.
  • 1984 August 24: Seven young Sikh hijackers demanded an Indian Airlines jetliner flying from Delhi to Srinagar[6] be flown to the United States. The plane was taken to UAE where the defense minister of UAE negotiated the release of the passengers. It was related to the Sikh secessionist struggle in the Indian state of Punjab.
  • 1984: Lebanese Shi'a hijackers divert a Kuwait Airways flight to Tehran. The plane is taken by Iranian security forces who were dressed as custodial staff.[1]
  • 1985: Palestinians take over EgyptAir Flight 648 and fly it to Malta. All together, 60 people died, most of them when Egyptian commandos stormed the aircraft.
  • 1986: 22 people are killed when Pakistani security forces storm Pan Am Flight 73 at Karachi, carrying 400 passengers and crew after a 16-hour siege.
  • 1988: Two Kuwaitis are killed in 1988 when Shi'a gunmen hijack a Kuwait Airways flight from Thailand and force it to fly to Algiers with more than 110 people on board; the hijack ends after 16 days when the hijackers free the remaining hostages and are allowed to leave Algiers.
  • 1993:Two separate hijackings of Indian Airlines aircraft to Amritsar, Punjab, India in the month of April. In the first case the hijacker was talked into surrendering; in the second, the Commandos stormed in and killed the sole hijacker. The Amritsar Deputy Commissioner Karan Bir Singh Sidhu was conferred the Convoy Safe Skies Award.
  • 1995: Iranian defector and flight attendant Rida Garari hijacked Kish Air flight 707, which landed in Israel. No casualties.
  • 1996: Hemus Air Tu-154 aircraft was hijacked by the Palestinian Nadir Abdallah, flying from Beirut to Varna. The hijacker demamded that the aircraft be refuelled and given passage to Oslo, Norway after landing at Varna Airport. All of the 150 passengers were freed at Varna, afterwards the crew continued the flight to Oslo.
  • 1996: Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 crashed into the Indian Ocean near a beach in the Comoros Islands after hijackers refused to allow the pilot to land and refuel the plane. 125 passengers die and 50 survive. This is only the third incident in which there were survivors of a passenger jet that intentionally ditched into water.
  • 1997: Air Malta Two men who hijacked an Air Malta aircraft en route from Malta to Turkey on June 9, 1997 surrendered to police at Cologne's airport early on the same day and freed without incident about 80 crew members and passengers on board.
  • 1999-2000: Pakistan based terrorists hijack Indian Airlines Flight 814 and divert it to Kandahar. After a week-long stand-off India agrees to release three jailed Pakistani terrorists in exchange for the hostages. 1 hostage was stabbed to death and his body thrown on the tarmac as a "warning attack".
  • 2006: Turkish Airlines Flight 1476, flying from Tirana to Istanbul, was hijacked in Greek airspace. The aircraft, with 107 passengers and six crew on board, transmitted two coded hijack signals which were picked up by the Greek air force.
See also: List of hijacking of Indian aeroplanes
  • 2007: Cuban military deserters hijacked a bus, then used it to get into an airport's Terminal 2, where they failed to hijack an aircraft en-route to the United States. One military commander was killed and the deserters are at wanted.

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba reached their peak in 1969. ... , Aerial photo of Varadero Varadero is a popular resort town in the province of Matanzas, Cuba, and one of the largest in the Caribbean. ... Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz (born June 3, 1931) is the Acting President of Cuba and First Vice President of the Cuban Council of State. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - al-jabhah al-sha`biyyah li-tahrÄ«r filastÄ«n) is a Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian political and military organization, founded in 1967. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... “Alger” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ... // Dymshits-Kuznetsov aircraft hijacking affair (Russian language: Ленинградское самолётное дело or Дело группы Дымшица-Кузнецова) was an attempt to hijack a civilian aircraft on May 15, 1970 by a group of Soviet refuseniks in order to escape to the West. ... The word refusenik entered English language as a part of the Cold War lexicon to refer to those who were refused certain human rights, notably forbidden to emigrate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Main article: Black September in Jordan The Dawsons Field hijacking occurred on September 6, 1970. ... Categories: Airline stubs | Companies of Israel | Transportation in Israel | Airlines of Israel ... Leila Khaled (born April 9, 1944, Haifa) is a member of the Palestinian National Council. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday. ... A 1972 FBI composite drawing of D. B. Cooper D. B. Cooper (aka Dan Cooper) is a pseudonym given to a notorious aircraft hijacker who, on November 24, 1971, after receiving a ransom payout of $200,000, leapt from the back of a Boeing 727 as it was flying over... This article refers to the device for slowing descent through the air. ... The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... November 15 is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 46 days remaining. ... Ansett Australia or Ansett was a major Australian domestic and international airline, flying many passengers around Australia and to many destinations in Asia at its height in 1996. ... Adelaide is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of South Australia, and is the fifth largest city in Australia, with a population of over 1. ... Aerial, Alice Springs Alice Springs Landsat image Alice Springs is a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... Alice Springs Airport (IATA: ASP, ICAO: YBAS) is a small regional airport located in Alice Springs, Northern Territory, Australia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Samuel Byck Samuel Joseph Byck (January 30, 1930 – February 22, 1974) was an unemployed former tire salesman who attempted to hijack a plane from Baltimore-Washington International Airport on February 22, 1974. ... Baltimore-Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (IATA: BWI, ICAO: KBWI) serves the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area in the United States. ... Delta Air Lines, Inc. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... The McDonnell Douglas DC-9 (initially known as the Douglas DC-9) is a family of twin-engine, single-aisle jet airliners, first manufactured in 1965 and subsequently, in greatly modified form, under a succession of different names. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Air France (Compagnie Nationale Air France) is a subsidiary of Air France-KLM. Before its merger with KLM, it was the national airline of France, employing 71,654 people (as of March 2004). ... Entebbe Airport, Uganda, scene of Operation Entebbe Operation Entebbe took place on the night of July 3 and early morning of July 4, 1976. ... Location of Entebbe within Uganda. ... Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and sometimes the Entebbe... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... The Landshut at Mogadishu Airport, on October 18, 1977. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Palma (Catalan) Spanish name Palma de Mallorca Postal code 070XX Area code 34 (Spain) + 971 (Palma de Mallorca) Website http://www. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ... A Mogadishu boy straddles the remains of a US Black Hawk helicopter during the 1992-1995 UN peacekeeping operation Mogadishu (Somali: Muqdisho) is a city in eastern Africa, on the Indian Ocean. ... Grenzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG 9 - Border protection group 9) is a German counter-terrorism unit, and is considered to be among the best of such units in the world. ... Red Army Fraction Insignia - a Red Star and a Heckler & Koch MP5 The Red Army Faction (also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Group [or Gang] in German: Rote Armee Fraktion or simply RAF), was one of postwar West Germanys most active and prominent militant left-wing groups. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... December 4th redirects here. ... Malaysia Airlines Flight 653 (MH653), a Boeing 737-2H6 registered as 9M-MBD (delivered in September 1972 as 9M-AQO), was a flight which crashed at Tanjong Kupang, Johor, in Malaysia on the evening of December 4, 1977. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus_(bordered). ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Judgment in Berlin is a book by federal judge Herbert Jay Stern about a hijacking trial in the United States Court for Berlin in 1979, over which he presided. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Nikola Kavaja was born in Montenegro in 1933. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pakistan International Airlines (also referred to as PIA), is the national flag carrier of Pakistan and the national airline operating passenger and cargo services around the world. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Damascus ( transliteration: , also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia_(bordered). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... PT (Persero) Perusahaan Penerbangan Garuda Indonesia, abbreviated to Garuda Indonesia, is the national airline of Indonesia. ... The Douglas DC-9 is a twin-engined jet airliner, first manufactured in 1965 and, in much modified form and under a succession of different names, still in production today as the Boeing 717. ... Location of Palembang Palembang is a city in the south of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. ... Medan is the capital city of North Sumatra province, Indonesia. ... Map of Colombo with its administrative districts Coordinates: District Colombo District Government  - Mayor Uvaiz Mohammad Imitiyaz (Sri Lanka Freedom Party) Area  - City 37. ... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942... This article is about Don Mueang district, for the Don Mueang airport see Don Mueang International Airport. ... 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Two hijackers in the cockpit with Captain Testrake TWA Flight 847 was an international Trans World Airlines flight which was hijacked by Organization for the Oppressed of the Earth, a group with alleged links to Hezbollah, on Friday morning, June 14, 1985, while flying from Athens, Greece to Rome, Italy. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... EgyptAir Flight 648 was a Boeing 737 airliner hijacked in 1985 by Palestinian terrorists. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Pakistan_(bordered). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked on September 5, 1986, by four armed men of the Abu Nidal organization. ... 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FedEx Flight 705 was the scene of an attempted hijacking of a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 on April 7, 1994. ... Auburn Calloway was the hijacker of FedEx Flight 705, now serving life without parole at the federal prison in Atwater, California. ... For other uses, see Memphis (disambiguation). ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Algeria_(bordered). ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Air France Flight 8969 (AF8969, AFR8969) was an Air France flight that was hijacked on December 24, 1994 at Algiers. ... The Armed Islamic Group (GIA, from French Groupe Islamique Armé; Arabic al-Jamaah al-Islamiyah al-Musallaha) is a militant Islamist group with the declared aim of overthrowing the Algerian government and replacing it with an Islamic state. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris, France. ... Categories: Stub | Law enforcement in France ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 19. ... Kish Air (in Persian: کیش ایر) is an airline based in Tehran, Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Hemus Air is the Bulgarian flag carrier based in Sofia, Bulgaria. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral in Varna The Stoyan Bachvarov Dramatic Theatre Varna (Bulgarian: ) is the largest city on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast, third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, and 79th-largest in the European Union, with a population of 357,752 ([1]). Commonly referred to... County Oslo NO-03 District Viken Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... Varna International Airport is the airport of Varna, the sea capital of Bulgaria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Ethiopian Airlines is the national airline of Ethiopia. ... 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All Nippon Airways Flight 61 is a flight from Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport) in Ota, Tokyo, Japan, to New Chitose Airport in Chitose, Japan, near Sapporo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ariana Afghan Airlines is the national airlines carrier of Afghanistan, which is based in Kabul. ... For the position of women during the Talibans rule, see Taliban treatment of women. ... Stansted Airport (IATA: STN, ICAO: EGSS) is a large passenger airport with a single runway and hub for a number of major European low-cost airlines. ... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... The Afghan hijackers case, in 2006, was a United Kingdom judicial case that provoked widespread political controversy and was questioned by large sections of the media, causing widespread condemnation by many newspapers (most notably The Sun)[1], and the leaders of both the Labour Party and the Conservative Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Indian Airlines Flight 814 (abbreviated IC-814) was a flight that flew from Kathmandu, Nepals Tribhuvan International Airport to Delhi, Indias Indira Gandhi International Airport. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flight 812. ... 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American Airlines (AA) is the largest airline in the world in terms of total passengers-miles transported[1] and fleet size[2], and the second-largest airline in the world (behind Air France-KLM) in terms of total operating revenues. ... Flight 11 redirects here. ... Security camera image showing American Airlines Flight 77 (far right, just above far right stone block) just before impact. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ... United Airlines Flight 93 was a regular flight from Newark International Airport (now known as Newark Liberty International Airport) in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport, then continuing on to Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, on a different aircraft. ... United Airlines Flight 175 was a morning flight that regularly flew from Logan International Airport in East Boston, Massachusetts to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) in Los Angeles, California (Boston–Los Angeles route). ... 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Prevention

Cockpit doors on most commercial airlines have been strengthened, and are now bullet proof. In the United Kingdom, United States, Australia and India, air marshals have also been added to some flights to deter and thwart hijackers. In addition, some have proposed remote control systems for aircraft whereby no one on board would have control over the plane's flight. Sky marshal (or air marshal) is a popular term for an undercover armed guard on board a commercial aircraft, to counter aircraft hijackings (skyjackings). Three carriers are known to have sky marshals on board on selected flights: Swiss (since 1970; formerly Swissair), El Al, and Sri Lankan Airlines. ...


In the case of a serious risk that an aircraft will be used for flying into a target, it may have to be shot down, killing all passengers and crew, to prevent more serious consequences.


United States commercial aircraft pilots now have an option of carrying a pistol on the flight deck, as a last resort to thwart hijack attempts. Opponents proposed that shooting down the aircraft and killing everyone onboard would be more reasonable than a pilot firing a pistol in an airliner at a flight deck intruder. Explosive decompression in an aircraft, however, is a myth, and their objections are mostly hyperbole. [2] Explosive decompression (ED) is a sudden drop in pressure that occurs in 0. ...


Since "Hi, Jack" and "hijack" are homophones this pronunciation is now widely regarded as a security threat in many airports. Los Angeles International Airport has reminded people not to say "Hi, Jack" or "Hey, Jack", but rather, to say "Hello, Jack" instead. Homonyms (in Greek homoios = identical and onoma = name) are words which have the same form (orthographic/phonetic) but unrelated meaning. ... Runway layout at LAX “LAX” redirects here. ...


One task of airport security is to prevent hijacks by screening passengers and keeping anything that could be used as a weapon (even smaller objects like nail clippers for example) off aircraft. Baggage is scanned using X-ray machines, passengers walk through metal detectors Baggage sreening monitoring at VTBS Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting airports and by extension aircraft from crime and terrorism. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ...


Situation after September 11

Before the September 11, 2001 attacks, plane crews advised passengers to sit quietly in order to increase their chances to survive. An unofficial protocol emerged, in which civilians and government authorities understood that in most cases violence from the hijackers was unlikely as long as they achieved their goal (often, as during the rash of American incidents in the 1970s, a trip to Cuba). A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Since the September 11 attacks, the situation for passengers and hijackers has changed. As in the situation of United Airlines Flight 93, where an airliner crashed into a field during a fight between passengers and hijackers, passengers now have to calculate the risks of passive cooperation, not only for themselves but for those on the ground. Future hijackers may encounter greater resistance from passengers, making a hijacking more unlikely but, if they happen, bloodier. United Airlines Flight 93 was a regular flight from Newark International Airport (now known as Newark Liberty International Airport) in Newark, New Jersey, to San Francisco International Airport, then continuing on to Narita International Airport in Tokyo, Japan, on a different aircraft. ...


Several nations have stated that they would shoot down hijacked commercial aircraft if it can be assumed that the hijackers intend to use the aircraft in 9/11-style as a weapon, despite killing innocent passengers onboard. According to reports, US fighter pilots have been training shooting down commercial airliners.[3] Other countries such as Poland have enacted laws or decrees that allow shooting down hijacked planes.[4]


Germany: Shooting down aircraft and the constitution

In a widely regarded decision by the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in February 2006, it struck down a law - "Luftsicherheitsgesetz" or "Air security law" - claiming such preventive measures were unconstitutional and would essentially be state-sponsored murder, even if such an act would save many more lives on the ground. The main reasoning behind this decision was that the state would be effectively taking the lives of innocent hostages in order to avoid a terrorist attack. Another reason was that the Minister of Defense is constitutionally not entitled to act in terrorism matters, as this is the duty of the state and federal police forces. See the German Wikipedia entry, or [5] The Bundesverfassungsgericht The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German constitutional document, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... A defence minister ( Commonwealth English) or defense minister ( American English) is a cabinet portfolio (position) which regulates the armed forces in a sovereign nation. ...


The President of Germany, Horst Köhler, himself urged judicial review of the constitutionality of the Luftsicherheitsgesetz after he signed it into law in 2005. The President of Germany (German: Bundespräsident, formerly Reichspräsident) is Germanys head of state. ... Horst Köhler ( â–¶(?), born 22 February 1943) is the current President of Germany. ...


International law issues

Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Tokyo Convention)

See the United Nations website for full text. [6]


Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft (Hague Convention)

Signed in the Hague, on the 16 December 1970. Contains 14 articles relating to what constitutes hijacking and guidelines for what is expected of governments when dealing with hijackings. The convention does not apply to customs, law enforcement or military aircraft. Thus its scope appears to exclusively encompass civilian aircraft. Importantly, the convention only comes into force if the aircraft takes off or lands in a place different to its place of registration. For aircraft with joint registration, one country is designated as the registration state for the purpose of the convention.


See the United Nations website for full text. [7]


Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts Against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montreal Convention)

See the United Nations website for full text. [8]


See also

Baggage is scanned using X-ray machines, passengers walk through metal detectors Baggage sreening monitoring at VTBS Airport security refers to the techniques and methods used in protecting airports and by extension aircraft from crime and terrorism. ... Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba reached their peak in 1969. ... A 1972 FBI composite drawing of D. B. Cooper D. B. Cooper (aka Dan Cooper) is a pseudonym given to a notorious aircraft hijacker who, on November 24, 1971, after receiving a ransom payout of $200,000, leapt from the back of a Boeing 727 as it was flying over... CATSA stands for the Canadian Air Transport Security Authority, a federal security sceening organization officially formed January 1, 2003 Through The Canadain Ministry Of Transport following the September_11_terrorist_attacks. ...

References

  1. ^ "Air China pilot hijacks his own jet to Taiwan", CNN, 1998-10-28. Retrieved on 2007-01-25. 
  2. ^ B. Raman (2000-01-02). PLANE HIJACKING: IN PERSPECTIVE. South Asia Analysis Group. Retrieved on 2007-01-25.
  3. ^ Accident details planecrashinfo.com
  4. ^ Stewart, Christopher S., Nikola Kavaja: Interview with an Assassin. http://news.independent.co.uk/people/profiles/article2055456.ece. 10 December 2006.
  5. ^ http://www.tkb.org/Incident.jsp?incID=2471
  6. ^ http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19840824-2&lang=en

  Results from FactBites:
 
The contagiousness of aircraft hijacking (7649 words)
It has often been claimed that aircraft hijacking is a "contagious" phenomenon, that the motivation to hijack aircraft spreads from one individual to another as a result of media coverage of hijacking incidents.
The assertion that aircraft hijacking is a contagious phenomenon, that
Aircraft hijackings prior to the late 1950s bear little relation to the later incidents in the United States.' However, the incidents that began occurring in the late 1950s are relevant.
Aircraft hijacking information - Search.com (2158 words)
Aircraft hijacking (also known as Skyjacking) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed.
Rather, most aircraft hijackings are committed to use the passengers as hostages in an effort to obtain transportation to a given location, to hold them for ransom, or, as in the case of the American planes that were hijacked to Cuba during the 1970s, the release of comrades being held in prison.
Hijackings for hostages have usually followed a pattern of negotiations between the hijackers and the authorities, followed by some form of settlement -- not always the meeting of the hijackers' original demands -- or the storming of the aircraft by armed police or special forces to rescue the hostages.
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