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Encyclopedia > Aircraft carrier
Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers
Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers

An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. Aircraft carriers thus allow a naval force to project air power great distances without having to depend on local bases for staging aircraft operations. They have evolved from wooden vessels used to deploy a balloon into nuclear powered warships that carry dozens of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x804, 269 KB) Original description: Four ships from three nations sail together during the NATO exercise Display Determination 91. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x804, 269 KB) Original description: Four ships from three nations sail together during the NATO exercise Display Determination 91. ... The aircraft carrier Príncipe de Asturias (R-11) is the flagship of the Spanish Navy. ... For the general article on amphibious ships, see Amphibious warfare ship. ... USS Wasp (LHD-1) is a U.S. Navy multipurpose amphibious assault ship, the tenth to be named after the wasp, and the lead ship of her class. ... USS Forrestal (CVA/CV/AVT-59) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of her class of supercarriers, named after Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. ... V/STOL is an acronym for Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Flying machine redirects here. ... Lajes Airbase in the Azores islands, Portugal An Airbase, sometimes referred to as a military airport or airfield, provides basing and support of military aircraft. ... Naval redirects here. ... Aerial warfare is the use of aircraft and other flying machines for the purposes of warfare. ... For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... A helicopter is an aircraft which is lifted and propelled by one or more large horizontal rotors (propellers). ...


Balloon carriers were the first ships to deploy manned aircraft, used during the 19th and early 20th century, mainly for observation purposes. The 1903 advent of fixed wing airplanes was followed in 1910 by the first flight of such an aircraft from the deck of a US Navy cruiser. Seaplanes and seaplane tender support ships, such as HMS Engadine, followed. The development of flat top vessels produced the first large fleet ships. This evolution was well underway by the mid 1920s, resulting in ships such as the HMS Hermes, Hōshō, and the Lexington class aircraft carriers. Balloon carriers, or Balloon tenders were a type of ships equipped with balloon (usually captive, and usually used for observations), during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... HMS Engadine was a seaplane tender which served in the First World War. ... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Hermes. ... This page refers to the Japanese aircraft carrier. ... The Lexington class aircraft carriers were the first operational aircraft carriers in the United States Navy (USS Langley was a strictly developmental ship which only served for a short time as an active fleet unit before being converted to a seaplane tender AV-3). ...


World War II saw the first large scale use and further refinement of the aircraft carrier, spawning several types. Escort aircraft carriers, such as USS Barnes, were built only during World War II. Although some were purpose built, most were converted from merchant ships, and were a stop-gap measure in order to provide air support for convoys and amphibious invasions. Light aircraft carriers, such as USS Independence represented a larger, more "militarized" version of the escort carrier concept. Although the light carriers usually carried the same size air groups as escort carriers, they had the advantage of higher speed as they had been converted from cruisers under construction rather than civilian merchant ships. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... The USS Barnes (CVE-20) (earlier AVG-20 then ACV-20) was laid down under a Maritime Commission contract; transferred to the Navy 1 May 1942; launched 22 May 1942 by Seattle-Tacoma Shipbuilding Corp. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A light aircraft carrier is an aircraft carrier that is smaller than the standard carriers of a navy. ... The fourth USS Independence (CVL-22) (also CV-22) was a United States Navy light aircraft carrier, lead ship of her class. ...


Wartime emergencies also saw the creation or conversion of other, unconventional aircraft carriers. CAM ships, like the SS Michael E, were cargo carrying merchant ships which could launch but not retrieve fighter aircraft from a catapult. These vessels were an emergency measure during World War II as were Merchant aircraft carriers (MACs), such as MV Empire MacAlpine, another emergency measure which saw cargo-carrying merchant ships equipped with flight decks. Battlecarriers were created by the Imperial Japanese Navy to partially compensate for the loss of carrier strength at Midway.[citation needed] Two of them were made from Ise class battleships during late 1943. The aft turrets were removed and replaced with a hangar, deck and catapult. The heavy cruiser Mogami concurrently received a similar conversion. This "half and half" design was an unsuccessful compromise, being neither one thing nor the other. Submarine aircraft carriers, such as the French Surcouf, or the Japanese I-400 class submarines, which were capable of carrying 3 Aichi M6A Seiran aircraft, were first built in the 1920s, but were generally unsuccessful at war. Modern navies that operate such ships treat aircraft carriers as the capital ship of the fleet, a role previously played by the battleship. The change, part of the growth of air power as a significant part of warfare, took place during World War II. This change was driven by the superior range, flexibility and effectiveness of carrier-launched aircraft. Look up emergency in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A CAM ship was a World War II-era British merchant ship used in convoys as a cheap emergency solution to the shortage of escort carriers. ... Merchant aircraft carriers (MAC) were minimal aircraft carriers used during World War II by Great Britain and Holland as an emergency measure until the United States-built escort carriers became available. ... MV Empire MacAlpine was a Grain ship converted to Merchant Aircraft Carrier (MAC ship). ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Image:Battleship Ise. ... For other ships of the same name, see Japanese cruiser Mogami. ... Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with airplanes for observation or attack missions. ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ... The Sen Toku I-400 class (伊四〇〇型潜水艦) submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy were the largest submarines of WW2, the largest non-nuclear submarines ever constructed, and the largest in the world until the development of nuclear ballistic submarines in the 1960s. ... Aichi can refer to: Aichi Prefecture Aichi Steel Corporation This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Aichi M6A Seiran (晴嵐 - Mountain Haze) was a submarine-launched attack floatplane designed for the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Following the war, the scope of carrier operations continued to increase in size and importance. The Supercarrier, typically displacing 75,000 tonnes or greater has been the pinnacle of carrier development since their introduction. Most are powered by nuclear reactors and form the core of a fleet designed to operate far from home. Amphibious assault carriers, such as USS Tarawa or HMS Ocean, which serve the purpose of carrying and landing Marines and operate a large contingent of helicopters for that purpose. They have a secondary capability to operate VSTOL aircraft. Also known as "commando carriers" or "helicopter carriers". USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ... For the general article on amphibious ships, see Amphibious warfare ship. ... USS Tarawa (LHA-1), nicknamed Eagle of the Sea, is a United States Navy amphibious assault ship, the lead ship of her class, and the second ship to be named for Tarawa Atoll, site of a Marine landing during World War II. The first Tarawa was the USS Tarawa (CV... HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ...


Lacking the firepower of other warships, carriers by themselves are considered vulnerable to attack by other ships, aircraft, submarines or missiles and therefore travel as part of a carrier battle group (CVBG) for their protection. Unlike other types of capital ships in the 20th century, aircraft carrier designs since World War II have been effectively unlimited by any consideration save budgetary, and the ships have increased in size to handle the larger aircraft: The large, modern Nimitz class of United States Navy carriers has a displacement nearly four times that of the World War II-era USS Enterprise yet its complement of aircraft is roughly the same, a consequence of the steadily increasing size of military aircraft over the years. The Abraham Lincoln battle group during the 2000 RIMPAC exercises A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (CV) and its escorts. ... The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a line of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the US Navy, and are the largest capital ships in the world. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ...

Contents

History and milestones

Though aircraft carriers are given their definition with respect to fixed-wing aircraft, the first known instance of using a ship for airborne operations occurred in 1806, when the British Royal Navy's Lord Thomas Cochrane launched kites from the 32-gun frigate HMS Pallas in order to drop propaganda leaflets on the French territory. Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald (14 December 1775–October 31, 1860) was a politician and naval adventurer. ... Seven ships of Brtains Royal Navy have been called HMS Pallas. ...


Balloon carriers

Main article: Balloon carrier
The Union Army balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis, towed by the tug Coeur de Lion.
The Union Army balloon Washington aboard the George Washington Parke Custis, towed by the tug Coeur de Lion.

On July 12, 1849, the Austrian Navy ship Vulcano launched a manned hot air balloon in order to drop bombs on Venice, although the attempt failed due to contrary winds.[1] Balloon carriers, or Balloon tenders were a type of ships equipped with balloon (usually captive, and usually used for observations), during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Balloon_barge. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Balloon_barge. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...


Later, later, during the American Civil War, about the time of the Peninsula Campaign, gas-filled balloons were being used to perform reconnaissance on Confederate positions. The battles soon turned inland into the heavily forested areas of the Peninsula, however, where balloons could not travel. A coal barge, the George Washington Parke Custis, was cleared of all deck rigging to accommodate the gas generators and apparatus of balloons. From the GWP Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe, Chief Aeronaut of the Union Army Balloon Corps, made his first ascents over the Potomac River and telegraphed claims of the success of the first aerial venture ever made from a water-borne vessel. Other barges were converted to assist with the other military balloons transported about the eastern waterways. It is only fair to point out in deference to modern aircraft carriers that none of these Civil War crafts had ever taken to the high seas. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (1832-1913) Thaddeus Sobieski Constantine Lowe (August 20, 1832 – January 16, 1913) was an American aeronaut, scientist and inventor. ... Woodblock sketch of Lowes balloon with McClellans Army of the Potomac as depicted in Harpers Weekly. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ...


Balloons launched from ships led to the development of balloon carriers, or balloon tenders, during World War I, by the navies of Great Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, and Sweden. About ten such "balloon tenders" were built, their main objective being aerial observation posts. These ships were either decommissioned or converted to seaplane tenders after the war. Balloon carriers, or Balloon tenders were a type of ships equipped with balloon (usually captive, and usually used for observations), during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ...


Seaplane carriers

Main article: Seaplane carrier
The first seaplane carrier, the French La Foudre (right, with hangar and crane), with one of her Canard Voisin seaplanes taking off, during tactical exercises in June 1912.
The first seaplane carrier, the French La Foudre (right, with hangar and crane), with one of her Canard Voisin seaplanes taking off, during tactical exercises in June 1912.

The invention of the seaplane in March 1910 with the French Le Canard led to the earliest development of a ship designed to carry airplanes, albeit equipped with floats: in December 1911 appears the French Navy La Foudre, the first seaplane carrier, and the first known carrier of airplanes. Commissioned as a seaplane tender, and carrying float-equipped planes under hangars on the main deck, from where they were lowered on the sea with a crane, she participated in tactical exercises in the Mediterranean in 1912. La Foudre was further modified in November 1913 with a 10 meter long flat deck to launch her seaplanes.[2] A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... Image File history File links CanardVoisinJune1912. ... Image File history File links CanardVoisinJune1912. ... La Foudre was a French seaplane carrier, and arguably the first seaplane carrier in history [1]. Her development followed the invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard. ... The Canard Voisin was a plane developed by Gabriel and Charles Voisin in 1910. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... The 1910 Le Canard Le Canard (lit. ... La Foudre was a French seaplane carrier, and arguably the first seaplane carrier in history [1]. Her development followed the invention of the seaplane in 1910 with the French Le Canard. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ...


HMS Hermes, temporarily converted as an experimental seaplane carrier in April-May 1913, is also one of the first seaplane carriers, and the first experimental seaplane carrier of the British Navy. She was originally laid down as a merchant ship, but was converted on the building stocks to be a seaplane carrier for a few trials in 1913, before being converted again to a cruiser, and back again to a seaplane carrier in 1914. She was sunk by a German submarine in October 1914. The first seaplane tender of the US Navy was the USS Mississippi, converted to that role in December 1913.[3] HMS Hermes was the first of three modified Eclipse class cruisers, commonly known as the Highflyer class. ... USS Mississippi (Battleship No. ...


Many cruisers and capital ships of the inter-war years often carried a catapult launched seaplane for reconnaissance and spotting the fall of the guns. It was launched by a catapult and recovered by crane from the water after landing. These were highly successful during World War II; there were many notable successes early in the war as shown by HMS Warspite’s float equipped Swordfish during operations in the Norwegian fjords in 1940. The Japanese Rufe floatplane derived from the Zero was a formidable fighter with only a slight loss in flight performance, one of their pilots scored 26 kills in the A6M2-N Rufe; a score only bettered by a handful of American pilots throughout WW2. Other Japanese seaplanes launched from tenders and warships sank merchant ships and small-scale ground attacks. The culmination of the type was the American 300+ mph (480 km/h) Curtiss SC Seahawk which was actually a fighter aircraft like the Rufe in addition to a two-seat gunnery spotter and transport for an injured man in a litter. Spotter seaplane aircraft on U.S. Navy cruisers and battleships were in service until 1949. Seaplane fighters were considered poor combat aircraft compared to their carrier-launched brethren; they were slower due to the drag of their pontoons or boat hulls. Contemporary propeller-driven, land-based fighter aircraft were much faster (450-480 mph / 720-770 km/h as opposed to 300-350 mph / 480-560 km/h) and more heavily armed. The Curtiss Seahawk only had two 0.50 inch (12.7 mm) calibre machine guns compared to four 20 mm cannon in the Grumman F8F Bearcat or four 0.50 (12.7 mm) cal machine guns plus two 20 mm cannon in the Vought F4U Corsair. Jet aircraft of just a few years later were faster still (500+ mph) and still better armed, especially with the development of air to air missiles in the early to mid 1950s. USS Port Royal, a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser, launched in 1994. ... The capital ships of a navy are its important warships; the ones with the heaviest firepower and armor. ... HMS Warspite was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the British Royal Navy. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Curtiss SC Seahawk was designed in 1942 as a replacement for the Curtiss SO3C Seamew and the Vought OS2U Kingfisher. ... The Grumman F8F Bearcat (affectionately called Bear) was the companys final piston engined fighter aircraft. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. ...


Genesis of the flat-deck carrier

"An airplane-carrying vessel is indispensable. These vessels will be constructed on a plan very different from what is currently used. First of all the deck will be cleared of all obstacles. It will be flat, as wide as possible without jeopardizing the nautical lines of the hull, and it will look like a landing field."
Clément Ader, "L'Aviation Militaire", 1909

As heavier-than-air aircraft developed in the early 20th century various navies began to take an interest in their potential use as scouts for their big gun warships. In 1909 the French inventor Clément Ader published in his book "L'Aviation Militaire" the description of a ship to operate airplanes at sea, with a flat flight deck, an island superstructure, deck elevators and a hangar bay.[4] That year the US Naval Attaché in Paris sent a report on his observations.[5] Photograph of Ader Clément Ader (February 4, 1841 – March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... LAviation Militaire (lit. ... Photograph of Ader Clément Ader (February 4, 1841 – March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... LAviation Militaire (lit. ... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ...

Ely takes off fromUSS Birmingham, 14 November 1910.
Ely takes off from
USS Birmingham, 14 November 1910.

A number of experimental flights were made to test the concept. Eugene Ely was the first pilot to launch from a stationary ship in November 1910. He took off from a structure fixed over the forecastle of the US armored cruiser USS Birmingham at Hampton Roads, Virginia and landed nearby on Willoughby Spit after some five minutes in the air. is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Eugene Burton Ely (October 21, 1886 - October 19, 1911) was an aviation pioneer, credited with the first shipboard aircraft take off and landing. ... For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Schematic section of a typical armoured cruiser with an armoured upper and middle deck and side belt (red), lateral protective coal bunkers (grey) and a double-bottom of watertight compartments. ... USS Birmingham (CL-2), named for the city of Birmingham in Alabama, was a Chester class light cruiser laid down by the Fore River Shipbuilding Company at Quincy in Massachusetts on 14 August 1905, launched on 29 May 1907 by Mrs L. Underwood and commissioned on 11 April 1908, Commander... This view from space in July 1996 shows portions of each of the Seven Cities of Hampton Roads which generally surround the harbor area of Hampton Roads, which framed by the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel visible to the east (right), the Virginia Peninsula subregion to the north (top), and the... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Willoughby Spit is a peninsula of land in the independent city of Norfolk, Virginia in the United States. ...

Ely lands on USS Pennsylvania, 18 January 1911.
Ely lands on USS Pennsylvania,
18 January 1911.

On January 18, 1911 he became the first pilot to land on a stationary ship. He took off from the Tanforan racetrack and landed on a similar temporary structure on the aft of USS Pennsylvania anchored at the San Francisco waterfront — the improvised braking system of sandbags and ropes led directly to the arrestor hook and wires described above. His aircraft was then turned around and he was able to take off again. Commander Charles Samson, RN, became the first airman to take off from a moving warship on May 2, 1912. He took off in a Short S27 from the battleship HMS Hibernia while she steamed at 10.5 knots (19 km/h) during the Royal Fleet Review at Weymouth. Image File history File links USS_Pennsylvania_-_First_airplane_landing. ... Image File history File links USS_Pennsylvania_-_First_airplane_landing. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Shops at Tanforan is a shopping mall and business area in San Bruno, California, in the Peninsula area of the Bay Area, 10 miles south of San Francisco. ... The second USS Pennsylvania (ACR-4), also referred to Armored Cruiser No. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... HMS Hibernia was a King Edward VII-class battleship of Britains Royal Navy, the last generation of British pre-dreadnoughts. ... HMS Terrible at Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee Fleet Review in 1897. ... , Weymouth is a town in Dorset, England, United Kingdom, situated on a sheltered bay at the mouth of the River Wey on the English Channel coast. ...


World War I

The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids in September 1914.
The Japanese seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids in September 1914.

The first strike from a carrier against a land target as well as a sea target took place in September 1914 when the Imperial Japanese Navy seaplane carrier Wakamiya conducted the world's first naval-launched air raids[6] from Kiaochow Bay during the Battle of Tsingtao in China.[7] The four Maurice Farman seaplanes bombarded German-held land targets (communication centers and command centers) and damaged a German minelayer in the Tsingtao peninsula from September until November 6, 1914, when the Germans surrendered.[8] On the Western front the first naval air raid occurred on December 25, 1914 when twelve seaplanes from HMS Engadine, Riviera and Empress (cross-channel steamers converted into seaplane carriers) attacked the Zeppelin base at Cuxhaven. The attack was not a complete success, although a German warship was damaged; nevertheless the raid demonstrated in the European theatre the feasibility of attack by ship-borne aircraft and showed the strategic importance of this new weapon. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wakamiya (Japanese:若宮丸, later 若宮艦) was a seaplane carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the first Japanese aircraft carrier. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... Wakamiya (Japanese:若宮丸, later 若宮艦) was a seaplane carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy and the first Japanese aircraft carrier. ... The Jiaozhou Bay was a 552km² German colony which existed from 1898 to 1914. ... The Battle of Tsingtao was the attack on the German-controlled port of Tsingtao (now Qingdao) in China during World War I. It too took place between 27 August-7 November 1914 and was fought by Japan and the United Kingdom against Germany. ... Maurice Alain Farman (March 21, 1877 - February 25, 1964) was a French Grand Prix motor racing champion, an aviator, and an aircraft manufacturer and designer. ... Tsingtao redirects here. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Cuxhaven Raid was a British ship-based air reconnaissance of the Heligoland Bight, including Cuxhaven, Heligoland and Wilhelmshaven . ...

HMS Ark Royal, a seaplane carrier also equipped with two regular aeroplanes, was arguably the first modern aircraft carrier.
HMS Ark Royal, a seaplane carrier also equipped with two regular aeroplanes, was arguably the first modern aircraft carrier.

HMS Ark Royal was arguably the first modern aircraft carrier. She was originally laid down as a merchant ship, but was converted on the building stocks to be a hybrid airplane/seaplane carrier with a launch platform. Launched September 5, 1914, she served in the Dardanelles campaign and throughout World War I. Image File history File linksMetadata Ark_Royal_(1914). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ark_Royal_(1914). ... The Royal Navy had been using a converted cruiser, HMS Hermes, as a seaplane carrier, to conduct trials in 1913. ... The Royal Navy had been using a converted cruiser, HMS Hermes, as a seaplane carrier, to conduct trials in 1913. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Dardanelles, a long narrow strait dividing the Balkans (Europe) along the Gallipoli peninsula from Asia Minor. ...


Other carrier operations were mounted during the war the most successful taking place on 19 July 1918 when seven Sopwith Camels launched from HMS Furious attacked the German Zeppelin base at Tondern, with two 50 lb (23 kg) bombs each. Several airships and balloons were destroyed, but as the carrier had no method of recovering the aircraft safely, two of the pilots ditched their aircraft in the sea alongside the carrier while the others headed for neutral Denmark. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Sopwith Camel Scout is a British First World War single-seat fighter aircraft that was famous for its maneuverability. ... HMS Furious was a modified Courageous class large light cruiser (an extreme form of battlecruiser) converted into an early aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... Zeppelins are a type of rigid airship pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... Tønder (German Tondern) is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ...


Inter-war years

The first full-length flat deck, HMS Argus in 1918
The first full-length flat deck, HMS Argus in 1918

The Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 placed strict limits on the tonnages of battleships and battlecruisers for the major naval powers after World War I, as well as limits not only on the total tonnage for carriers, but also an upper limit on 27,000 tonnes for each ship. Although exceptions were made regarding the max ship tonnage (fleet units counted, experimental units did not), the total tonnage could not be exceeded. However, while all of the major navies were over-tonnage on battleships, they were all considerably under-tonnage on aircraft carriers. Consequently, many battleships and battlecruisers under construction (or in service) were converted into aircraft carriers. The first ship to have a full length flat deck was HMS Argus the conversion of which was completed in September 1918, with the U.S. Navy not following suit until 1920, when the conversion of USS Langley (an experimental ship which did not count against America's carrier tonnage) had completed. The first American fleet carriers would not join the service until November, 1927 when the USS Saratoga was commissioned. (USS Lexington was commissioned in December of that year.) Image File history File links Download high resolution version (625x675, 117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (625x675, 117 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Argus in harbour in 1918, painted in dazzle camouflage, with a Renown class battlecruiser. ... The Washington Naval Treaty limited the naval armaments of its five signatories: the United States, the British Empire, the Empire of Japan, the French Third Republic, and Italy. ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Argus in harbour in 1918, painted in dazzle camouflage, with a Renown class battlecruiser. ... USN redirects here. ... The USS Langley (CV-1/AV-3) was the United States Navys first aircraft carrier. ... The Lexington class aircraft carriers were the first operational aircraft carriers in the United States Navy (USS Langley was a strictly developmental ship which only served for a short time as an active fleet unit before being converted to a seaplane tender AV-3). ... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ...

The Imperial Japanese Navy's 1922 Hōshō, was the world's first built-from-the-keel-up aircraft carrier.
The Imperial Japanese Navy's 1922 Hōshō, was the world's first built-from-the-keel-up aircraft carrier.[9]

The first purpose-designed aircraft carrier to be laid down was the HMS Hermes in 1918, the next year Japan began work on Hōshō. Three years later in December 1922, Hōshō became the first to be commissioned while HMS Hermes began service in July 1923.[9][10] Hermes' design preceded and influenced that of Hōshō, and its construction actually began earlier, but numerous tests, experiments and budget considerations delayed its commission. Download high resolution version (740x620, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x620, 77 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... This page refers to the Japanese aircraft carrier. ... HMS Hermes (95) was the first purpose built aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, and the second in the world after the Imperial Japanese Navys Hosho. ... This page refers to the Japanese aircraft carrier. ...


By the late 1930s, aircraft carriers around the world typically carried three types of aircraft: torpedo bombers, also used for conventional bombings and reconnaissance; dive bombers, also used for reconnaissance (in the U.S. Navy, this type of aircraft were known as "scout bombers"); and fighters for fleet defense and bomber escort duties. Because of the restricted space on aircraft carriers, all these aircraft were of small, single-engined types, usually with folding wings to facilitate storage. A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Mixed reconnaissance patrol of the Polish Home Army and the Soviet Red Army during Operation Tempest, 1944 Reconnaissance is the military term for the active gathering of information about an enemy, or other conditions, by physical observation. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Folding wing of a De_Havilland_Sea_Vixen Folding wings are a design feature of most naval aircraft that operate from aircraft carriers. ...


World War II

Aircraft carriers played a significant role in World War II. With seven aircraft carriers afloat, the British Royal Navy had a considerable numerical advantage at the start of the war as neither the Germans nor the Italians had carriers of their own. However, the vulnerability of carriers compared to traditional battleships when forced into a gun-range encounter was quickly illustrated by the sinking of HMS Glorious by German battlecruisers during the Norwegian campaign in 1940. HMS Glorious was a warship of the Royal Navy. ...


This apparent weakness to battleships was turned on its head in November 1940 when HMS Illustrious launched a long-range strike on the Italian fleet at Taranto. This operation incapacitated three of the six battleships in the harbour at a cost of two of the 21 attacking Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers. Carriers also played a major part in reinforcing Malta, both by transporting planes and by defending convoys sent to supply the besieged island. The use of carriers prevented the Italian Navy and land-based German aircraft from dominating the Mediterranean theatre. The fourth HMS Illustrious (R87) of the Royal Navy was an aircraft carrier, arguably the one with the most distinguished and vital career of this proud lineage. ... This article is about the 1940 battle. ... Fairey Swordfish The Fairey Swordfish was a torpedo bomber built by the Fairey Aviation Company and used by the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy during World War II. Affectionately known as the Stringbag by its crews, it was outdated by 1939, but achieved some spectacular successes during the... A torpedo bomber is a bomber aircraft designed primarily to attack ships with torpedoes, but they could also carry out conventional bombings. ... Pre-unitarian navies of the Italian states Regia Marina - Royal Navy of the Kingdom of Italy (1861 - 1946) Marina Militare - Navy of the Italian Republic (1946 - today) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


In the Atlantic, aircraft from HMS Ark Royal and HMS Victorious were responsible for slowing Bismarck during May 1941. Later in the war, escort carriers proved their worth guarding convoys crossing the Atlantic and Arctic oceans. HMS Victorious (R38) was the second Illustrious-class aircraft carrier ordered under the 1936 Naval Programme. ... The German battleship Bismarck is one of the most famous warships of the Second World War. ... Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... The Arctic convoys of World War II travelled from the United States and the United Kingdom to the northern ports of the Soviet Union - Archangel and Murmansk. ...


Many of the major battles in the Pacific involved aircraft carriers. Japan started the war with ten aircraft carriers, the largest and most modern carrier fleet in the world at that time. There were six American aircraft carriers at the beginning of the hostilities, although only three of them were operating in the Pacific. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


Drawing on the 1939 Japanese development of shallow water modifications for aerial torpedoes and the 1940 British aerial attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto, the 1941 Japanese surprise attack on Pearl Harbor was a clear illustration of the power projection capability afforded by a large force of modern carriers. Concentrating six flattops in a single striking unit marked a turning point in naval history, as no other nation had fielded anything comparable. (Though Germany and Italy began construction of carriers, neither were completed. Of the two, Germany's Graf Zeppelin had the greater potential.) Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... This article is about the actual attack. ... USS , and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol. ... Graf Zeppelin was an aircraft carrier of the Kriegsmarine, named like the famous airship in honour of Graf (Count) Ferdinand von Zeppelin. ...


Meanwhile, the Japanese began their advance through Southeast Asia and the sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse by Japanese land-based aircraft drove home the need for this ship class for fleet defence from aerial attack. In April 1942, the Japanese fast carrier strike force ranged into the Indian Ocean and sank shipping, including the damaged and undefended carrier HMS Hermes. Smaller Allied fleets with inadequate aerial protection were forced to retreat or be destroyed. In the Coral Sea, US and Japanese fleets traded aircraft strikes in the first battle where neither side's ships sighted the other. At the Battle of Midway all four Japanese carriers engaged were sunk by planes from three American carriers (one of which was lost) and the battle is considered the turning point of the war in the Pacific. Notably, the battle was orchestrated by the Japanese to draw out American carriers that had proven very elusive and troublesome to the Japanese. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Combatants Force Z of the Royal Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Sir Tom Phillips † John Leach † William Tennant Niichi Nakanishi Shichizo Miyauchi Strength 1 battleship 1 battlecruiser 4 destroyers 10 aircraft 88 aircraft (34 torpedo aircraft, 51 level bombers, 3 scouting aircraft) Casualties 1 battleship, 1 battlecruiser sunk, 840 killed... For other ships with the same name, see HMS Hermes. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier...

4 US Navy carriers right after the war, showing the size and length difference between an early battlecruiser conversion, the Saratoga (bottom), an early fleet carrier Enterprise (2nd from bottom), a war time built Essex-class carrier (2nd from top, the Hornet) and a light carrier based on a cruiser hull, the San Jacinto (top).
4 US Navy carriers right after the war, showing the size and length difference between an early battlecruiser conversion, the Saratoga (bottom), an early fleet carrier Enterprise (2nd from bottom), a war time built Essex-class carrier (2nd from top, the Hornet) and a light carrier based on a cruiser hull, the San Jacinto (top).

Subsequently the US was able to build up large numbers of aircraft aboard a mixture of fleet, light and (newly commissioned) escort carriers, primarily with the introduction of the Essex class in 1943. These ships, around which were built the fast carrier task forces of the Third and Fifth Fleets, played a major part in winning the Pacific war. The eclipse of the battleship as the primary component of a fleet was clearly illustrated by the sinking of the largest battleship ever built, Yamato, by carrier-borne aircraft in 1945. Japan also built the largest aircraft carrier of the war, Shinano, which was a Yamato class ship converted mid-way through construction after the disastrous loss of four fleet carriers at Midway. She was sunk by a patrolling US submarine while in transit shortly after commissioning, but before being fully outfitted or operational in November 1944. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (740 × 615 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Naval Air Station, Alameda, California Four aircraft carriers representing four separate classes (Lexington, Yorktown, Essex, Independence) docked at the Air Stations piers... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 721 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (740 × 615 pixel, file size: 116 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Naval Air Station, Alameda, California Four aircraft carriers representing four separate classes (Lexington, Yorktown, Essex, Independence) docked at the Air Stations piers... The fifth USS Saratoga (CV-3) was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... Essex was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy, which constituted the 20th centurys most numerous class of heavy warships, with 24 ships built. ... // The eighth USS Hornet (CV/CVA/CVS-12) was originally named USS Kearsarge, but renamed in honor of the CV-8, which was lost in October of 1942. ... The second USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) of the United States Navy was an Independence-class light aircraft carrier. ... Essex was a class of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy, which constituted the 20th centurys most numerous class of heavy warships, with 24 ships built. ... In the United States Navy, the 3rd Fleet is the fleet responsible for naval activities in the eastern and northern Pacific Ocean. ... The 5th Fleet of the United States Navy is the commander of the naval force in the Persian Gulf area. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Yamato (大和), named after the ancient Japanese Yamato Province, was a battleship of the Imperial Japanese Navy. ... Shinano (Japanese:信濃) was an aircraft carrier operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy in World War II. It was laid down as the third of five projected Yamato-class superbattleships. ...


Important innovations just before and during World War II

Japanese carrier Taihō had a hurricane bow.
Japanese carrier Taihō had a hurricane bow.
USS Saratoga circa 1935.
USS Saratoga circa 1935.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x351, 93 KB) Description: Japanese Aircraft Carrier HIJMS Taiho Source: [1] Licence: see Disclaimer Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Aircraft carrier Japanese aircraft carrier Taiho ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x351, 93 KB) Description: Japanese Aircraft Carrier HIJMS Taiho Source: [1] Licence: see Disclaimer Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Aircraft carrier Japanese aircraft carrier Taiho ... Taihō ) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Taihō means Great Phoenix. Built by Kawasaki, she was laid down on 10 July 1941 and launched almost two years later, on 7 April 1943, and was finally completed eleven months afterwards on 7 March 1944. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The fifth USS Saratoga (CV-3) was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ...

Hurricane bow

A hurricane bow is a completely enclosed hangar deck, first seen on the American Lexington class aircraft carriers which entered service in 1927. Combat experience proved it to be by far the most useful configuration for the bow of the ship among others that were tried; including second flying-off decks and an anti-aircraft battery (the latter was the most common American configuration during World War II). This feature would be re-incorporated into American carriers post-war. The Japanese carrier Taihō was the first of their ships to incorporate it. The Lexington class aircraft carriers were the first operational aircraft carriers in the United States Navy (USS Langley was a strictly developmental ship which only served for a short time as an active fleet unit before being converted to a seaplane tender AV-3). ... Taihō ) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy during World War II. Taihō means Great Phoenix. Built by Kawasaki, she was laid down on 10 July 1941 and launched almost two years later, on 7 April 1943, and was finally completed eleven months afterwards on 7 March 1944. ...


Light aircraft carriers

The loss of three major carriers in quick succession in the Pacific led the US Navy to develop the light carrier (CVL) from light cruiser hulls that had already been laid down. They were intended to provide additional fast carriers, as escort carriers did not have the requisite speed to keep up with the fleet carriers and their escorts. The actual U.S. Navy classification was small aircraft carrier (CVL), not light. Prior to July 1943, they were just classified as aircraft carriers (CV).[11] A light cruiser is a warship that is not so large and powerful as a regular (or heavy) cruiser, but still larger than ships like destroyers. ...


The British Royal Navy made a similar design which served both them and Commonwealth countries after World War II. One of these carriers, India's INS Viraat, formerly HMS Hermes, is still being used. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... INS Viraat (Sanskrit: विराट) (R22) is a Centaur-class aircraft carrier currently in service with the Indian Navy. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ...


Escort carriers and merchant aircraft carriers

To protect Atlantic convoys, the British developed what they called Merchant Aircraft Carriers, which were merchant ships equipped with a flat deck for half a dozen aircraft. These operated with civilian crews, under merchant colors, and carried their normal cargo besides providing air support for the convoy. As there was no lift or hangar, aircraft maintenance was limited and the aircraft spent the entire trip sitting on the deck. For other uses, see Convoy (disambiguation). ... Merchant aircraft carriers (MAC) were minimal aircraft carriers used during World War II by Great Britain and Holland as an emergency measure until the United States-built escort carriers became available. ...


These served as stop-gap until dedicated escort carriers could be built in the US (US classification CVE). About a third of the size of a fleet carrier, it carried about two dozen aircraft for anti-submarine duties. Over one hundred were built or converted from merchantmen. The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ...


Escort carriers were built in the US from two basic hull designs: one from a merchant ship, and the other from a slightly larger, slightly faster tanker. Besides defending convoys, these were used to transport aircraft across the ocean. Nevertheless, some participated in the battles to liberate the Philippines, notably the Battle off Samar in which six escort carriers and their escorting destroyers briefly took on five Japanese battleships and bluffed them into retreating. Combatants United States Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas Sprague Takeo Kurita Strength 16 escort aircraft carriers, 9 destroyers, 12 destroyer escorts, 400 aircraft 4 battleships, 6 heavy cruisers, 2 light cruisers, 11 destroyers Casualties 2 escort carriers, 2 destroyers, 1 destroyer escort sunk over 1,000 casualties 3 heavy...


Catapult aircraft merchantmen

As an emergency stop-gap before sufficient merchant aircraft carriers became available, the British provided air cover for convoys using Catapult aircraft merchantman (CAM ships) and merchant aircraft carriers. CAM ships were merchant vessels equipped with an aircraft, usually a battle-weary Hawker Hurricane, launched by a catapult. Once launched, the aircraft could not land back on the deck and had to ditch in the sea if it was not within range of land. Over two years, fewer than 10 launches were ever made, yet these flights did have some success: 6 bombers for the loss of a single pilot. Merchant aircraft carriers (MAC) were minimal aircraft carriers used during World War II by Great Britain and Holland as an emergency measure until the United States-built escort carriers became available. ... The Hawker Hurricane was a British single-seat fighter aircraft designed and predominantly built by Hawker Aircraft Ltd. ...


Post-war developments

Three major post-war developments came from the need to improve operations of jet-powered aircraft, which had higher weights and landing speeds than their propeller-powered forbears.


The first jet landing was made as early as 3 December 1945; by a de Havilland Vampire piloted by Eric "Winkle" Brown- who is also notable for being the all-time record holder on the number of carrier landings (2,407). is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The de Havilland DH.100 Vampire was the second jet-engined aircraft commissioned by the Royal Air Force during the Second World War (the first being the Gloster Meteor), although it did not see combat in that conflict. ... Captain Eric Brown CBE DSC AFC FRAeS After World War Two‚ Captain Eric ‘Winkle’ Brown served as Commanding Officer of Enemy Aircraft Flight – an elite group of pilots whose job it was to test-fly captured German aircraft. ...


After these successful tests jets were operating by the early 1950s from carriers.


Angled decks

The angled flight deck allows for safe simultaneous launch and recovery of aircraft.

During the Second World War, aircraft would land on the flight deck parallel to the long axis of the ship's hull. Aircraft which had already landed would be parked on the deck at the bow end of the flight deck. A crash barrier was raised behind them to stop any landing aircraft which overshot the landing area because its landing hook missed the arrestor cables. If this happened, it would often cause serious damage or injury and even, if the crash barrier was not strong enough, destruction of parked aircraft. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ...


An important development of the early 1950s was the British invention of the angled deck, where the runway was canted at an angle of a few degrees across the ship. If an aircraft misses the arrestor cables, the pilot only needs to increase engine power to maximum to get airborne again (referred to as "boltering") and will not hit the parked aircraft because the angled deck points out over the sea. For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation). ... Bolter redirects here. ...


Steam catapults

The modern steam-powered catapult, powered by steam from the ship's boilers or reactors, was invented by Commander C.C. Mitchell of the British RNVR. It was widely adopted following trials on HMS Perseus between 1950 and 1952 which showed it to be more powerful and reliable than the compressed air catapults which had been introduced in the 1940s. u suk usuk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk usuk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1... A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. ... “RNR” redirects here. ... HMS Perseus (R51) was a Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ...


Landing system

Landing optics of Charles de Gaulle, note that this system is of the later Fresnel lens design.
Landing optics of Charles de Gaulle, note that this system is of the later Fresnel lens design.

Another British invention was the Mirror Landing Aid. This was a gyroscopically-controlled convex mirror (in later designs replaced by a Fresnel lens) on the port side of the deck. Either side of the mirror was a line of green coloured lights, the "datum lights". A bright orange light was shone into the mirror creating the "ball" (or "meatball" in later USN parlance) which could be seen by the aviator who was about to land. The position of the ball compared to the datum lights indicated the aircraft's position in relation to the desired glidepath: if the ball was above the datum, the plane was high; below the datum, the plane was low; between the datum, the plane was on glidepath. The gyro stabilisation compensated for the movement of the flight deck due to the sea, giving a constant glidepath. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... Not to be confused with Fresnel lantern. ... Not to be confused with Fresnel lantern. ...


Nuclear age

The US Navy attempted to become a strategic nuclear force in parallel with the USAF long range bombers with the project to build United States, which was termed CVA, with the "A" signifying "atomic". This ship would have carried long range twin-engine bombers, each of which could carry an atomic bomb. The project was canceled under pressure from the newly-created United States Air Force, and the letter "A" was re-cycled to mean "attack." But this only delayed the growth of carriers. Nuclear weapons would be part of the carrier weapons load despite Air Force objections beginning in 1955 aboard USS Forrestal, and by the end of the fifties the Navy had a series of nuclear-armed attack aircraft (see also USS Franklin D. Roosevelt (CV-42)). USS United States (CVA-58), the third ship of the US Navy named for the nation, was to be the lead ship of a radical new design of aircraft carrier. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The supercarrier USS Forrestal (CV-59), formerly AVT-59 and CVA-59, was named after former Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal and was the lead ship of her class of aircraft carriers. ... USS (CVB/CVA/CV-42) was the second of three Midway class aircraft carrier, serving in the United States Navy from 1945 to 1977. ...


The US Navy also built the first aircraft carrier to be powered by nuclear reactors. USS Enterprise is powered by eight nuclear reactors and was the second surface warship (after USS Long Beach) to be powered in this way. Subsequent supercarriers starting with USS Nimitz took advantage of this technology to increase their endurance utilizing only two reactors. The only other nation to have followed the US lead is France with Charles de Gaulle although nuclear power is used for submarine propulsion by France, Great Britain, China and the former Soviet Union. Enterprise Logo The supercarrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is the worlds first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... USS Long Beach (CGN-160/CLGN-160/CGN-9) was the first all-new cruiser designed and constructed after World War II (all others were completions or conversions of cruisers begun or completed during the war). ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ...


Helicopters

The Tripoli, a US Navy Iwo Jima class helicopter carrier

The post-war years also saw the development of the helicopter, with a variety of useful roles and mission capability aboard aircraft carriers. Whereas fixed-wing aircraft are suited to air-to-air combat and air-to-surface attack, helicopters are used to transport equipment and personnel and can be used in an anti-submarine warfare (ASW) role, with dipping sonar, air-launched torpedoes, and depth charges; as well as anti-surface vessel warfare, with air-launched anti-ship missiles. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... “A/S” redirects here. ...


In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the UK and the U.S. converted some of their older carriers into Commando Carriers; sea-going helicopter airfields like HMS Bulwark. To mitigate against the expensive connotations of the term "aircraft carrier", the new Invincible class carriers were originally designated as "through deck cruisers" and were initially helicopter-only craft to operate as escort carriers. The arrival of the Sea Harrier VTOL/STOVL fast jet meant they could carry fixed-wing aircraft, despite their short flight deck. See HMS Bulwark for other ships of this name. ... The Invincible class aircraft carrier is a design currently in use by the Royal Navy. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ...


The U.S. used conventional carriers initially as pure ASW carriers, embarking helicopters and fixed-wing ASW aircraft like the S-2 Tracker. Later, specialized LPH helicopter carriers for the transport of United States Marine Corps troops and their helicopter transports were developed. These were evolved into the LHA and later into the LHD classes of amphibious assault ships, similar to the UK model even to the point of embarking Harrier Jump Jet aircraft, though much larger. The Grumman S-2 Tracker (previously S2F) was the first purpose-built, single airframe anti-submarine warfare (ASW) aircraft to enter service with the US Navy. ... A Landing Platform, Helicopter is a warship designed to deliver troops into a war zone by helicopter, but which usually has a limited capability of landing troops by sea using small landing craft. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... LHD is an acronym for the Large Helical Device and left hand drive, a vehicular transport term LHD, for Landing Helicopter Dock, is the US Navy hull classification symbol for multipurpose amphibious assault ships of the Wasp class. ... This article is about the Harrier family of V/STOL aircraft. ...


Ski-jump ramp

India's light carrier INS Viraat, formerly HMS Hermes, purchased from the British, after INS Vikrant shows another example of the ski jump.
India's light carrier INS Viraat, formerly HMS Hermes, purchased from the British, after INS Vikrant shows another example of the ski jump.

Still another British invention was the ski-jump ramp as an alternative to contemporary catapult systems. As the Royal Navy retired or sold the last of its World War II-era carriers, they were replaced with smaller ships designed to operate helicopters and the VTOL Sea Harrier fast jet; ships such as HMS Invincible. The ski-jump allowed Harriers to take off with heavier loads, a STOVL option allowing them to take off with a heavier payload despite its usage of space for aircraft parking. It has since been adopted by the navies of several nations. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1674 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) INS Viraat Source:[1] Description:BAY OF BENGAL (Sept. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixelsFull resolution (2500 × 1674 pixel, file size: 606 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) INS Viraat Source:[1] Description:BAY OF BENGAL (Sept. ... INS Viraat (Sanskrit: विराट) (R22) is a Centaur-class aircraft carrier currently in service with the Indian Navy. ... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ... INS Vikrant (Hindi: विक्रान्‍त) (formerly HMS Hercules (R49)) was a Majestic-class light aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ...


Post-World War II conflicts

UN carrier operations in the Korean War

The United Nations command began carrier operations against the North Korean Army on July 3, 1950 in response to the invasion of South Korea. Task Force 77 consisted at that time of the carriers USS Valley Forge and HMS Triumph. Before the armistice of July 27, 1953, 12 U.S. carriers served 27 tours in the Sea of Japan as part of the Task Force 77. During periods of intensive air operations as many as four carriers were on the line at the same time (see Attack on the Sui-ho Dam), but the norm was two on the line with a third "ready" carrier at Yokosuka able to respond to the Sea of Japan at short notice. Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the North Korean military. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Task Force 77 is an aircraft carrier task force in the United States Navy, and was the Carrier Strike Force of the U.S. Seventh Fleet in several conflicts. ... Valley Forge (CV/CVA/CVS-45/LPH-8) a Ticonderoga-class aircraft carrier was the first ship of the United States Navy named for Valley Forge, the 1777–78 winter encampment of General George Washingtons Continental Army. ... HMS Triumph (R16) (1944–1981) was a Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier, laid down during World War II on 27 January 1943. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Combatants Korean Peoples Army Soviet Air Force United Nations Command Far East Air Forces Task Force 77 Commanders unknown Lt. ... Categories: Cities in Kanagawa Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ...


A second carrier unit, Task Force 95, served as a blockade force in the Yellow Sea off the west coast of North Korea. The task force consisted of a Commonwealth light carrier (HMS Triumph, Theseus, Glory, Ocean, and HMAS Sydney) and usually a U.S. escort carrier (USS Badoeng Strait, Bairoko, Point Cruz, Rendova, and Sicily). ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... HMS is a three-letter acronym that may stand for: Handheld, Manpack, Small Form Factor radio transceivers in the United States military Joint Tactical Radio System Hans Majestäts Skepp (His Majestys ship) or Hennes Majestäts Skepp (Her Majestys Ship), the prefix of Royal Swedish Navy ship... HMS Triumph (R16) (1944–1981) was a Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier, laid down during World War II on 27 January 1943. ... HMS Theseus (R64) was a Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy. ... HMS Glory (R62) was a Colossus-class aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy laid down on 8 November 1942 by Stephen at Govan. ... The fifth HMS Ocean was a Royal Navy Colossus-class light fleet aircraft carrier of 13,190 tons built in Glasgow. ... For other ships by her former name, see HMS Terrible. ... USS is a three-letter acronym, or TLA that may designate one of the following: United States Ship Typically as a ship prefix in the United States Navy United Star Ship (conjectural) (Star Trek) United States Standard, an older standard of screw thread Uncorrected sum of squares Under-seat steering... The Badoeng Strait (CVE-116) was a United States Navy Commencement Bay-class escort aircraft carrier. ... The Bairoko (CVE-115) was a United States Navy Commencement Bay-class escort aircraft carrier. ... USS Point Cruz (CVE-119), an escort carrier named Trocadero Bay until 5 June 1944, was laid down 4 December 1944 by Todd Pacific Shipyard Incorporated, Tacoma, Washington; launched 18 May 1945; sponsored by Mrs. ... USS Rendova (CVE-114), originally assigned the name Mosser Bay, was laid down by Todd-Pacific Shipyards, Inc. ... USS Sicily (CVE-118) was laid down on 23 October 1944 by Todd-Pacific Shipyards Inc. ...


Over 301,000 carrier strikes were flown during the Korean War: 255,545 by the aircraft of Task Force 77; 25,400 by the Commonwealth aircraft of Task Force 95, and 20,375 by the escort carriers of Task Force 95. United States Navy and Marine Corps carrier-based combat losses were 541 aircraft. The Fleet Air Arm lost 86 aircraft in combat, and the Fleet Air Arm of Australia 15. The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships. ... The Fleet Air Arm (more formally known as the Australian Navy Aviation Group) is the operational part of the Royal Australian Navy responsible for the operation of aircraft aboard ship. ...


U.S. carrier operations in Southeast Asia

The United States Navy fought "the most protracted, bitter, and costly war" (René Francillon) in the history of naval aviation from August 2, 1964 to August 15, 1973 in the waters of the South China Sea. Operating from two deployment points (Yankee Station and Dixie Station), carrier aircraft supported combat operations in South Vietnam and conducted bombing operations in conjunction with the U.S. Air Force in North Vietnam under Operations Flaming Dart, Rolling Thunder, and Linebacker. The number of carriers on the line varied during differing points of the conflict, but as many as six operated at one time during Operation Linebacker. is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... Yankee Station was a point in the Gulf of Tonkin off the coast of Vietnam used by U.S. Navy aircraft carriers to launch raids in the Vietnam War. ... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... Seal of the Air Force. ... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ... During the Vietnam War, United States President Lyndon B. Johnson in February 1965 ordered a series of reprisal air strikes after a number of attacks on U.S. bases, particularly on a U.S. installation at Pleiku. ... Combatants  United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders Joseph H. Moore, William W. Momyer, George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense), Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties United States: ~835 killed, captured, or missing VNAF: Unknown ~20,000 military, ~72,000 civilian Operation Rolling Thunder was... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ...


Twenty-one aircraft carriers (all operational attack carriers during the era except John F. Kennedy) deployed to Task Force 77 of the U.S. Seventh Fleet, conducting 86 war cruises and operating 9,178 total days on the line in the Gulf of Tonkin. 530 aircraft were lost in combat and 329 more in operational accidents, causing the deaths of 377 naval aviators, with 64 others reported missing and 179 taken prisoner-of-war. 205 officers and men of the ship's complements of three carriers (Forrestal, Enterprise, and Oriskany) were killed in major shipboard fires. USS (CVA/CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... Task Force 77 is an aircraft carrier task force in the United States Navy, and was the Carrier Strike Force of the U.S. Seventh Fleet in several conflicts. ... The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan. ... The Gulf of Tonkin is located to the south of China. ... POW redirects here. ... USS Forrestal (CVA-59) (later CV-59 and AVT-9) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier, the lead ship of a new class of supercarriers, named after Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal. ... Enterprise Logo The supercarrier, USS Enterprise (CVN-65), formerly CVA(N)-65, is the worlds first nuclear-powered aircraft carrier and the eighth U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name. ... USS Oriskany (CV-34) (also CVA-34) was a United States Navy aircraft carrier. ...


Falklands War

During the Falklands War the United Kingdom was able to win a conflict 8,000 miles (13,000 km) from home in large part due to the use of the light fleet carrier HMS Hermes and the smaller "through deck cruiser" HMS Invincible. The Falklands showed the value of a VSTOL aircraft — the Hawker Siddeley Harrier (the RN Sea Harrier and press-ganged RAF Harriers) in defending the fleet and assault force from shore based aircraft and for attacking the enemy. Sea Harriers shot down 21 fast attack jets and suffered no aerial combat losses, although six were lost to accidents and ground fire. Helicopters from the carriers were used to deploy troops, medevac, SAR and ASW. Belligerents Argentina United Kingdom Commanders President Leopoldo Galtieri Vice-Admiral Juan Lombardo Brigadier-General Ernesto Crespo Brigade-General Mario Menéndez Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher Admiral Sir John Fieldhouse Rear-Admiral John “Sandy” Woodward Major-General Jeremy Moore Casualties and losses 649 killed 1,068 wounded 11,313 taken prisoner... The second HMS Hermes (R12) was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier, the last of the postwar conventional aircraft carriers commissioned into the Royal Navy. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... V/STOL is an acronym for Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing. ... See also BAE Sea Harrier The Hawker Siddeley Harrier and the AV-8A are the first generation of the Harrier series, a successful close-support and reconnaissance fighter aircraft with V/STOL capabilities. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The BAE SYSTEMS Harrier FA2 is the latest development of the Sea Harrier fighter/attack aircraft which entered service with the Royal Navy in April 1980. ... A [PC-12] of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. ... Search and Rescue (acronym SAR) is an operation mounted by emergency services, often well-trained volunteers, to find someone believed to be in distress, lost, sick or injured either in a remote or difficult to access area, such as mountains, desert or forest (Wilderness search and rescue), or at sea... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ...


Operations in the Persian Gulf

The US has also made use of carriers in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan and to protect its interests in the Pacific. During the 2003 invasion of Iraq US aircraft carriers served as the primary base of US air power. Even without the ability to place significant numbers of aircraft in Middle Eastern airbases, the United States was capable of carrying out significant air attacks from carrier-based squadrons. Recently, US aircraft carriers, such as the USS Ronald Reagan provided air support for counter-insurgency operations in Iraq. Map of the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Aircraft carriers today

Four modern aircraft carriers of various types – USS John C. Stennis, FS Charles de Gaulle, HMS Ocean and USS John F. Kennedy — and escort vessels on operations in 2002. The ships are sailing much closer together than they would during combat operations.
Four modern aircraft carriers of various types – USS John C. Stennis, FS Charles de Gaulle, HMS Ocean and USS John F. Kennedy — and escort vessels on operations in 2002. The ships are sailing much closer together than they would during combat operations.

Aircraft carriers are generally the largest ships operated by navies; a Nimitz class carrier powered by two nuclear reactors and four steam turbines is 1092 feet (333 m) long and costs about $4.5 billion. The United States has the majority of aircraft carriers (and also the only country with supercarriers) with eleven in service, one under construction, and one on order (it has to be noted that all of them are supercarriers). Its aircraft carriers are a cornerstone of American power projection capability. Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... Image File history File links Fleet_5_nations. ... USS (CVN-74) is a nuclear-powered supercarrier in the United States Navy named for a Senator from Mississippi. ... The Charles De Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... HMS Ocean (centre right) in a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... USS (CV-67) (or Big John) is a U.S. Navy aircraft carrier. ... Naval redirects here. ... The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a line of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the US Navy, and are the largest capital ships in the world. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... A rotor of a modern steam turbine, used in a power plant A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam, and converts it into useful mechanical work. ... USS , a typical supercarrier, and HMS Illustrious, a light V/STOL aircraft carrier on a joint patrol. ...

France's Charles de Gaulle (R-91), currently the only nuclear powered aircraft carrier operated by a country other than the United States.
France's Charles de Gaulle (R-91), currently the only nuclear powered aircraft carrier operated by a country other than the United States.

Nine countries maintain a total of 21 aircraft carriers in active service: United States, United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, India, Spain, Brazil, and Thailand. In addition the People's Republic of China's People's Liberation Army Navy possesses the former Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag, but most naval analysts believe that they have no intention to operate it, but instead are using Varyag to learn about carrier operations for future Chinese aircraft carriers. The United States, Brazil, South Korea, United Kingdom, Canada, the People's Republic of China, India, Japan, Australia, Chile, Singapore and France also operate vessels capable of carrying and operating multiple helicopters. Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Charles de Gaulle Nuclear Aircraft carrier , courtesy of www. ... Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Varyag was to be an Admiral Kuznetsov class multirole aircraft carrier. ...


Aircraft carriers are generally accompanied by a number of other ships, to provide protection for the relatively unwieldy carrier, to carry supplies, and to provide additional offensive capabilities. This is often termed a battle group or carrier group, sometimes a carrier battle group. The Abraham Lincoln battle group during the 2000 RIMPAC exercises A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (CV) and its escorts. ...


In the early 21st century, worldwide aircraft carriers are capable of carrying about 1250 aircraft.[citation needed] US carriers account for over 1000 of these.[citation needed] The United Kingdom and France are both undergoing a major expansion in carrier capability (with a common ship class), but the United States will still maintain a very large lead. CVF, literally Aircraft Carrier Future,[3][4] but commonly called the Future Carrier is a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ...


Flight deck

Main article: Flight deck

As "runways at sea," modern aircraft carriers have a flat-top deck design that serves as a flight deck for take-off and landing of aircraft. Aircraft take off to the front, into the wind, and land from the rear. Carriers steam at speed, for example up to 35 knots (65 km/h), into the wind during take-off in order to increase the apparent wind speed, thereby reducing the speed of the aircraft relative to the ship. On some ships, a steam-powered catapult is used to propel the aircraft forward assisting the power of its engines and allowing it to take off in a shorter distance than would otherwise be required, even with the headwind effect of the ship's course. On other carriers, aircraft do not require assistance for take off — the requirement for assistance relates to aircraft design and performance. Conversely, when landing on a carrier, conventional aircraft rely upon a tailhook that catches on arrestor wires stretched across the deck to bring them to a stop in a shorter distance than normal. Other aircraft — helicopters and V/STOL (Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing) designs — utilize their hover capability to land vertically and so require no assistance in speed reduction upon landing. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Ryanair Boeing 737 takes off from Bristol International Airport, England Take off is the phase of flight where an aircraft transitions from moving along the ground (taxiing) to flying in the air (see flight), usually from a runway. ... MyTravel Airways Airbus A320 landing Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal or aircraft returns to the ground. ... A knot is a non SI unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour. ... V = boat speed, H = head wind, W = true wind, A = apparent wind, a = pointing angle, b = angle of apparent wind Apparent wind is the wind relative to a moving object. ... u suk usuk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk u suk usuk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk suk{| class=wikitable |- ! header 1 ! header 2 ! header 3 |- | row 1, cell 1 | row 1... Many aircraft that land on aircraft carriers are equipped with a simple piece of equipment called a tailhook. ... An aircraft about to catch the wire An aircraft coming to a stop Arrestor wires are thick steel cables fitted to the aft end of the flight deck on CTOL and STOBAR aircraft carriers. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... V/STOL is an acronym for Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing. ...


Conventional ("tailhook") aircraft rely upon a landing signal officer (LSO) to control the plane's landing approach, visually gauging altitude, attitude, and speed, and transmitting that data to the pilot. Before the angled deck emerged in the 1950s, LSOs used colored paddles to signal corrections to the pilot. From the late 1950s onward, visual landing aids such as mirrors provided information on proper glide slope, but LSOs still transmit voice calls to landing pilots by radio. Landing Signal Officers (LSOs) are naval aviators specially trained to control the approach and landings of airplanes aboard aircraft carriers. ... Glide ratio is an aviation term that refers to the distance an aircraft will move forward for any given amount of lost altitude (the cotangent of the downward angle). ...


The flight deck of an aircraft carrier is one of the world's most dangerous places to work. To facilitate working on the flight deck of a U.S. aircraft carrier, the sailors wear colored shirts that designate their responsibilities. White shirts are responsible for safety. The LSO wears a white shirt. Red shirts handle munitions. Purple shirts (grapes) handle jet fuel. Yellow shirts are responsible for directing aircraft. Examples of yellow shirts are the shooter, the handler, and the air boss. The shooter, who is a pilot, is responsible for launching aircraft. The handler, who works just inside the island from the flight deck, is responsible for the movement of aircraft before launching and after landing. The air boss (usually a commander) occupies the top bridge and has the overall responsibility for controlling takeoffs, landings, "those aircraft in the air near the ship, and the movement of planes on the flight deck, which itself resembles a well-choreographed ballet." http://www.navy.mil/navydata/ships/carriers/powerhouse/powerhouse.asp The captain of the ship and the one star rear admiral of the carrier group do not wear colored shirts. The captain and his staff work in the command bridge below the top bridge. Below the command bridge is the flag bridge where the commander of the carrier group and his staff work.


Since the early 1950s it has been common to direct the landing recovery area off to port at an angle to the line of the ship. The primary function of the angled deck landing area is to allow aircraft who miss the arresting wires, referred to as a "bolter", to become airborne again without the risk of hitting aircraft parked on the forward parts of the deck. The angled deck also allows launching of aircraft at the same time as others land.

F/A-18 Hornets on the flight deck of the Nimitz-class supercarrier Harry S. Truman
F/A-18 Hornets on the flight deck of the Nimitz-class supercarrier Harry S. Truman

The above deck areas of the warship (the bridge, flight control tower, and so on) are concentrated to the starboard side of the deck in a relatively small area called an "island". The starboard side of the ship is used for the island because early carrier pilots showed a tendency to veer left in a crash situation. Very few carriers have been designed or built without an island and such a configuration has not been seen in a fleet sized carrier. The "flush deck" configuration proved to have very significant drawbacks, complicating navigation, air traffic control and numerous other factors. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1977x823, 167 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aircraft carrier F/A-18 Hornet Flight deck Aircraft catapult Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/September-2006 Wikipedia:Featured... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1977x823, 167 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aircraft carrier F/A-18 Hornet Flight deck Aircraft catapult Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/September-2006 Wikipedia:Featured... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Nimitz class supercarriers are the largest warships in the world. ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ... USS (CVN-75) is the eighth Nimitz-class supercarrier of the United States Navy, named after the 33rd President of the United States, Harry S. Truman. ... Bridge of the brigantine LEtoile The bridge of a ship is an area or room where the ships navigational controls and other essential equipment related to ship operations are housed and operated. ... The control tower at Schiphol airport. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ...


A more recent configuration, used by the British Royal Navy, has a 'ski-jump' ramp at the forward end of the flight deck. This was developed to help launch VTOL (or STOVL) aircraft (aircraft that are able to take off and land with little or no forward movement) such as the Sea Harrier. Although the aircraft are capable of flying vertically off the deck, using the ramp is more fuel efficient. As catapults and arrestor cables are unnecessary, carriers with this arrangement reduce weight, complexity, and space needed for equipment. The disadvantage of the ski jump — and hence, the reason this configuration has not appeared on American supercarriers — is the penalty that it exacts on aircraft size, payload and fuel load (and hence, range): Large, slow planes such as the E-2 Hawkeye and heavily-laden strike fighters like the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet cannot use a ski jump because their high weight requires either a longer takeoff roll than is possible on a carrier deck, or catapult assistance. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... The BAE Systems Sea Harrier is a British naval VTOL/STOVL jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. ... The Grumman E-2 Hawkeye is an all-weather, aircraft carrier-based tactical Airborne Early Warning (AEW) aircraft nicknamed Super Fudd[1] because it replaced Willy Fudd, (the E-1 Tracer). ... The Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet is a carrier-based fighter/attack aircraft that entered service in 1999 with the United States Navy. ...


Future aircraft carriers

Several nations which currently possess aircraft carriers are in the process of planning new classes to replace current ones. The world's navies still generally see the aircraft carrier as the main future capital ship, with developments such as the arsenal ship, which have been promoted as an alternative, seen as too limited in terms of flexibility. Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... An arsenal ship is a ship which was proposed by the US Navy in 1996. ...


Military experts such as John Keegan[12] have noted that in any future naval conflict between reasonably evenly matched powers, all surface ships - including aircraft carriers - would be at extreme and disproportionate risk, mainly due to the advanced capabilities of satellite reconnaissance and anti-ship missiles. Contrary to the thrust of most current naval spending, Keegan therefore postulates that eventually, most navies will move to submarines as their main fighting ships, including in roles where submarines play only a minor or no role at the moment. Sir John Keegan OBE (born 1934) is a British military historian, lecturer and journalist. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ...


Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy

In June 2005, reports from boxun.com that the People's Republic of China would build a US$ 362 million aircraft carrier with a displacement of 78,000 tonnes were denied by Chinese defence official Zhang Guangqin.[13]


China bought the unfinished Soviet aircraft carrier Varyag in 2001 from Ukraine, supposedly to be turned into a floating casino. Pictures taken while in port suggest this plan has been abandoned and show that work is being carried out to maintain its military function. There is no conclusive evidence as to what role it would play in the Chinese Navy. Varyag was to be an Admiral Kuznetsov class multirole aircraft carrier. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In 2007, it was announced that China was working on a plan for producing its own aircraft carrier.[citation needed]


French Navy

The French Navy has set in motion plans for a second CTOL aircraft carrier, to supplement Charles de Gaulle. The design is to be much larger, in the range of 65-74,000 tonnes, and will not be nuclear-powered like Charles de Gaulle. There are plans to buy the third carrier of the current Royal Navy design for CATOBAR operations (the Thales/BAE Systems design for the Royal Navy is for a STOVL carrier which is reconfigurable to CATOBAR operations). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... PA2 (Porte-Avions 2) is a planned new aircraft carrier developed for the French Navy by Thales Naval France and DCN from the Thales UK/BMT design for the future British Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... PA2 (Porte-Avions 2) is a planned new aircraft carrier developed for the French Navy by Thales Naval France and DCN from the Thales UK/BMT design for the future British Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers. ... Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... CVF, literally Aircraft Carrier Future,[3][4] but commonly called the Future Carrier is a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... CATOBAR (Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery) is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier. ... The Thales Group (Euronext: HO) is a major French electronics company delivering mission-critical information systems and services for the Aerospace, Defence, and Security markets. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, UK, which has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ...


Indian Navy

An artist's rendering of the Vikrant class aircraft carrier set to join the Indian Navy in 2012.

India started the construction of a 37,500 tonne, 252 meter-long Vikrant class aircraft carrier in April 2005. The new carrier will cost US$762 million and will operate MiG 29K 'Fulcrum', Naval HAL Tejas and Sea Harrier aircraft along with the Indian-made helicopter HAL Dhruv. The ship will be powered by four turbine engines and when completed will have a range of 7,500 nautical miles (14,000 km), carrying 160 officers, 1400 sailors, and 30 aircraft. The carrier is being constructed by a state-run shipyard in Cochin. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) (formerly known as Air Defense Ship (ADS)) is first aircraft carrier to be built by India at the Cochin Shipyard. ... The Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC) (formerly known as Air Defense Ship (ADS)) is first aircraft carrier to be built by India at the Cochin Shipyard. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) is a 4th generation jet fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ... The HAL Tejas (Sanskrit:  : Radiant) is a lightweight multirole fighter aircraft being developed by India. ... The HAL Dhruv (Sanskrit:Pole Star) is a multi-role advanced helicopter made by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). ...


In 2004, India also bought Admiral Gorshkov from Russia for US$1.5 billion. It is most likely to be named the INS Vikramaditya, and is expected to join the Indian Navy in 2008 after a refit.[14] However, this date now seems overly optimistic, as delays in the refit were announced in the middle of July 2007. Eduard Borisov, an acting director of Sevmash plant responsible for refit, stated that production capabilities of the plant were overestimated for current funding level, and the refit will be completed only in 2011.[15] Vladimir Pastuhov, Sevmash director, had to step down, along with two other top managers of large defence contractors, in the largest scandal in the Russian defence industry in recent years.[16] Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov is expected to enter the Indian Navy by 2008 to meet Indias naval aspirations. ... The aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, the former Admiral Gorshkov, is estimated to enter service in the Indian Navy in 2008. ... The Indian Navy is the naval branch of the armed forces of India. ...


Italian Navy

The construction of the conventional powered Marina Militare STOVL aircraft carrier Cavour began in 2001. It is being built by Fincantieri of Italy. After much delay, Cavour is expected to enter service in 2009 to complement the Marina Militare aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi. Marina Militare naval jack Marina Militare (the Italian Navy) is one of the four branches of the military forces of Italy. ... Cavour (550) is an Italian aircraft carrier (CVS). ... Fincantieri - Cantieri Navali Italiani S.p. ... The aircraft carrier Giuseppe Garibaldi (551) is the current flagship of the Marina Militare Italiana, the Italian Navy. ...


Royal Navy (United Kingdom)

The Royal Navy is currently planning two new larger STOVL aircraft carriers (the Queen Elizabeth class) to replace the three Invincible class carriers. These two ships are to be named HMS Queen Elizabeth and HMS Prince of Wales.[17] They will be able to operate up to 48 aircraft and will have a displacement of around 65,000 tonnes. The two ships are due to enter service in 2014 and 2016 respectively. Their primary aircraft complement will be made up of F-35B Lightning IIs, and their ship's company will number around 1000. This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers (formerly CVF)[4] are a new generation of aircraft carrier being developed for the United Kingdoms Royal Navy. ... The sixth (and current) HMS Invincible. ... Queen Elizabeth and her sister ship (Prince of Wales) will be the largest warships ever built in the United Kingdom. ... Thales Future Carrier (CVF) Design HMS Prince of Wales will be the second of the Royal Navys two Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers and is scheduled to enter service in 2016. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ...


The two ships will be the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy. Initially to be configured for STOVL operations, the carriers are to be adaptable to STOBAR or CATOBAR configurations to allow any type of future generation of aircraft to operate from them.


Russian Navy

Russian Navy Commander-in-Chief Admiral Vladimir Masorin officially stated on June 23, 2007, that Navy is currently considering a specifications of a new nuclear aircraft carrier design,[18][19] for the class that was first announced about a month earlier. Production of the carriers is believed to start around 2010 at Zvezdochka plant in Severodvinsk, where the large drydock, capable of launching vessels with more than 100,000 ton displacement, is now being built.[20] The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Vladimir V. Masorin Vladimir Vasilievich Masorin (Russian: Владимир Васильевич Масорин) (born August 24, 1947) is a Russian admiral who commanded the Caspian Flotilla in 1996-2002 and the Black Sea Fleet in 2002-2005. ... Sewerodwinsk (Russian: ) is a city in Archangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... U.S. Navy submarine USS Greeneville in dry dock following collision with a fishing boat. ...


In his statement Admiral Masorin stated that general dimensions of the project are already determined. The projected carrier is to have a nuclear propulsion, to displace about 50,000 tons and to carry an air wing of 30-50 air superiority aircraft and helicopters, which makes her roughly comparable to French Charles de Gaulle carrier. "The giants that the US Navy builds, those that carry 100-130 aircraft, we won't build anything like that", said Admiral Masorin.[19] The planned specs reflects the role of aircraft carriers as an air support platforms for guided missile cruisers and submarines, traditional for the Russian Navy. Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... Vladimir V. Masorin Vladimir Vasilievich Masorin (Russian: Владимир Васильевич Масорин) (born August 24, 1947) is a Russian admiral who commanded the Caspian Flotilla in 1996-2002 and the Black Sea Fleet in 2002-2005. ... The USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... The Russian Navy or VMF (Russian: Военно-Морской Флот (ВМФ) - Voyenno- Morskoy Flot (VMF) or Military Maritime Fleet) is the naval arm of the Russian armed forces. ...


Russian naval establishment had long agreed that since the decommissioning of Kiev class carriers the only operational carrier Admiral Kuznetsov was insufficient, and that three or four carriers were necessary to meet the Navy's air support requirements.[citation needed] However financial and organisational turmoil of the 1990s made even maintenance of Admiral Kuznetsov a difficult undertaking. The recent improvement in Russia's economic situation has allowed a major increase in defence spending, and at least two new carriers were believed to be in planning, one each for Northern and Pacific fleets.[citation needed] Aircraft carrier Kiev, USSR, 1975-1996 The Kiev class carriers (also know as Project 1143 or as the Krechyet class) were the first class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers build in Russia. ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмирал флота Советского Союза Кузнецов, originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Russian: Адмирал флота Советского Союза Кузнецов, originally named Tbilisi and then Leonid Brezhnev[1]) is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft carrying cruiser (TAVKR) in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy. ... Northern Fleet patch featuring the Andreyevsky ensign It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Soviet Red Banner Northern Fleet. ... Russian Pacific Navy sleeve ensign The Pacific Ocean Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот in Russian, or Tikhookeanskiy flot) is part of the Russian Navy stationed in the Pacific Ocean, which formerly secured the Far Eastern borders of the USSR. The fleet headquarters is located at Vladivostok. ...


Spanish Navy

The project for the 231 meter-long, 25,000-30,000-tonne conventionally-powered Juan Carlos I for the Spanish Navy was approved in 2003, and its construction started in August 2005, with the shipbuilding firm Navantia in charge of the project. The Juan Carlos I is a vessel designed to operate both as amphibious assault ship vessel and as VSTOL aircraft carrier, depending on the mission assigned. The design was made keeping in mind the low-intensity conflicts in which the Spanish Navy is likely to be involved in the future. When it is configured to operate as VSTOL aircraft carrier, the operating range will be about 25,000 tonnes, and it will operate a maximum of 30 Matador AV-8B+, F-35 or a mixed force of both aircraft. The ship is provided with a Ski-Jump and a tri-dimensional radar based combat system, and she will be the second operating aircraft carrier of the Spanish navy after Príncipe de Asturias. The Spanish Navy (in Spanish, Armada Española) is the maritime arm of the Spanish Military. ... Navantia, formerly Bazán or IZAR, has become Spains leading state-owned shipbuilding firm, offering its services to both military and civil projects. ... For the general article on amphibious ships, see Amphibious warfare ship. ... See also Hawker Siddeley Harrier The Harrier II is a second generation, vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) light_attack jet aircraft used by the United States Marine Corps, Royal Air Force, Spanish Armada and Italian navy. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ... The SPS Príncipe de Asturias (R 11) is the only active aircraft carrier of the Spanish Navy. ...


Australia is also purchasing two of these vessels, the Canberra class large amphibious ships, for the Royal Australian Navy. The Australian ships will not operate VTOL aircraft, however. The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ...


US Navy

Virtual depiction of the new US Navy Gerald R. Ford-Class carrier

The current US Fleet of Nimitz class carriers are to be followed into service (and in some cases replaced) by the Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) class. It is expected that the ships will be larger than the Nimitz, and will also be designed to be less detectable by radar. The United States Navy is also looking to make these new carriers more automated in an effort to reduce the amount of funding required to maintain and operate its supercarriers. The Nimitz-class supercarriers are a line of nuclear-powered aircraft carriers in service with the US Navy, and are the largest capital ships in the world. ... The -class aircraft carriers (or Ford-class) will be the next generation supercarrier for the United States Navy. ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ...


With the decommissioning of the USS John F. Kennedy in March, 2007, the US fleet has been reduced to 11 supercarriers; thus creating major discussions between the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Congress. The House Armed Services Seapower subcommittee on July 24, 2007 is recommending 7, maybe 8 new carriers (1 every 4 years). However, the debate is deepened over budgeting for the $12-14.5 billion (plus $12 billion for development and research) for the Gerald Ford-class carrier (estimated service 2015). And, comparing these expenditures for a smaller $2 billion 45,000-ton class big-deck amphibious assault ships for squadrons of the new F-35Bs.[21] is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The F-35 Lightning II is a single-seat, single-engine, stealth-capable military strike fighter, a multi-role aircraft that can perform close air support, tactical bombing, and air-to-air combat. ...


See also

Project Habbakuk was a plan by the British in World War II to construct an unsinkable aircraft carrier out of ice, for use against German U-boats in the mid-Atlantic, which was out of range of land-based planes. ... ... CATOBAR (Catapult Assisted Take Off But Arrested Recovery) is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier. ... A Zenair CH701 STOL light aircraft Polish STOL light aircraft PZL-104M Wilga of Polish Border Guard at Radom Air Show in 2005. ... STOBAR (Short Take Off But Arrested Recovery) is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier, combining elements of both STOVL and CATOBAR. Aircraft launch under their own power using a ski-jump to assist take-off (rather than using a... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ... V/STOL is an acronym for Vertical/Short Take-Off and Landing. ...

Other aircraft carriers

The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the U.S. Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A light aircraft carrier is an aircraft carrier that is smaller than the standard carriers of a navy. ... USS Enterprise, a supercarrier, and the conventionally-sized aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle USS A supercarrier is a ship belonging to the largest class of aircraft carrier, and generally has a displacement greater than 75,000 tons. ... For the general article on amphibious ships, see Amphibious warfare ship. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... Balloon carriers, or Balloon tenders were a type of ships equipped with balloon (usually captive, and usually used for observations), during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... Airborne aircraft carriers are aircraft which can launch other aircraft. ... Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with airplanes for observation or attack missions. ... A land mobile aircraft carrier is a fictional terrestrial vehicle built to launch aircraft, while mobile. ...

Related lists

The list of aircraft carriers contains all aircraft carriers listed alphabetically by name. ... The list of aircraft carriers by country includes all aircraft carriers organized by country of origin and service. ... The list of aircraft carriers by type contains aircraft carriers organized by the specific type of aircraft carrier design. ... This is a list of all the aircraft carrier, light carrier and escort carrier classes that have served in the United States Navy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a list of amphibious warfare ships updated as of January 2005. ... Aircraft carriers are the most prominent modern capital ship and appear in many fictional works. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Carriers: Airpower at Sea - The Early Years / Part 1. sandcastlevi.com. Sandcastle VI (2003-01-01). Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  2. ^ Descriptionand photograph of Foudre
  3. ^ First US seaplane carrier, the USS Mississippi
  4. ^ Clement Ader on the structure of the aircraft carrier:
    "An airplane-carrying vessel is indispensable. These vessels will be constructed on a plan very different from what is currently used. First of all the deck will be cleared of all obstacles. It will be flat, as wide as possible without jeopardizing the nautical lines of the hull, and it will look like a landing field." Military Aviation, p35
    On stowage:
    "Of necessity, the airplanes will be stowed below decks; they would be solidly fixed anchored to their bases, each in its place, so they would not be affected with the pitching and rolling. Access to this lower decks would be by an elevator sufficiently long and wide to hold an airplane with its wings folded. A large, sliding trap would cover the hole in the deck, and it would have waterproof joints, so that neither rain nor seawater, from heavy seas could penetrate below." Military Aviation, p36
    On the technique of landing:
    "The ship will be headed straight into the wind, the stern clear, but a padded bulwark set up forward in case the airplane should run past the stop line" Military Aviation, p37
  5. ^ Carriers: Airpower at Sea - The Early Years / Part 2. sandcastlevi.com. Sandcastle VI (2003-01-01). Retrieved on 2007-08-03.
  6. ^ Wakamiya is "credited with conducting the first successful carrier air raid in history" Source:GlobalSecurity.org, also "the first air raid in history to result in a success" (here)
  7. ^ "Sabre et pinceau", Christian Polak, p92
  8. ^ GlobalSecurity: IJN Wakamiya Seaplane Carrieraccessed 2007-11-20.
  9. ^ a b "Hōshō was a carrier from the keel, the first of its kind completed in any navy of the world" Scot MacDonald US Navy History: Evolution of Aircraft Carriers
  10. ^ "The Imperial Japanese Navy was a pioneer in naval aviation, having commissioned the world's first built-from-the-keel-up carrier, the Hosho." GlobalSecurity: Carrier Hosho.
  11. ^ CVL--Small Aircraft Carriers, Naval Historical Center, http://www.history.navy.mil/photos/shusn-no/cvl-no.htm, accessed 22 September 2006.
  12. ^ Submarine aircraft carriers (uneven-quality private website, but has third-party citations in support)
  13. ^ Radio Australia report, China denies reports of aircraft carrier project
  14. ^ Article on India's indigenously built aircraft carrier.
  15. ^ Izvestia.ru (in Russian)
  16. ^ Lenta.Ru article on the scandal (in Russian)
  17. ^ "Queen Elizabeth class Future Aircraft Carrier CVF (002)." Pike, J. GlobalSecurity.org.
  18. ^ Russia to Build New Aircraft Carrier. Retrieved on 2007-6-23.
  19. ^ a b Lenta.Ru newssiteGoogle translation - English 06/23/2007
  20. ^ Lenta.Ru newssite Google translation - English 07/04/2006
  21. ^ Kreisher, Otto (October 2007). "Seven New Carriers(Maybe)". AIR FORCE MAGAZINE, Journal of the Air Force Association 90 (10): pp.68-71. Air Force Association. ISSN 0730-6784. Retrieved on 2007-10-02. 

Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Naval Historical Center (NHC) is the official history program of the United States Navy. ... GlobalSecurity. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Francillon, René J, Tonkin Gulf Yacht Club US Carrier Operations off Vietnam, (1988) ISBN 0-87021-696-1
  • Nordeen, Lon, Air Warfare in the Missile Age, (1985) ISBN 1-58834-083-X
  • Clement Ader, "Military Aviation", 1909, Edited and translated by Lee Kennett, Air University Press, Maxwell Air Force Base Alabama, 2003, ISBN 1-58566-118-X
  • U. S. Aircraft Carriers: an Illustrated Design History / Norman Friedman - Naval Institute Press, 1983 - ISBN 0870217399 Contains numerous detailed ship plans.
  • "Sabre et pinceau" Christian Polak, Chambre Française de Commerce et d'Industrie du Japon.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... A seaplane tender (or seaplane carrier) is a ship which provides the facililites necessary for operating seaplanes. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... [[Image:HMS Hood and HMS Barham. ... USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga-class guided missile cruiser (really an uprated guided missile destroyer), launched in 1992. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... Ironclad (and broadside ironclad) redirects here. ... A monitor was a special form of warship, little more than a self-propelled floating artillery platform that could move close inshore and give its support to military operations on land. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... French steam corvette Dupleix (1856-1887) Canadian corvettes on antisubmarine convoy escort duty during World War II. A corvette is a small, maneuverable, lightly armed warship, smaller than a frigate and larger than a coastal patrol craft. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Haze Gray & Underway World Aircraft Carrier Lists (979 words)
The World Aircraft Carriers Lists are a comprehensive, detailed listing of all the world's aircraft carriers and seaplane tenders, from the start of naval aviation into the 21st century.
Every carrier and seaplane tender ever built or planned is listed, with complete technical data, historical sketches and photographs for virtually every ship.
Aircraft Carrier Historical Data from the Naval Historical Center
ACIBC - Aircraft Carrier Industrial Base Coalition - Carrier Fact Sheet (720 words)
Aircraft carriers have been employed in every major and many smaller global conflicts including Vietnam; Grenada and Lebanon (1983); Libya (1986); Operation Desert Storm (1991); and most recently in Afghanistan and Iraq.
The Navy’s carrier acquisition program, CVN 21, is planned to be a 12-ship class – the first seven of which are in the Navy’s 30 year Shipbuilding Plan between 2008 and 2031.
The coalition seeks to preserve the strength of the aircraft carrier force structure and promote the value of the aircraft carrier industrial base by educating policymakers and other stakeholders about the vital role that aircraft carriers play as the dominant sea-based platform in the defense of our nation.
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