FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Aircraft" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Aircraft
Aircraft
An Airbus A380, the world's largest passenger airliner

An aircraft is a vehicle which is able to fly through the Earth's atmosphere or through any other atmosphere. Most rocket vehicles are not aircraft because they are not supported by the surrounding air. All the human activity which surrounds aircraft is called aviation. Flying machine may refer to Aircraft, particulary designs from the early days of flight First flying machine List of early flying machines Flying Machine (Swedenborg), an early aircraft design by Emanuel Swedenborg Literature The Flying Machine, a short story by Ray Bradbury Flying-machine, fictional aircraft invented by H.G... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... For other uses, see Flight (disambiguation). ... Air redirects here. ... Atmospheres redirects here. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... This article is about modern humans. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ...


Manned aircraft are flown by a pilot. Until the 1960s, unmanned aircraft were called drones. During the 1960s, the U.S. military brought the term remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) into use. More recently the term unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has become common. For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ...

Contents

Kinds of aircraft

Aircraft fall into two categories: lighter-than-air (aerostats), and heavier-than-air (aerodynes). Lighter than air gases are buoyant in air because they have a density that is less than the density of air. ...


Lighter than air—aerostats

A hot air balloon in flight.
A hot air balloon in flight.

Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way that ships float on the water. They are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a relatively low density gas such as helium, hydrogen or hot air, which is less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1896x2852, 2335 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hot air balloon ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1896x2852, 2335 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hot air balloon ... Uncrewed aerostats can carry instruments and sensors for long durations that are impractical for humans and other aircraft. ... In physics, buoyancy is the upward force on an object produced by the surrounding fluid (i. ... General Name, symbol, number helium, He, 2 Chemical series noble gases Group, period, block 18, 1, s Appearance colorless Standard atomic weight 4. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about hot air balloons themselves. ...


Small hot air balloons called sky lanterns date back to the 3rd century BC and were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites.-1... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ...


Originally a "balloon" was any aerostat, while the term "airship" was used for large powered aircraft designs—usually fixed-wing—though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, and later of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no aeroplanes or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these monsters. Then several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a balloon is an unpowered aerostat, whilst an airship is a powered one. Construction of the USS Shenandoah (ZR-1), 1923, showing the framework of a rigid airship. ... Zeppelins are types of rigid airships pioneered by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin in the early 20th century, based in part on an earlier design by aviation pioneer David Schwarz. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ...


A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, and sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship (which may then be rigid or non-rigid). Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was widely adopted for tethered balloons; in windy weather this both reduces the strain on the tether and stabilizes the balloon. The nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... “Blimp” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Heavier than air—aerodynes

Heavier-than-air aircraft must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs (by Newton's laws of motion) to push the aircraft upwards. This dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, and powered lift in the form of engine thrust. An aerodyne is a heavier-than-air aircraft with a lifting body; as opposed to an aeroplane (which uses wings for lift) or an aerostat (which uses buoyancy, such as a balloon). ... For the Daft Punk song, see Aerodynamic (song). ... A powered lift (also written powered-lift) is a type of aircraft that can take off and land vertically but functions differently than a helicopter in horizontal flight. ...


Aerodynamic lift is the most common, with aeroplanes being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, and rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface, usually shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, the wing must move forwards through the air; this movement of air over the aerofoil shape deflects air downward to create an equal and opposite upward force, called lift, according to Newton's third law of motion. A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material, often stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed or rotary. Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rotary-wing aircraft. ... For the kite, see foil kite. ... Newtons First and Second laws, in Latin, from the original 1687 edition of the Principia Mathematica. ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ...


With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downwards. In astronomy, geography, geometry and related sciences and contexts, a direction passing by a given point is said to be vertical if it is locally aligned with the gradient of the gravity field, i. ...


The initialism VTOL (vertical take off and landing) is applied to aircraft that can take off and land vertically. Most are rotorcraft. Others, such as the Hawker Siddeley Harrier, take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. Similarly, STOL stands for short take off and landing. Some VTOL aircraft often operate in a short take off/vertical landing regime known as STOVL. Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... See also BAE Sea Harrier The Hawker Siddeley Harrier and the AV-8A are the first generation of the Harrier series, a successful close-support and reconnaissance fighter aircraft with V/STOL capabilities. ... A Zenair CH701 STOL light aircraft Polish STOL light aircraft PZL-104M Wilga of Polish Border Guard at Radom Air Show in 2005. ... STOVL is an acronym for Short Take Off and Vertical Landing. ...


A pure rocket is not usually regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift (and can even fly into space), however many aerodynamic lift vehicles have been powered or assisted by rocket motors. Rocket-powered missiles which obtain aerodynamic lift at very high speed due to airflow over their bodies, are a marginal case. This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


Fixed-wing aircraft

NASA test aircraft
NASA test aircraft
A size comparison of some of the largest aeroplanes. The Airbus A380-800 (largest airliner), the Boeing 747-8, the Antonov An-225 (aircraft with the greatest payload) and the Hughes H-4 "Spruce Goose" (aircraft with greatest wingspan).
A size comparison of some of the largest aeroplanes. The Airbus A380-800 (largest airliner), the Boeing 747-8, the Antonov An-225 (aircraft with the greatest payload) and the Hughes H-4 "Spruce Goose" (aircraft with greatest wingspan).

Aeroplanes or airplanes are technically called fixed-wing aircraft. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2997x2404, 6076 KB) Source: NASA Dryden Research Centre [1] Date: July 16, 1997 Photo: Tony Landis X-31, F-15 ACTIVE, SR-71, F-106, F-16XL, X-38, Radio Contreolled Mothership and X-36 File links The following pages link... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2997x2404, 6076 KB) Source: NASA Dryden Research Centre [1] Date: July 16, 1997 Photo: Tony Landis X-31, F-15 ACTIVE, SR-71, F-106, F-16XL, X-38, Radio Contreolled Mothership and X-36 File links The following pages link... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Giant_planes_comparison. ... Image File history File links Giant_planes_comparison. ... The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, an EADS subsidiary. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... The Boeing 747-8 is the latest variant of the Boeing 747, officially announced in 2005. ... The An-225 Mriya (Ukrainian: , NATO reporting name: Cossack) is a strategic airlift transport aircraft which was built by Antonov, and is the worlds largest flying airplane ever built by the most commonly accepted measure,[1] maximum gross takeoff weight. ... The Hughes H-4 Hercules is a one-off heavy transport aircraft designed and built by the Hughes Aircraft company, making its first and only flight in 1947. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ...


The forerunner of the aeroplane is the kite. Whereas an aeroplane relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, and were invented in China around 500 BC. Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels and computer modelling programs became available. For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wind (disambiguation). ...


The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free flight were unpowered aeroplanes or gliders. A glider designed by Cayley carried out the first true manned, controlled flight in 1853. Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773 – December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Besides the method of propulsion, aeroplanes are generally characterized by their wing configuration. The most important wing characteristics are:

  • Number of planes - Monoplane, biplane, etc.
  • Wing support - Braced or cantilever, rigid or flexible.
  • Wing planform - including aspect ratio, angle of sweep and any variations along the span. Includes the important class of delta wings.
  • Location of the horizontal stabiliser, if any.
  • Dihedral angle - positive, zero or negative (anhedral).

A variable geometry aircraft can change its wing configuration during flight. A monoplane is an aircraft with one main set of wing surfaces, in contrast to a biplane or triplane. ... Reproduction of a Sopwith Camel biplane flown by Lt. ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ... The swept wing of an airliner: British Midland Airbus A320-200 A swept-wing is a wing planform used on high-speed aircraft that spend a considerable portion of their flight time in the transonic. ... The delta-wing is a wing planform in the form of a triangle. ... In geometry, the dihedral is the angle between two planes. ... A swing-wing is a type of pivoted wing planform that takes advantage of the aerodynamics of a swept wing at high speeds while avoiding the drawbacks of such a design at lower speeds. ...


A flying wing has no fuselage, though it may have small blisters or pods. The opposite of this is a lifting body which has no wings, though it may have small stabilising and control surfaces. A Northrop YB-49 flying wing. ... The lifting body is an aircraft configuration where the body itself produces lift. ...

Seaplane: Be-8 was built in 1947

Seaplanes and Floatplanes differ in that a seaplane has the bottom of its fuselage shaped hydrodynamically and it sits directly on the water when at rest, while a floatplane has two or more floats attached below the rest of the aircraft so that the fuselage remains clear of the water at all times. Image File history File links Berijew_Be-8_. ... Image File history File links Berijew_Be-8_. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ...


Some people consider wing-in-ground-effect vehicles to be aeroplanes, others do not. These craft "fly" close to the surface of the ground or water. An example is the Russian ekranoplan also nicknamed the "Caspian Sea Monster". Man-powered aircraft also rely on ground effect to remain airborne, but this is only because they are so underpowered - the airframe is theoretically capable of flying much higher. (Hovercraft are not considered to be aircraft, since they rely wholly on the pressure of air on the ground beneath, and have no aerodynamic lifting surface). Flarecraft cruising A Wing In Ground-effect vehicle (WIG), sometimes referred to as a flarecraft, is a vehicle that cruises little more than a few feet over flat surfaces, most often water. ... An ekranoplan (Russian: , literally screen plane) is a vehicle resembling an aircraft but that operates solely on the principle of ground effect (in Russian эффект экрана effekt ekrana - from which the name derived). ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... Aircraft may be affected by a number of Ground effects, aerodynamic effects due to a flying bodys proximity to the ground. ... For the band, see Hovercraft (band). ...


Rotorcraft

Rotorcraft, or rotary-wing aircraft, use a spinning rotor with aerofoil section blades (a rotary wing) to provide lift. Types include helicopters, autogyros and various hybrids such as gyrodynes and compound rotorcraft. Bell 206B Jet Ranger III helicopter (G-CODE), built 1985, photographed at the Heli-Day, Kemble (England) in August 2003. ... Bell 206B Jet Ranger III helicopter (G-CODE), built 1985, photographed at the Heli-Day, Kemble (England) in August 2003. ... The Bell Helicopter Model 206 JetRanger is a two-bladed main rotor, turbine powered helicopter with a conventional, two-bladed tail rotor. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Rotary-wing aircraft. ... For the kite, see foil kite. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... An autogyro is a type of rotorcraft invented by Juan de la Cierva in 1919, making its first successful flight on January 9, 1923 at Cuatro Vientos Airfield in Madrid, Spain. ... The Gyrodyne Company of America was founded by Peter J. Papadakos in [1946], using the assests he bought from the bankrupt Bendix Helicopter Company that was developing a one-man synchronized co-axial rotor helicopter. ...


Helicopters have powered rotors. The rotor is driven (directly or indirectly) by an engine and pushes air downwards to create lift. By tilting the rotor forwards, the downwards flow is tilted backwards, producing thrust for forward flight. For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


Autogyros or gyroplanes have unpowered rotors, with a separate power plant to provide thrust. The rotor is tilted backwards. As the autogyro moves forward, air blows upwards through it, making it spin.(cf. Autorotation) An autogyro is a type of rotorcraft invented by Juan de la Cierva in 1919, making its first successful flight on January 9, 1923 at Cuatro Vientos Airfield in Madrid, Spain. ... Autorotation is the engineering term for the aerodynamics providing lift in a rotor-driven aircraft such as autogyro or helicopter. ...

US-Recognition Manual (very likely copy of german drawing)
US-Recognition Manual (very likely copy of german drawing)

This spinning dramatically increases the speed of airflow over the rotor, to provide lift. Juan de la Cierva (a Spanish civil engineer) used the product name autogiro, and Bensen used gyrocopter. Rotor kites, such as the Focke Achgelis Fa 330 are unpowered autogyros, which must be towed by a tether to give them forward ground speed or else be tether-anchored to a static anchor in a high-wind situation for kited flight. Juan de la Cierva (21 September 1895 – 19 December 1936) was a Spanish aeronautical engineer and pilot. ... The Bensen Aircraft Corporation was established by Dr Igor Bensen at Raleigh-Durham International Airport in North Carolina in 1952 to develop and market a variety of helicopters and autogyros of Bensens own design. ... An Fa-330 on display at the National Museum of the United States Air Force in Dayton, OH The Focke Achgelis Fa-330 Bachstelze (Wagtail) was a type of rotary kite, essentially an unpowered Autogyro. ...


Gyrodynes are a form of helicopter, where forward thrust is obtained from a separate propulsion device rather than from tilting the rotor. The definition of a 'gyrodyne' has changed over the years, sometimes including equivalent autogyro designs. The most important characteristic is that in forward flight air does not flow significantly either up or down through the rotor disc but primarily across it. The Heliplane is a similar idea. The Gyrodyne Company of America was founded by Peter J. Papadakos in [1946], using the assests he bought from the bankrupt Bendix Helicopter Company that was developing a one-man synchronized co-axial rotor helicopter. ... The Gyrodyne Company of America was founded by Peter J. Papadakos in [1946], using the assests he bought from the bankrupt Bendix Helicopter Company that was developing a one-man synchronized co-axial rotor helicopter. ...


Compound rotorcraft have wings which provide some or all of the lift in forward flight. Compound helicopters and compound autogyros have been built, and some forms of gyroplane may be referred to as compound gyroplanes. Tiltrotor aircraft (such as the V-22 Osprey) have their rotors horizontal for vertical flight, and pivot the rotors vertically like a propeller for forward flight. The Coleopter had a cylindrical wing forming a duct around the rotor. On the ground it sat on its tail, and took off and landed vertically like a helicopter. The whole aircraft would then have tilted forward to fly as a propeller-driven aeroplane using the duct as a wing (though this transition was never achieved in practice.) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The V-22 Osprey is an American joint service, multi-mission, military tiltrotor aircraft with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capability. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... The Coleopter was a VTOL aircraft developed by the French in the 1950s. ...


Some rotorcraft have reaction-powered rotors with gas jets at the tips, but most have one or more lift rotors powered from engine-driven shafts.


Other methods of lift

X24B lifting body, specialized glider
X24B lifting body, specialized glider
  • A lifting body is the opposite of a flying wing. In this configuration the aircraft body is shaped to produce lift. If there are any wings, they are too small to provide all the lift. Lifting bodies are not efficient: the aircraft must travel at high speed to generate enough lift to fly. The most famous lifting body design is the Space Shuttle, while some supersonic missiles obtain lift from the airflow over a tubular body.
  • Powered lifts rely entirely on engine thrust to hold them up in the air. There are few practical applications. Experimental designs have been built for personal fan-lift hover platforms and jetpacks or for VTOL research (for example the flying bedstead). VTOL jet aircraft such as the Harrier jump-jet take off and land vertically in powered-lift configuration, then transition to conventional configuration for forward flight.
  • The FanWing is a recent innovation and represents a completely new class of aircraft. This uses a fixed wing with a cylindrical fan mounted spanwise just above. As the fan spins, it creates an airflow backwards over the upper surface of the wing, creating lift. The fan wing is (2005) in development in the United Kingdom.

USAF NASA X-24B Lifting Body File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... USAF NASA X-24B Lifting Body File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The lifting body is an aircraft configuration where the body itself produces lift. ... A Northrop YB-49 flying wing. ... This article is about the space vehicle. ... A United States Navy F/A-18E/F Super Hornet in transonic flight. ... For other uses, see Missile (disambiguation). ... A powered lift (also written powered-lift) is a type of aircraft that can take off and land vertically but functions differently than a helicopter in horizontal flight. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... The Flying Bedstead was a nickname given to two experimental vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft. ... The Hawker Harrier, one of the famous examples of a plane with VTOL capability. ... FanWing or fan wing is a concept for a type of aircraft. ...

Propulsion

Unpowered

Some types of aircraft, such as balloons, kites and gliders, do not have any propulsion. For other uses, see Balloon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Glider (disambiguation). ...


Balloons drift with the wind, though normally the pilot can control the altitude either by heating the air or by releasing ballast, giving some directional control (since the wind direction changes with altitude). A wing-shaped hybrid balloon can glide directionally when rising or falling; but a spherically-shaped balloon does not have such directional control.Flying with Gravity


Kites are tethered to the ground or other object (fixed or mobile) or other means that maintains tension in the kite line; and rely on virtual or real wind blowing over and under them to generate lift and drag. Kytoons are balloon kites that are shaped and tethered to obtain kiting deflections, and can be lighter-than-air, neutrally buoyant, or heavier-than air.


Gliders gain their initial swimming speed from some launch mechanism, and then gain additional energy from gravity and from updrafts such as thermal currents. Takeoff may be by launching forwards and downwards from a high location, or by pulling into the air on a towline, by a ground-based winch or vehicle, or by a powered "tug" aircraft. For a glider to maintain its forward air speed and lift, it must descend in relation to the air (but not necessarily in relation to the ground). The first practical, controllable example was designed and built by the British scientist and pioneer George Cayley who is universally recognised as the first aeronautical engineer. Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (December 27, 1773 – December 15, 1857) was a prolific English engineer from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire. ...


Propellers

A turboprop-engined DeHavilland Twin Otter adapted as a floatplane
A turboprop-engined DeHavilland Twin Otter adapted as a floatplane

A propeller comprises a set of small, wing-like aerofoils set around a central hub which spins on an axis aligned in the direction of travel. Spinning the propeller creates aerodynamic lift, or thrust, in a forward direction. A contra-prop arrangement has a second propeller close behind the first one on the same axis, which rotates in the opposite direction. Image File history File links West Coast Air De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter floatplane shortly after takeoff from Vancouver, B. C. Image taken June 13, 2005 by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File links West Coast Air De Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter floatplane shortly after takeoff from Vancouver, B. C. Image taken June 13, 2005 by User:Leonard G. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ... The DHC-6 Twin Otter is a 20-passenger STOL feederliner and utility aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ...


A variation on the propeller is to use many broad blades to create a fan. Such fans are traditionally surrounded by a ring-shaped fairing or duct, as ducted fans. Some experimental designs do not use a duct, and are sometimes called propfans. How to tell whether it's a propellor or a fan? Look at it from the front when stationary: if you can see in between the blades then it is a propellor, while if the blades pretty much block the view it is a fan.


During the 1940's and again following the 1973 energy crisis, development work was done on propellers and propfans with swept tips or curved "scimitar-shaped" blades for use in high-speed applications, to delay the onset of shockwaves where the blade tips approach the speed of sound in similar manner to wing sweepback. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations...


Many kinds of power plant have been used to drive propellers.


The earliest designs used man power to give dirigible balloons some degree of control, and go back to Jean-Pierre Blanchard in 1784. Attempts to achieve heavier-than-air manpowered flight did not succeed until Paul MacCready's Gossamer Condor in 1977. Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... Dirigible can refer to : an airship -- a lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... Jean-Pierre Blanchard (aka Jean Pierre François Blanchard), (7 July 1753 – 7 March 1809) was a French inventor, most remembered a pioneer in aviation and ballooning. ... 1784 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Paul MacCready (born September 25, 1925 in New Haven, Connecticut) is an American aeronautical engineer. ... The Gossamer Condor at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum The Gossamer Condor is the first successful human-powered aircraft. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ...

Gossamer Albatross, a human-powered aircraft

The first powered flight was made in a steam-powered dirigible by Henri Giffard in 1852. Attempts to marry a practical lightweight steam engine to a practical fixed-wing airframe did not succeed until much later, by which time the internal combustion engine was already dominant. The Gossamer Albatross II in flight. ... The Gossamer Albatross II in flight. ... The Gossamer Albatross II in flight. ... Three human powered vehicles: the Gossamer Albatross II and two bicycles. ... Steam aircraft were unusual devices because of the difficulty in producing a powerplant with a high enough power to weight ratio to be practical. ... Henri Giffard (1825-1882) was a French engineer who invented the injector and the powered airship with a steam engine weighing over 400 lbs. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ...


From the first powered aeroplane flight by the Wright brothers until World War II, propellers turned by the internal combustion piston engine were virtually the only type of propulsion system in use. (See also: Aircraft engine.) The piston engine is still used in the majority of smaller aircraft produced, since it is efficient at the lower altitudes and slower speeds suited to propellers. The Wright brothers, Orville (19 August 1871 – 30 January 1948) and Wilbur (16 April 1867 – 30 May 1912), were two Americans who are generally credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the worlds first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Turbine engines need not be used as jets (see below), but may be geared to drive a propeller in the form of a turboprop. Modern helicopters also typically use turbine engines to power the rotor. Turbines provide more power for less weight than piston engines, and are better suited to small-to-medium size aircraft or larger, slow-flying types. A schematic diagram showing the operation of a turboprop engine. ...


Other less common power sources include:

  • Electric motors, often linked to solar panels to create a solar-powered aircraft.
  • Rubber bands, wound many times to store energy, are mostly used for flying models.

Jet engines

Main article: Jet engine

Jet engines provide thrust by taking in air, burning it with fuel, and accelerating the exhaust rearwards so that it ejects at high speed. The reaction against this acceleration provides the engine thrust. A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...

A jet-engined Airbus A330-200 of Egyptair lands
A jet-engined Airbus A330-200 of Egyptair lands

Jet engines can provide much higher thrust than propellers, and are naturally efficient at higher altitudes, being able to operate above 40,000 ft (12,000 m). They are also much more fuel-efficient than rockets. Consequently, nearly all high-speed and high-altitude aircraft use jet engines. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixelsFull resolution (2935 × 1808 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 493 pixelsFull resolution (2935 × 1808 pixel, file size: 2. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Air Canada Airbus A330 The Airbus A330 is a large_capacity medium_to_long_range commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Airbus. ... EgyptAir Airlines Company (IATA Code: MS[1]), operating as EgyptAir (Arabic: مصر للطيران, Misr Lel-Tayaran) is the Cairo-based national airline of Egypt. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...


The early turbojet and modern turbofan use a spinning turbine to create airflow for takeoff and to provide thrust. Many, mostly in military aviation, use afterburners which inject extra fuel into the exhaust. Use of a turbine is not absolutely necessary: other designs include the crude pulse jet, high-speed ramjet and the still-experimental supersonic-combustion ramjet or scramjet. These designs require an existing airflow to work and cannot work when stationary, so they must be launched by a catapult or rocket booster, or dropped from a mother ship. The bypass turbofan engines of the Lockheed SR-71 were a hybrid design - the aircraft took off and landed in jet turbine configuration, and for high-speed flight the turbine was bypassed and the afterburners used to form a ramjet. The motorjet used a piston engine in place of the turbine - it was soon superseded by the turbojet and remained a curiosity. For the transportation company in southern China, see TurboJET. Turbojets are the oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... A pulse jet engine (or pulsejet) is a very simple form of internal combustion engine wherein the combustion occurs in pulses and the propulsive effort is a jet; a reaction to the rearward flow of hot gases. ... For other uses, see Ramjet (disambiguation). ... X-43A with scramjet attached to the underside A scramjet (supersonic combustion ramjet) is a variation of a ramjet with the key difference being that the flow in the combustor is supersonic. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... The Campini Caproni CC.2 Motorjet powered aircraft. ...


Other forms of propulsion

  • Rocket aircraft have occasionally been experimented with, and the Messerschmitt Komet fighter even saw action in the Second World War. Since then they have been restricted to rather specialised niches, such as the North American X-15 which travelled up into space where no oxygen is available for combustion (rockets carry their own oxidant). Rockets have more often been used as a supplement to the main powerplant, typically to assist takeoff of heavily-loaded aircraft, but also in a few experimental designs such as the Saunders-Roe SR.53 to provide a high-speed dash capability.
  • The flapping-wing ornithopter is a category of its own. These designs may have potential, but no practical device has been created beyond research prototypes, simple toys, and a model hawk used to freeze prey into stillness so that it can be captured.

Rocket planes or rocket aircraft can be subdivided by the few rocket powered aircraft to have existed. ... The Me 163 Komet, designed by Alexander Martin Lippisch, was the only operational rocket-powered fighter aircraft during the Second World War. ... The North American X-15 rocket plane was part of the USAF/NASA/USN X-series of experimental aircraft, including also the Bell X-1. ... The Saunders-Roe SR.53 was a prototype interceptor aircraft of mixed jet and rocket propulsion developed for the Royal Air Force in the early 1950s. ... An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos bird and pteron wing) is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. ... An ornithopter (from Greek ornithos bird and pteron wing) is an aircraft that flies by flapping its wings. ...

Classification by use

The major distinction in aircraft usage is between military aviation, which includes all uses of aircraft for military purposes (such as combat, patrolling, search and rescue, reconnaissance, transport, and training), and civil aviation, which includes all uses of aircraft for non-military purposes. It has been suggested that Aerial warfare be merged into this article or section. ... Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ...


Military aircraft

The fifth-generation Military Aircraft, F-22 Raptor

Combat aircraft like fighters or bombers represent only a minority of the category. Many civil aircraft have been produced in separate models for military use, such as the civil Douglas DC-3 airliner, which became the military C-47/C-53/R4D transport in the U.S. military and the "Dakota" in the UK and the Commonwealth. Even the small fabric-covered two-seater Piper J3 Cub had a military version, the L-4 liaison, observation and trainer aircraft. In the past, gliders and balloons have also been used as military aircraft; for example, balloons were used for observation during the American Civil War and World War I, and cargo gliders were used during World War II to land troops. Download high resolution version (1200x943, 171 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1200x943, 171 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... F-22 redirects here. ... The Douglas DC-3 is an American fixed-wing, propeller-driven aircraft whose speed and range revolutionized air transport in the 1930s and 1940s. ... The Douglas C-47 Skytrain or Dakota is a military transport that was developed from the Douglas DC-3 airliner. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The Piper J-3 Cub is a small, simple, light aircraft that was built between 1937 and 1947 by Piper Aircraft. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Combat aircraft themselves, though used a handful of times for reconnaissance and surveillance during the Italo-Turkish War, did not come into widespread use until the Balkan War. English Electric Canberra PR.9 photo reconnaissance aircraft CP-140 Aurora long-range patrol aircraft of the Canadian Air Force. ... Combatants Italy Ottoman Empire Commanders Luigi Caneva Ismail Enver Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Strength 100,000 28,000 Casualties 3,380 dead 4,220 wounded 14,000 dead 5,370 wounded The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War (also known in Italy as guerra di Libia, the Libyan war, and in... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar...


During World War I many types of aircraft were adapted for attacking the ground or enemy vehicles/ships/guns/aircraft, and the first aircraft designed as bombers were born. In order to prevent the enemy from bombing, fighter aircraft were developed to intercept and shoot down enemy aircraft. Tankers were developed after World War II to refuel other aircraft in mid-air, thus increasing their operational range. By the time of the Vietnam War, helicopters had come into widespread military use, especially for transporting, supplying, and supporting ground troops. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ... An A-10 Thunderbolt II, F-86 Sabre, P-38 Lightning and P-51 Mustang fly in formation during an air show at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia. ... Boom and receptacle: USAF KC-135R Stratotanker, two F-15s (twin fins) and two F-16s, on an aerial refueling training mission IAF Il-76 MD refueling two Mirage 2000 fighter jets German Luftwaffe Airbus A310 MRTT ready for refueling, shown at the Paris Air Show 2007 Aerial refueling, also... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ...


Civil aircraft

Civil aviation broadly divides into commercial and general activities, however in practice there is some overlap. Image File history File links Flight-interior. ... Image File history File links Flight-interior. ... In mathematics, the interior of a set S consists of all points which are intuitively not on the edge of S. A point which is in the interior of S is an interior point of S. The notion of interior is in many ways dual to the notion of closure. ... Qatar Airways (Arabic: القطرية) is the flag carrier airline of Qatar, based in Doha. ... Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ...


Commercial aircraft

Commercial aviation includes scheduled and charter airline flights. It also overlaps with a certain amount of general aviation activity where aircraft are offered for hire. Passengers carried by civil aviation in 2003 Commercial aviation is the part of civil aviation (both general aviation and scheduled airline service) that involves operating aircraft for hire. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ...


General aviation

General aviation is a catch-all covering other kinds of private and commercial use. The vast majority of flights flown around the world each day belong to the general aviation category, which covers a wide range of activities such as business trips, civilian flight training, recreation, competitive sports, firefighting, medical transport (medevac), and cargo transportation, to name a few. A general aviation scene at Kemble Airfield, England. ... A [PC-12] of the Royal Flying Doctor Service of Australia. ... A large military cargo aircraft: the Boeing C-17A Globemaster III A cargo aircraft is an airplane designed and used for the carriage of goods, rather than passengers. ...


Within general aviation, there is a further distinction between private flights (where the pilot is not paid for time or expenses) and commercial flights (where the pilot is paid by a client or employer). Private pilots use aircraft primarily for personal travel, business travel, or recreation. Usually they own or rent the aircraft. Commercial pilots in general aviation fly aircraft for a wide range of tasks, such as flight training, pipeline surveying, passenger and freight transport, policing, crop dusting, and medevac flights. A Private Pilot Licence (or, in the United States, a certificate) permits the holder to operate an aircraft, initially only under visual flight rules. ...


Piston-powered propeller aircraft (single-engine or twin-engine) are especially common for both private and commercial general aviation, but even private pilots occasionally own and operate helicopters like the Bell JetRanger or turboprops like the Beechcraft King Air. Business jets are typically flown by commercial pilots, although there is a new generation of small jets arriving soon for private pilots. Another small but important class of private aircraft are the historical warbirds. The Bell Helicopter Model 206 JetRanger is a two-bladed main rotor, turbine powered helicopter with a conventional, two-bladed tail rotor. ... The Beechcraft King Air is a line of twin-turboprop aircraft produced by the Beech Aircraft Corporation (now the Beechcraft Division of Raytheon Aircraft). ... Critical Mass, a modified Sea Fury air racer. ...


Experimental aircraft

In layman's terms, experimental aircraft are one-off specials, built to explore some aspect of aircraft design and with no other useful purpose. The Bell X-1 rocket plane, which first broke the sound barrier in level flight, is a famous example. The Bell X-1, originally designated XS-1, was a joint NACA-U.S. Army Air Forces/US Air Force supersonic research project and the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound in controlled, level flight. ...


The formal designation of "Experimental aircraft" also includes other types which are "not certified for commercial applications", including one-off modifications of existing aircraft such as the modified Boeing 747 which NASA uses to ferry the space shuttle from landing site to launch site, and aircraft homebuilt by amateurs for their own personal use. Discovery leaves Edwards AFB on the back of a Shuttle Carrier enroute to Kennedy Space Center in Florida Space Shuttle Columbia atop Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) N905NA, after the successful STS-32 mission, fly by the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). ...


Model aircraft

A 6 g aircraft
A 6 g aircraft

A model aircraft is a small unmanned type made to fly for fun, for static display, for serious aerodynamic research (cf Reynolds number) or for many other purposes. A scale model is a replica of some larger design. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1864x1204, 143 KB) Picture of the DIDEL miniCeline ultralight aircraft. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1864x1204, 143 KB) Picture of the DIDEL miniCeline ultralight aircraft. ... A Die Cast Boeing 747-800 static model. ... In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number may be described as the ratio of inertial forces (vsρ) to viscous forces (μ/L) and, consequently, it quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. ... A scale model of the Tower of London. ...


History

Main article: Aviation history

See also: Timeline of aviation Leonardo da Vincis Ornithopter body. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ...


The history of aircraft development divides broadly into five eras:

The human dream of flight: Utopian flying machines from the 18th Century (illustration from the late 19th Century). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Manufacturers and types

Within any general category, aircraft are usually listed according to manufacturer and production type.

See also: List of aircraft

This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ...

Environmental effects

Aircraft generate considerable amounts of noise pollution and air pollution emissions. Since the 1960s the U S Environmental Protection Agency has developed emissions factors for the most commonly used aircraft; in 1972 the Federal Aviation Administration developed a computer model for prediction of air pollution concentrations produced by aircraft in flight.[1]


See also

Aviation portal

Image File history File links Portal. ...

Lists

This page contains a very long flat list of aircraft types, roughly categorised. ... // These aircraft are distinguishable from other airplanes because of their significance in filling the short-hop role in the hub and spoke model of passenger and cargo distribution. ... A non-comprehensive list of modern civilian aircraft with descriptions. ... The human dream of flight: Utopian flying machines from the 18th Century (illustration from the late 19th Century). ... // Aero HC-2 Heli Baby Aero HC-3 Aero HC-4 Aero Z-35 Heli Trainer Aerokopter ZA-6 Model 3 A-1 Aerospace General Mini-Copter Aérospatiale Alouette Aérospatiale Alouette II Aérospatiale Alouette III Aérospatiale Cougar Aérospatiale Dauphin Aérospatiale Djinn Aérospatiale Ecureuil... A size comparison between four of the largest aircraft. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... // These aircraft are distinguishable from other airplanes because of their significance in filling the short-hop role in the hub and spoke model of passenger and cargo distribution. ... This is a list of jet aircraft that flew or were about to fly during the Second World War: // Gloster E.28/39 - May 15 1941 became the first jet engined aircraft to fly in the United Kingdom. ... Categories: Lists of aircraft | Timelines ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... A list of altitude records reached by different aircraft types. ...

Topics

Boom and receptacle: USAF KC-135R Stratotanker, two F-15s (twin fins) and two F-16s, on an aerial refueling training mission IAF Il-76 MD refueling two Mirage 2000 fighter jets German Luftwaffe Airbus A310 MRTT ready for refueling, shown at the Paris Air Show 2007 Aerial refueling, also... Aircraft axis can mean: Lateral axis — an axis running from the pilots left to right in piloted aircraft, and parallel to the wings of a winged aircraft Longitudinal axis — an axis drawn through the body of the vehicle from tail to nose in the normal direction of flight, or... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Spotters at Sao Paulo/Guarulhos International Airports control tower. ... A list of all Airline codes. ... Air safety is a broad term encompassing the theory, investigation and categorization of flight failures, and the prevention of such failures through appropriate regulation, as well as through education and training. ... Some nations maintain one or more special aircraft to transport their heads of state and government. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... A hot air balloon is prepared for flight by inflation of the envelope with propane burners. ... Contrails are condensation trails (sometimes vapour trails): artificial cirrus clouds made by the exhaust of aircraft engines or wingtip vortices which precipitate a stream of tiny ice crystals in moist, frigid upper air. ... There are conflicting views as to what was the first flying machine. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... Six basic instruments in a light twin-engine airplane arranged in the basic-T. From top left: airspeed indicator, attitude indicator, altimeter, turn coordinator, heading indicator, and vertical speed indicator Most aircraft are equipped with a standard set of flight instruments which give the pilot information about the aircrafts... A Tarom Boeing 737-300 and a United Airlines Boeing 777-200 taxi side by side at London Heathrow Airport. ... A number of technologies have been identified for future aircraft developments (other than simple evolution of existing aircraft types): Blended Wing-Body (research under way at Boeing and Cranfield University) Boundary-layer suction (research under way at TU Delft) Use of Alternative fuels Fanwing (invested research by UK and Italian... A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Personal Air Vehicle or PAV is a term widely adopted by the U.S. aviation community and is used to describe a class of light general aviation aircraft which meet a specialized set of design and performance goals. ... Launch of a Powered Paraglider. ... A powered parachute with its wing stowed. ... The Space Shuttle Discovery as seen from the International Space Station. ... Steam aircraft were unusual devices because of the difficulty in producing a powerplant with a high enough power to weight ratio to be practical. ... English Electric Canberra PR.9 photo reconnaissance aircraft CP-140 Aurora long-range patrol aircraft of the Canadian Air Force. ...

References

  1. ^ Hogan, C Michael, Richard Venti and Leda Patmore, Prediction of aircraft generated air pollution contours, ESL Inc, prepared for the U S Federal Aviation Administration 1971

External links

Look up aircraft in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Aircraft

History Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...

Information

New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Aircraft Charter World (679 words)
Aircraft Charter World.com is a registered trademark of Air Broker Center.
We find the right aircraft for the required number of passengers, the purpose of the flight, as well as the status and budget of the customer.
With chartered aircraft you have access to many more airports than with scheduled flights, often much closer to your destination.
Aircraft Markings (2900 words)
A National Aircraft Insignia consisting of a red disk within a five-pointed white star on a circular blue field, and red, white and blue vertical stripes on the rudder, of the shades specified for the American flag, was adopted.
Instructions requiring that the aircraft building letter and number be placed, in 12 inch (30.38 cm) Black letters, on both sides of the body midway between wings and rudder, were modified as permission was given to use squadron designating numbers in their place.
Aircraft for the use of the Marine Corps were to have the fuselage sides unmarked so that the Marine Corps insignia could be applied by the receivlng unit.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m