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Encyclopedia > Air to air missile
A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. Photo courtesy U.S. Navy Atlantic Fleet.
A US Navy VF-103 Jolly Rogers F-14 Tomcat fighter launches an AIM-54 Phoenix long-range air-to-air missile. Photo courtesy U.S. Navy Atlantic Fleet.

An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a guided missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. It is typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fuelled but sometimes liquid fuelled. Ramjet engines, as used on the MBDA Meteor (currently in development), are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope. Image downloaded from http://www. ... Image downloaded from http://www. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... An F-14A Tomcat of VF-84, in the old color scheme from the beginning of its service. ... The Grumman F-14 Tomcat is a supersonic, twin-engine, two-seat, variable geometry wing aircraft. ... Full load of Phoenix missiles, 1989 The AIM-54 Phoenix was a long-range, radar-guided air-to-air missile, carried in clusters of up to six missiles on the U.S. Navys and Islamic Republic of Iran Air Forces F-14 Tomcat, the only aircraft capable of... Exocet missile in flight A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a projectile propelled as a weapon at a target. ... An Airbus A380, currently the worlds largest passenger airliner An aircraft is any vehicle or craft capable of atmospheric flight. ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ... The Space Shuttle Columbia is initially launched with the help of solid-fuel boosters A solid rocket or a solid fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer). ... A liquid rocket engine has propellant and oxidiser in liquid form, as opposed to a solid rocket or hybrid rocket. ... A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a stovepipe jet, is a type of jet engine. ... The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the...

Contents

Guidance

Guided missiles operate by detecting their target (usually by either radar or infra-red methods, although rarely others such as laser guidance or optical tracking), and then "homing" in on the target on a collision course. This long range Radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll[1]. Radar is a system that uses radio waves to determine and map the location, direction, and/or speed... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Laser guidance is a technique of guiding a missile or other projectile or vehicle to a target by means of a laser beam. ...


The target is usually destroyed or damaged by means of an explosive warhead, often throwing out fragments to increase the lethal radius, typically detonated by a proximity fuze (or impact fuze if it scores a direct hit). Look up Proximity fuze in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A proximity fuze (also called a VT fuze) is a fuze that is designed to detonate an explosive automatically when close enough to the target to destroy it. ...


Note that although the missile may use radar or infra-red guidance to home on the target, this does not necessarily mean that the same means is used by the launching aircraft to detect and track the target before launch. Infra-red guided missiles can be "slaved" to an attack radar in order to find the target and radar-guided missiles can be launched at targets detected visually or via an infra-red search and track (IRST) system, although they may require the attack radar to illuminate the target during part or all of the missile interception itself. An infra-red search and track (IRST) system (sometimes known as infra-red sighting and tracking) is a method for detecting and tracking objects which give off infrared radiation such as jet aircraft and helicopters. ...


Radar guidance

Radar guidance is normally used for medium or long range missiles, where the infra-red signature of the target would be too faint for an infra-red detector to track. There are two major types of radar-guided missile - active and semi-active.


Active radar (AR)-guided missiles carry their own radar system to detect and track their target. However, the size of the radar antenna is limited by the small diameter of missiles, limiting its range which typically means such missiles have to use another method to get close to the target before turning their radar set on, often inertial guidance). An inertial guidance system consists of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) combined with control mechanisms, allowing the path of a vehicle to be controlled according to the position determined by the inertial navigation system. ...


Semi-active radar (SAR) homing missiles are simpler and more common. They function by detecting the radar energy reflected from the target, the radar energy is emitted from the launch aircraft's own radar signal. However, this means the launch aircraft has to maintain a "lock" on the target (keep illuminating the target aircraft with its' own radar) until the missile makes the interception, limiting the attacking aircraft's ability to maneuver, which may be necessary should threats to the attacking aircraft appear. It also makes jamming the missile lock easier because the launching aircraft is further from the target than the missile, so the radar signal has to travel further and is greatly attenuated over the distance.


An early form of radar guidance was "beam-riding" (BR). In this method the attacking aircraft directed a narrow beam of radar energy at the target. The air-to-air missile was launched into the beam where sensors on the aft of the missile controlled the missile, keeping it within the beam. So long as the beam was kept on the target aircraft, the missile would ride the beam until making the interception. While simple in concept, the difficulty of simultaneously keeping the beam solidly on the target (which couldn't be relied upon to cooperate by flying straight and level), continuing to fly one's own aircraft, all the while keeping an eye out for enemy countermeasures, can be readily appreciated. Beam-riding guidance leads a missile to its target by means of radar or a laser beam. ...


Although radar beam-riding air-to-air missiles are obsolete, the technology has since evolved toward laser-beam guided air-to-ground munitions, such as laser-guided bombs (LGB). These precision-strike munitions are sometimes called "smart weapons" by the press.


Radar guided missiles can be countered by rapid maneuvering (which may result in them "breaking lock", or may cause them to overshoot), deploying chaff or using electronic counter-measures. Chaff is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin bits of aluminum or plastic, which either appears as a cluster of secondary targets on radar screens or swamps the screen with multiple returns. ... Inspecting an F-16 electronic countermeasures pod Electronic countermeasures or ECM are any sort of electrical or electronic device designed entirely to spoof radar, sonar, or other detection systems. ...


Infrared guidance

Infrared guided (IR) missiles home on the heat produced by an aircraft. Early infra-red detectors had poor sensitivity, so could only track the hot exhaust pipes of an aircraft. This meant an attacking aircraft had to maneuver to a position behind its target before it could fire an infra-red guided missile. This also limited the range of the missile as the infra-red signature soon become too small to detect with increasing distance and after launch the missile was playing "catch-up" with its target.


More modern infra-red guided missiles can detect the heat of an aircraft's skin, warmed by the friction of airflow, in addition to the fainter heat signature of the engine when the aircraft is seen from the side or head-on. This, combined with greater maneuverability, gives them an "all-aspect" capability, and an attacking aircraft no longer had to be behind its target to fire. Although launching from behind the target increases the probability of a hit, the launching aircraft usually has to be closer to the target in a tail-chase engagement. An all-aspect missile is one which is able to track a target no matter which way the target faces relative to the missile. ... A tail-chase engagement (or rear-aspect engagement) is one where a surface-to-air missile system or jet aircraft engages another aircraft while the target aircraft is flying away from the attacker. ...


An aircraft can defend against infra-red missiles by dropping flares that are hotter than the aircraft, so the missile homes in on the brighter, hotter target. Towed decoys and infra-red jammers can also be used. Some large aircraft and many combat helicopters make use of so called "hot brick" infra-red jammers, typically mounted near the engines. Current research is developing laser devices which can spoof or destroy the guidance systems of infra-redguided missiles. A World War I-era parachute flare dropped from aircraft for illumination. ...


However, the latest missiles such as the ASRAAM use an "imaging" infra-red seeker which "sees" the target (much like a digital video camera), and can distinguish between an aircraft and a point heat source such as a flare. They also feature a very wide detection angle, so the attacking aircraft does not have to be pointing straight at the target for the missile to lock on. The pilot can use a helmet mounted sight (HMS) and target another aircraft by looking at it, and then firing. This is called "off-boresight" launch. The Russian Su-27 is equipped with an infrared search and track (IRST) system with laser rangefinder for its HMS-guided missiles. The AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile is a British air-to-air missile with infra-red guidance. ... The Sukhoi Su-27 (NATO reporting name Flanker) is a Russian fighter aircraft designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau (SDB). ... Soon after the invention of the laser in 1960, it was described as a solution in search of a problem. However, since that time, the laser has found a place as a useful tool in many scientific, military, medical and industrial applications. ...


In order to maneuver sufficiently from a poor launch angle at short ranges to hit its target, missiles are now employing gas-dynamic flight control methods such as vectored thrust, which allow the missile to start turning "off the rail", before its motor has accelerated it up to high enough speeds for its small aerodynamic surfaces to be useful. A gas-dynamic control system is one where the path of an object in flight is controlled by either the generation or redirection of gas flow out of an oriface rather than with the traditional movable control surfaces. ... Thrust vectoring is the ability of an aircraft to direct the thrust from its main engine(s) in a direction other than parallel to the aircrafts length. ...


Electro-optical

A recent advancement in missile guidance is electro-optical imaging. The Israeli Python-5 has an electro-optical seeker that scans designated area for targets via optical imaging. Once a target is acquired, the missile will lock-on to it for the kill. Electro-optical seekers can be programmed to target vital area of an aircraft, such as the cockpit. Since it doesn't depend on the target aircraft's heat signature, it can be used against low-heat targets such as UAV's and cruise missiles.


Design

Air-to-air missiles are typically long, thin cylinders in order to reduce their cross section and thus minimize drag at the high speeds at which they travel.


At the front is the seeker, either a radar system, radar homer, or infra-red detector. Behind that lies the avionics which control the missile. Typically after that, in the centre of the missile, is the warhead, usually several kilogrammes of high explosive surrounded by metal that fragments on detonation (or in some cases, pre-fragmented metal).


The rear part of the missile contains the propulsion system, usually a rocket of some type. Dual-thrust solid-fuel rockets are common, but some longer-range missiles use liquid-fuel motors that can "throttle" to extend their range and preserve fuel for energy-intensive final maneuvering. Some solid-fuelled missiles mimic this technique with a second rocket motor which burns during the terminal homing phase. There are missiles in development, such as the MBDA Meteor, that "breathe" air (using a ramjet, similar to a jet engine) in order to extend their range. A dual-thrust solid fuel rocket motor is a type where the propellant mass is comprised of two different types or densities of fuel. ... The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the... A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a stovepipe jet, is a type of jet engine. ...


Modern missiles use "low-smoke" motors - early missiles produced thick smoke trails, which were easily seen by the crew of the target aircraft alerting them to the attack and helping them determine how to evade it.


Missile range

Missiles are often cited with their maximum engagement range, which is very misleading. A missile's effective range is dependent on factors such as altitude, speed, position, and direction of target aircraft. For example the Vympel R-77 has stated range of 100 km. That's only true for a head-on, non-evading target at high altitude. At low altitude, the effective range is reduced by as much as 75%-80% to 20-25 km. If the target is taking evasive action, or in stern-chase position, the effective range is further reduced. See Air-to-Air missile non-comparison table for more information. The effective range of an air-to-air missile is known as the 'no-escape zone', noting the range at which the target can not evade the missile once launched.


Poorly-trained pilots and mercenary pilots more interested in collecting their pay and going home alive than dead, are known to fire their missiles at maximum-range engagement with poor results. In the 1998-2000 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, fighters from both sides shot over a dozen medium-range R-27 (AA-10 Alamo) missiles at distance with little effect. But when better-trained Ethiopian Su-27 pilots gave chase and attacked with short-range R-73 (AA-11 Archer) missiles, the results were often deadly to the Eritrean aircraft. [1] Combatants Eritrea Ethiopia Commanders Sebhat Ephrem Samora Mohammed Yunis Casualties 19,000 (Eritrean opposition and state official count, backed with names and date of death in combat) More than 123,000 upto 155,000[1] The Eritrean-Ethiopian War took place from May 1998 to June 2000 between Ethiopia and... The Vympel R-27 (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. ... The Sukhoi Su-27 (Су-27 in the Cyrillic alphabet) (NATO reporting name Flanker) is originally a Soviet fighter aircraft designed by the Sukhoi Design Bureau (SDB). ... The Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name AA-11 Archer) developed by Vympel machine Building Design Bureau, is the most modern Russian short-range air-to-air missile. ...


Performance

A number of terms frequently crop up in discussions of air to air missile performance.


Launch success zone

The Launch Success Zone is the range within which there is a high (defined) kill probability against a target that remains unaware of its engagement until the final moment. When alerted visually or by a warning system the target attempts a last ditch manoeuvre sequence.


F-Pole

A closely related term is the F-Pole. This is the slant range between the launch aircraft and target, at the time of interception. The greater the F-Pole, the greater the confidence that the launch aircraft will achieve air superiority with that missile.


No-Escape Zone

The No-Escape Zone is the range within which there is a high (defined) kill probability against a target that has been alerted to its engagement. The target effects a break-off manoeuvre, accelerating to maximum speed and subsequently attempts a last ditch evasive manoeuvre.


List of missiles by country

For each missile, short notes are given, including an indication of its range and guidance mechanism.


Brazil

  • Mectron MAA-1 Piranha - short range IR

France

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Magic II missile was introduced by Matra of France in the late 1970s as an improved version of the original R550 Magic I short-range air-to-air missile. ... The Matra Super 530 is a French medium to short range air-to-air missile carried on the Dassault-Breguet Mirage 2000. ... The MBDA MICA (Missile dInterception et de Combat Aérien, Interception and Air Combat Missile) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire and forget missile system. ...

Germany

R4M rockets, on an Me 262s starboard launcher. ... The Ruhrstahl X-4 was a wire guided air-to-air missile designed by Germany during World War II. The X-4 did not see operational service and thus was not proven in combat. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... MCLOS (short for Manual Command to Line of Sight) is a first-generation method for guiding guided missiles. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... MCLOS (short for Manual Command to Line of Sight) is a first-generation method for guiding guided missiles. ... The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the... IRIS-T (Infra Red Imaging System Tail/Thrust Vector-Controlled) is a German-led program to develop a short-range air-to-air missile to replace the AIM-9 Sidewinder. ...

European

The Meteor missile is a highly agile long-range air-to-air guided missile for future complex beyond-visual-range (BVR) threat scenarios built by MBDA. Meteor started out as the UK MoD Staff Requirement 1239, for a Beyond Visual Range Air-To-Air Missile (BVRAAM) system, to replace the... Active radar homing is a type of missile guidance where a guided missile contains a radar transceiver and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously. ... IRIS-T (Infra Red Imaging System Tail/Thrust Vector-Controlled) is a German-led program to develop a short-range air-to-air missile to replace the AIM-9 Sidewinder. ... Infra-red homing refers to a guidance system which uses the infra-red light emission from a target to track it. ... Sidewinder Missile The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ...

India

The Astra missile is an air-to-air (AA), beyond visual range (BVR) missile under development by India. ...

Iraq

  • Al Humurrabi- Long range, semi active radar

Israel

The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ... The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ... The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ... The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ... The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ... The Python 5 is a short range air-to-air missile developed by the Israeli arms manufacturer Rafael. ...

Italy

  • Alenia Aspide - Italian manufactured version of the AIM-7 Sparrow, based on the AIM-7E.

A RIM-7 Sea Sparrow being launched from the USS Essex (LHD-2) The AIM-7 Sparrow is a medium-range semi_active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the USAF, US Navy, and USMC as well as various allied air forces. ... A RIM-7 Sea Sparrow being launched from the USS Essex (LHD-2). ...

Pakistan

  • Sarab 1 - Pakistani version of Matra Magic Missile, Short Range Missile Project Cancelled due to unsatisfactory results (Ahmad Usman).
  • SD 10 - Jointly Developed by China and Pakistan
  • PL-9 - Jointly Developed by Pakistan and China.

SD-10 missile The SD-10 (ShanDian-10) or PL-12 is a BVRAAM (Beyond visual range Air to Air Missile) developed for the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force & Pakistan Air Force. ... [[1]] The PL-9 is a short-range, infrared-homing air-to-air missile (AAM) developed by the Peoples Republic of China. ...

People's Republic of China

  • PL-1 - PRC version of the Soviet Kaliningrad K-5 (AA-1 Alkali), retired.
  • PL-2 - PRC version of the Soviet Vympel K-13 (AA-2 Atoll), which was based on AIM-9B Sidewinder. [6] Retired & replaced by PL-5 in PLAAF service.
  • PL-3 - updated version of the PL-2, did not enter service.
  • PL-5 - updated version of the PL-2, known versions include: [7]
    • PL-5A - semi-active radar-homing AAM intended to replace the PL-2, did not enter service. Resembles AIM-9G in appearance.
    • PL-5B - IR version, entered service in 1990s to replace the PL-2 SRAAM. Limited off-boresight
    • PL-5C - Improved version comparable to AIM-9H or AIM-9L in performance
    • PL-5E - All-aspect attack version, resembles AIM-9P in appearance.
  • PL-7 - PRC version of the IR-homing French R550 Magic AAM, did not enter service. [8]
  • PL-8 - PRC version of the Israeli Rafael Python 3 [9]
  • PL-9 - short range IR guided missile, marketed for export. One known improved version (PL-9C). [10]
  • PL-10 - semi-active radar-homing medium-range missile based on the HQ-61 SAM, [11] often confused with PL-11. Did not enter service.
  • PL-11 - medium-range air-to-air missile (MRAAM), based on the HQ-61C & Italian Aspide (AIM-7) technology. Limited service with J-8-B/D/H fighters. Known versions include: [12]
    • PL-11 - MRAAM with semi-active radar homing, based on the HQ-61C SAM and Aspide seeker technology, exported as FD-60 [13]
    • PL-11A - Improved PL-11 with better range, warhead, and seeker. The new seeker only requires fire-control radar guidance during the terminal stage, providing a basic LOAL (lock-on after launch) capability.
    • PL-11B - Also known as PL-11 AMR, improved PL-11 with AMR-1 active radar-homing seeker.
    • LY-60 - PL-11 adopted for navy ships for air-defense, sold to Pakistan but does not appear to be in service with the Chinese Navy. [14]
  • PL-12 (SD-10) - medium-range active radar missile [15]
  • TY-90 - light IR-homing air-to-air missile designed for helicopters [16]

K-5M missile The Kaliningrad K-5 (NATO reporting name AA-1 Alkali), also known as RS-1U or product ShM, was an early Soviet air-to-air missile. ... Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) Translation: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian (the de facto official language), 14 other official languages Government Socialist republic Leaders  - 1922-1924 Vladimir Lenin  - 1924-1953 Joseph Stalin... The Kaliningrad K-5 (NATO reporting name AA-1 Alkali), also known as RS-1U, was the first Soviet air-to-air missile. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... The PL-7 air-to-air missile (PL stands for Pi Li, Thunderbolt in Chinese, the generic designation for all PRC air-to-air missiles) is the PRC version of the French Magic R.550 missile. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // The Python is a family of air-to-air missiles (AAMs) built by the Israeli weapons manufacturing company RAFAEL Armament Development Authority. ... [[1]] The PL-9 is a short-range, infrared-homing air-to-air missile (AAM) developed by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The LY-60/FD-60/PL-10 is a family of PRC missiles developed by the Shanghai Academy of Science and Technology, largely based on the Italian Alenia Aspide missile - itself a version of the American AIM-7 Sparrow missile. ... PL-11 is a high-level machine-oriented programming language for the PDP-11 computer, developed by R.D. Russell of CERN in 1971. ... SD-10 missile The SD-10 (ShanDian-10) or PL-12 is a BVRAAM (Beyond visual range Air to Air Missile) developed for the Pakistan Air Force & Peoples Liberation Army Air Force. ...

Russia/Soviet

The Kaliningrad K-5 (NATO reporting name AA-1 Alkali), also known as RS-1U, was the first Soviet air-to-air missile. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The K-13 (NATO reporting name AA-2 Atoll), was one of the worlds most proliferated air-to-air missiles. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) (NATO reporting name AA-3 Anab) was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor use. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich K-9 (NATO reporting name AA-4 Awl) was a long-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Bisnovat (later Molniya) R-4 (NATO reporting name AA-5 Ash) was an early Soviet long-range air_to_air missile. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... R-40, MACS, Zhukovski, 1999. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... MiG-23 armed with two R-23 and two R-60 missiles. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Molniya (now Vympel) R-60 (NATO reporting name AA-8 Aphid) is a lightweight air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Vympel R-33 (NATO reporting name AA-9 Amos) was the most advanced long-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Vympel R-27 (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Vympel R-73 (NATO reporting name AA-11 Archer) developed by Vympel machine Building Design Bureau, is the most modern Russian short-range air-to-air missile. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Russian R-77RVV-AE Missile (NATO designation: AA-12 Adder) is a medium range, air-to-air, radar-guided missile system. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13 Arrow) is a Russian air-to-air missile designed as a weapon for the Mikoyan MiG-31 interceptor aircraft. ... NATO reporting names were code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The Novator KS-172 AAM-L (also known as R-172) is an extremely long-range air-to-air missile developed in Russia. ... An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. ...

South Africa

  • A-Darter - short range IR
  • R-Darter - beyond visual range (BVR) radar-guided missile

United Kingdom

  • Fireflash - short range beam-riding
  • Firestreak - short range IR
  • Red Top - short range IR
  • Skyflash - medium-range radar-guided missile based on the AIM-7E2, said to have quick warm-up times of 1 to 2 seconds.
  • AIM-132 ASRAAM - short range IR

The Fairey Fireflash was the first British air-to-air missile. ... Type air-to-air Nationality UK Era Cold War Launch platform fixed wing aircraft Target aircraft History Builder De Havilland Propellors Date of design ? Production period ? Service duration 1958 - 1988 Operators UK Variants ? Number built ? Specifications Type infra-red homing missile Diameter 0. ... Hawker Siddeley Red Top missile mounted on a English Electric Lightning at the RAF Museum at Hendon, London. ... UK medium-range semi-active radar guided air-to-air missile derived from the US AIM-7 Sparrow missile and carried by the Tornado F3 interceptor aircraft. ... The AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile is a British air-to-air missile with infra-red guidance. ...

United States

  • AIM-4 Falcon - radar (later IR) guided
  • AIM-7 Sparrow - medium range semi-active radar
  • AIM-9 Sidewinder - short range IR
  • AIM-54 Phoenix - long range, semi-active and active radar
  • AIM-120 AMRAAM - medium range, active radar; replaces AIM-7 Sparrow

See also

Exocet missile in flight A missile (see also pronunciation differences) is a projectile propelled as a weapon at a target. ... A guided bomb strikes an underground facility Missile guidance technologies of missile systems use a variety of methods to guide a missile to its intended target. ... A guided missile is a military rocket that can be directed in flight to change its flight path. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ...

External links

  • Air-to-air missile non-comparison table


 
 

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