FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Air pollution
Pollution
v  d  e
Air pollution
Acid rainAir Quality IndexAtmospheric dispersion modeling • Chlorofluorocarbon • Global dimmingGlobal warming • Haze • Indoor air qualityOzone depletionParticulateSmog
Water pollution
EutrophicationHypoxiaMarine pollutionOcean acidificationOil spillShip pollutionSurface runoffThermal pollutionWastewaterWaterborne diseasesWater qualityWater stagnation
Soil contamination
Bioremediation • Herbicide • Pesticide • Soil Guideline Values (SGVs)
Radioactive contamination
Actinides in the environmentEnvironmental radioactivityFission productNuclear falloutPlutonium in the environmentRadiation poisoningRadium in the environmentUranium in the environment
Other types of pollution
Invasive speciesLight pollutionNoise pollutionRadio spectrum pollutionVisual pollution
Inter-government treaties
Montreal ProtocolNitrogen Oxide ProtocolKyoto Protocol • CLRTAP
Major organizations
DEFRAEPAGlobal Atmosphere WatchGreenpeaceNational Ambient Air Quality Standards
Related topics
Environmental ScienceNatural environment

Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the environment.[1] Air pollution causes deaths[2] and respiratory disease.[3] Air pollution is often identified with major stationary sources, but the greatest source of emissions is mobile sources, mainly automobiles.[4] Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have recently gained recognition as pollutants by climate scientists, while they also recognize that carbon dioxide is essential for plant life through photosynthesis. Air pollution Pollution is the introduction of pollutants (whether chemical substances, or energy such as noise, heat, or light) into the environment to such a point that its effects become harmful to human health, other living organisms, or the environment. ... The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... Eutrophication, strictly speaking, means an increase in chemical nutrients -- typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus -- in an ecosystem. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... A beach after an oil spill An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity, and is a form of pollution. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... Runoff flowing into a stormwater drain Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle[1][2]. Runoff that occurs on surfaces before reaching a channel is also called overland flow. ... Thermal pollution is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. ... Waterborne diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms which are directly transmitted when contaminated drinking water is consumed. ... Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water, characterized through the methods of hydrometry. ... Standing water redirects here. ... Excavation of leaking underground storage tank causing soil contamination Soil pollution comprises the pollution of soils with materials, mostly chemicals, that are out of place or are present at concentrations higher than normal which may have adverse effects on humans or other organisms. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... This article about actinides in the environment is about the sources, environmental behaviour and effects of actinides in the environment. ... The environmental radioactivity page is devoted to the subject of radioactive materials in man and his environment. ... Fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large nucleus fissions. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness or a creeping dose, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ... // Radium Radium in quack medicine See the story of Eben Byers for details of one very nasty case which involved a product called Radithor this contained 1 mCi of 226Ra and 1 mCi of 228Ra per bottle. ... Uranium in the environment, this page is devoted to the science of uranium in the environment and in animals (including humans). ... Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ... This time exposure photo of New York City shows sky glow, one form of light pollution. ... Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Radio spectrum pollution is the straying of waves in the radio and electromagnetic spectrums outside their allocations that cause problems for some activities. ... Visual pollution is the term given to unattractive visual elements of a vista, a landscape, or any other thing that a person might want to look at. ... The largest Antarctic ozone hole recorded as of September 2006 For other similarly-named agreements, see Montreal Convention (disambiguation). ... Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or Their Transboundary Fluxes, opened for signature on 31 October 1988 and entered into force on 14 February 1991, was to provide for the control or reduction of nitrogen oxides and... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... note - abbreviated as Air Pollution opened for signature - 13 November 1979 entered into force - 16 March 1983 objective - to protect the human environment against air pollution and to gradually reduce and prevent air pollution, including long-range transboundary air pollution parties - (48) Armenia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... EPA redirects here. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Greenpeace protest against Esso / Exxon Mobil. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... This article is about the natural environment. ... Air redirects here. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... Biological material may refer to: Biological tissue, or just tissue Biomass, living or dead biological matter, often plants grown as fuel Biomass (ecology), the total mass of living biological matter Biomolecule, a chemical compound that naturally occurs in living organisms Biotic material, from living things Bio-based material, a processed... Diseases of the mammalian respiratory system are classified under one of two broad categories: physiologic, where disease states are characterised by alterations in physiology, or anatomical, where disease states are defined by the anatomical location/level affected, or by the layers of the respiratory system affected by disease. ... A major stationary source is a pollutant as defined by the Environmental Protection Agency. ... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Car redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the stratosphere layer; for the hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada, see Stratosphere Las Vegas. ... Global monthly average total ozone amount Ozone depletion describes two distinct, but related observations: a slow, steady decline of about 4 percent per decade in the total amount of ozone in Earths stratosphere since the late 1970s; and a much larger, but seasonal, decrease in stratospheric ozone over Earth... In ecology, an ecosystem is a community of organisms (plant, animal and other living organisms - also referred as biocenose) together with their environment (or biotope), functioning as a unit. ...

Contents

Pollutants

Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.
Before flue gas desulfurization was installed, the emissions from this power plant in New Mexico contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.

There are many substances in the air which may impair the health of plants and animals (including humans), or reduce visibility. These arise both from natural processes and human activity. Substances not naturally found in the air or at greater concentrations or in different locations from usual are referred to as pollutants. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ... For other uses, see New Mexico (disambiguation). ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ...


Pollutants can be classified as either primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are substances directly emitted from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption or the carbon monoxide gas from a motor vehicle exhaust.


Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. An important example of a secondary pollutant is ground level ozone - one of the many secondary pollutants that make up photochemical smog.


Note that some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: that is, they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants.


Major primary pollutants produced by human activity include:

Secondary pollutants include: Pick one: sulfur monoxide sulfur dioxide sulfur trioxide This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... [1] R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , , Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Plume of the Space Shuttle Atlantis after launch. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... A 3-dimensional rendered Ball-and-stick model of the methane molecule. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... This article is about metallic materials. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Aroma redirects here. ... Radioactive wastes are waste types containing radioactive chemical elements that do not have a practical purpose. ... A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ...

  • Particulate matter formed from gaseous primary pollutants and compounds in photochemical smog, such as nitrogen dioxide.
  • Ground level ozone (O3) formed from NOx and VOCs.
  • Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) similarly formed from NOx and VOCs.

Minor air pollutants include: For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Seasonal average concentrations of tropospheric ozone in Dobson units over the period 1979 to 2000. ... Peroxyacetyl nitrate, or PAN for shorthand, is an organic compound consisting of oxygen, and nitrogen as well as a short hydrocarbon chain. ...

  • A large number of minor hazardous air pollutants. Some of these are regulated in USA under the Clean Air Act and in Europe under the Air Framework Directive.
  • A variety of persistent organic pollutants, which can attach to particulate matter.

Smog over Shanghai. ... Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes. ...

Sources

Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas
Using a controlled burn on a field in South Georgia in preparation for spring planting.
Using a controlled burn on a field in South Georgia in preparation for spring planting.
Puxi area of Shanghai at sunset. The sun has not actually dropped below the horizon yet, rather it has reached the smog line.
Puxi area of Shanghai at sunset. The sun has not actually dropped below the horizon yet, rather it has reached the smog line.

Sources of air pollution refer to the various locations, activities or factors which are responsible for the releasing of pollutants in the atmosphere. These sources can be classified into two major categories which are: Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas. ... Dust storm approaching Stratford, Texas. ... Stratford is a city in Sherman County, Texas, United States. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x539, 110 KB) Summary Photo taken by Richard Chambers the evening of Feb 28, 2006 outside of Statesboro, Georgia of a field burn (controlled burn) in preparation for spring planting. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x539, 110 KB) Summary Photo taken by Richard Chambers the evening of Feb 28, 2006 outside of Statesboro, Georgia of a field burn (controlled burn) in preparation for spring planting. ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ... Official language(s) English Demonym Georgian Capital Atlanta Largest city Atlanta Largest metro area Atlanta metro area Area  Ranked 24th in the US  - Total 59,425 sq mi (153,909 km²)  - Width 230 miles (370 km)  - Length 298 miles (480 km)  - % water {{{PCWater}}}  - Latitude 33. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ...


Anthropogenic sources (human activity) mostly related to burning different kinds of fuel For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ...

Natural sources A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Ship types ... Legend of the Seas moored at San Diego, California A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part of the experience. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... Nice fireplace with fire A fireplace is an appliance that is often built into a home that allows the relatively safe burning of flammables. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... This article needs cleanup. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... Firing the woods in a South Carolina forest with a custom made igniter mounted on an all terrain vehicle. ... Farmer and two sons during a dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936 The Dust Bowl, or the dirty thirties, was a period of horrible dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... This article is about the grooming product. ... This article is about varnish. ... Aerosol spray can Aerosol spray is a type of canister that sprays an aerosol when its button is pressed or held down. ... Look up Dump in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ...

Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Flatulence is the presence of a mixture of gases in the digestive tract of mammals. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ...

Emission factors

Air pollutant emission factors are representative values that attempt to relate the quantity of a pollutant released to the ambient air with an activity associated with the release of that pollutant. These factors are usually expressed as the weight of pollutant divided by a unit weight, volume, distance, or duration of the activity emitting the pollutant (e.g., kilograms of particulate emitted per megagram of coal burned). Such factors facilitate estimation of emissions from various sources of air pollution. In most cases, these factors are simply averages of all available data of acceptable quality, and are generally assumed to be representative of long-term averages. The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Many of the compounds which are dangerous to the environment can also be harmful to humans in the long-term range and come from mineral and fossil sources or are produced by humans themselves. ...


The United States Environmental Protection Agency has published a compilation of air pollutant emission factors for a multitude of industrial sources.[5] The United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and other countries have published similar compilations, as has the European Environment Agency.[6][7] [8][9] [10] EPA redirects here. ... European Environment Agency (EEA), agency of the European Union devoted to establishing a monitoring network for the monitoring of the European environment. ...


Indoor air quality (IAQ)

Main article: Indoor air quality

A lack of ventilation indoors concentrates air pollution where people often spend the majority of their time. Radon (Rn) gas, a carcinogen, is exuded from the Earth in certain locations and trapped inside houses. Building materials including carpeting and plywood emit formaldehyde (H2CO) gas. Paint and solvents give off volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as they dry. Lead paint can degenerate into dust and be inhaled. Intentional air pollution is introduced with the use of air fresheners, incense, and other scented items. Controlled wood fires in stoves and fireplaces can add significant amounts of smoke particulates into the air, inside and out. Indoor pollution fatalities may be caused by using pesticides and other chemical sprays indoors without proper ventilation. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ... For other uses, see Radon (disambiguation). ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Carpet (disambiguation). ... Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Formaldehyde is the chemical compound with the formula H2CO. It is the simplest aldehyde-- an organic compound containing a terminal carbonyl group: it consists of exactly one carbonyl. ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemical compounds that have high enough vapour pressures under normal conditions to significantly vaporize and enter the atmosphere. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... Look up dust in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Air fresheners are consumer products that mitigate unpleasant odors in indoor spaces. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... Winter (fireplace), tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a fire, generally for heating but sometimes also for cooking. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ...


Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and fatalities are often caused by faulty vents and chimneys, or by the burning of charcoal indoors. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning can result even from poorly adjusted pilot lights. Traps are built into all domestic plumbing to keep sewer gas, hydrogen sulfide, out of interiors. Clothing emits tetrachloroethylene, or other dry cleaning fluids, for days after dry cleaning. Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... A pilot light is a small gas flame, usually natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas, which is kept alight in order to provide an ignition source for a more powerful gas burner. ... A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building. ... Hydrogen sulfide (or hydrogen sulphide) is the chemical compound with the formula H2S. This colorless, toxic and flammable gas is responsible for the foul odour of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical compound that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water — generally known as dry cleaning fluid, and typically this is tetrachloroethylene. ...


Though its use has now been banned in many countries, the extensive use of asbestos in industrial and domestic environments in the past has left a potentially very dangerous material in many localities. Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the tissue of the lungs. It occurs after long-term, heavy exposure to asbestos from asbestos-containing materials in structures. Sufferers have severe dyspnea (shortness of breath) and are at an increased risk regarding several different types of lung cancer. As clear explanations are not always stressed in non-technical literature, care should be taken to distinguish between several forms of relevant diseases. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), these may defined as; asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma (generally a very rare form of cancer, when more widespread it is almost always associated with prolonged exposure to asbestos). Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... For the village in Tibet, see Lung, Tibet. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... Lung cancer is a disease of uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. ... Asbestosis is a chronic inflammatory medical condition affecting the parenchymal tissue of the lungs. ...


Biological sources of air pollution are also found indoors, as gases and airborne particulates. Pets produce dander, people produce dust from minute skin flakes and decomposed hair, dust mites in bedding, carpeting and furniture produce enzymes and micrometre-sized fecal droppings, inhabitants emit methane, mold forms in walls and generates mycotoxins and spores, air conditioning systems can incubate Legionnaires' disease and mold, and houseplants, soil and surrounding gardens can produce pollen, dust, and mold. Indoors, the lack of air circulation allows these airborne pollutants to accumulate more than they would otherwise occur in nature. This article is about animals kept for companionship. ... Mites, along with ticks, belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari) and the class Arachnida. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Mycotoxin is a toxin produced by a fungus under special conditions of moisture and temperature. ... Note: in the broadest sense, air conditioning can refer to any form of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... A houseplant is usually a tropical or semi-tropical plant that is grown indoors in places such as residences and offices. ... For the chosen plaintext attack used by the British during World War II, see gardening (cryptanalysis). ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


Health effects

The World Health Organization states that 2.4 million people die each year from causes directly attributable to air pollution; with 1.5 million of these deaths attributable to indoor air pollution.[3] A study by the University of Birmingham has shown a strong correlation between pneumonia related deaths and air pollution from motor vehicles. [11] Worldwide more deaths per year are linked to air pollution than to automobile accidents.[citation needed] Published in 2005 suggests that 310,000 Europeans die from air pollution annually.[citation needed] Direct causes of air pollution related deaths include aggravated asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, lung and heart diseases, and respiratory allergies.[citation needed] The US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine technology (Tier 2) could result in 12,000 fewer premature mortalities, 15,000 fewer heart attacks, 6,000 fewer emergency room visits by children with asthma, and 8,900 fewer respiratory-related hospital admissions each year in the United States.[citation needed] WHO redirects here. ... This power plant in New Mexico releases sulfur dioxide and particulate matter into the air. ... Website http://www. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... Car redirects here. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi and may specifically refer to: Acute bronchitis, caused by viruses or bacteria and lasting several days or weeks Chronic bronchitis, a persistent, productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years. ... EPA redirects here. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Heart attack redirects here. ... The emergency room is the American English term for a room, or group of rooms, within a hospital that is designed for the treatment of urgent and medical emergencies. ...


The worst short term civilian pollution crisis in India was the 1984 Bhopal Disaster.[12] Leaked industrial vapors from the Union Carbide factory, belonging to Union Carbide, Inc., U.S.A., killed more than 2,000 people outright and injured anywhere from 150,000 to 600,000 others, some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries.[citation needed] The United Kingdom suffered its worst air pollution event when the December 4 Great Smog of 1952 formed over London. In six days more than 4,000 died, and 8,000 more died within the following months.[citation needed] An accidental leak of anthrax spores from a biological warfare laboratory in the former USSR in 1979 near Sverdlovsk is believed to have been the cause of hundreds of civilian deaths.[citation needed] The worst single incident of air pollution to occur in the United States of America occurred in Donora, Pennsylvania in late October, 1948, when 20 people died and over 7,000 were injured.[13] The Bhopal Disaster took place in the early hours of the morning of December 3, 1984,[1] in the heart of the city of Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Great Smog also referred to as the Big Smoke, befell London starting on 5 December 1952, and lasted until 9 December 1952. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Photograph of snow-covered Yekaterinburg Yekaterinburgs Church on the Blood, built on the spot where the Tsar and his family were murdered. ... Donora is a borough in Washington County, Pennsylvania, USA, 20 miles (32 km) south of Pittsburgh on the Monongahela river. ...


The health effects caused by air pollutants may range from subtle biochemical and physiological changes to difficulty in breathing, wheezing, coughing and aggravation of existing respiratory and cardiac conditions. These effects can result in increased medication use, increased doctor or emergency room visits, more hospital admissions and premature death. The human health effects of poor air quality are far reaching, but principally affect the body's respiratory system and the cardiovascular system. Individual reactions to air pollutants depend on the type of pollutant a person is exposed to, the degree of exposure, the individual's health status and genetics.[citation needed]


Effects on cystic fibrosis

A study from 1999 to 2000 by the University of Washington showed that patients near and around particulate matter air pollution had an increased risk of pulmonary exacerbations and decrease in lung function. [14] Patients were examined before the study for amounts of specific pollutants like P. aeruginosa or B. cepacia as well as their socioeconomic standing. Participants involved in the study were located in the United States in close proximity to an Environmental Protection Agency .During the time of the study 117 deaths were associated with air pollution. A trend was noticed that patients living closer or in large metropolitan areas to be close to medical help also had higher level of pollutants found in their system because of more emissions in larger cities. With cystic fibrosis patients already being born with decreased lung function everyday pollutants such as smoke emissions from automobiles, tobacco smoke and improper use of indoor heating devices could add to the dissemination of lung function.[15] The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... EPA redirects here. ...


Effects on COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) include diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and some forms of asthma.[16] Two researchers Holland and Reid conducted research on 293 male postal workers in London during the time of the 1952 London Fog incident and 477 male postal workers in the rural setting. The amount of the pollutant FEV1 was significantly lower in urban employees however lung function was decreased due to city pollutions such as car fumes and increased amount of cigarette exposure.[17] It is believed that much like cystic fibrosis, by living in a more urban environment serious health hazards become more apparent. Studies have shown that in urban areas patients suffer mucus hypersecretion, lower levels of lung function, and more self diagnosis of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.[18] For COPD occurring in horses, see recurrent airway obstruction. ... Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ...


London Fog of 1952

In the matter of four days a combination of dense fog and sooty black coal smoke came over the London area. [19] The fog was so dense residents of London could not see in front of them. The extreme reduction in visibility was accompanied by an increase in criminal activity as well as transportation delays and a virtual shut down of the city. During the 4 day period of the fog 12,000 are believed to have been killed.[20]


Effects on children

Cities around the world with high exposure to air pollutants has the possibility of children living within them to develop asthma, pneumonia and other lower respiratory infections as well as a low initial birth rate. Protective measures to ensure the youths health is being taken in countries such as New Delhi where buses now use compressed natural gas to help eliminate the “pea-soup” fog.[21] Research by the World Health Organization shows there is the greatest concentration of particulate matter particles in countries with low economic world power and high poverty and population rates. Examples of these countries include Egypt, Sudan, Mongolia, and Indonesia. The Clean Air Act was passed in 1970, however in 2002 at least 146 million Americans were living in areas that did not meet at least one of the “criteria pollutants” laid out in the 1997 National Ambient Air Quality Standards. [22] Those pollutants included: ozone, particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and lead. Because children are outdoors more and have higher minute ventilation they are more susceptible to the dangers of air pollution. This article is about human pneumonia. ... , This article is about the capital city of India. ... WHO redirects here. ... Smog over Shanghai. ...


Reduction efforts

There are various air pollution control technologies and urban planning strategies available to reduce air pollution. Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation (many developing countries have permissive regulations)[citation needed], expanding regulation to new sources (such as cruise and transport ships, farm equipment, and small gas-powered equipment such as lawn trimmers, chainsaws, and snowmobiles), increased fuel efficiency (such as through the use of hybrid vehicles), conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles). Legend of the Seas moored at San Diego, California A cruise ship, or less commonly cruise liner, is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the amenities of the ship are considered an essential part of the experience. ... For other uses, see Chainsaw (disambiguation). ... A snowmobile tour at Yellowstone National Park (NPS Photo) A snowmobile is a land vehicle propelled by one or two rubber tracks, with skis for steering. ... For other types of hybrid transportation, see Hybrid vehicle (disambiguation). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ...


Control devices

The following items are commonly used as pollution control devices by industry or transportation devices. They can either destroy contaminants or remove them from an exhaust stream before it is emitted into the atmosphere. The Lachine Canal, in Montreal, is badly polluted Pollution is the release of harmful environmental contaminants, or the substances so released. ...

  • Mercury control
    • Sorbent Injection Technology
    • Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
    • K-Fuel
  • Miscellaneous associated equipment
    • Source capturing systems
    • Continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS)

Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... A Cyclone Separator Cyclonic separation is a method of removing particulates from an air (or gas) stream without the use of filters. ... An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ... Figure 1 - Baffle spray scrubber Baffle spray scrubbers are a technology for air pollution control. ... Figure 1 - Irrigated cyclone scrubber Cyclonic spray scrubbers are an air pollution control technology. ... Figure 1 - Ejector venturi scrubber This type of technology is a part of the group of air pollution controls collectively referred to as wet scrubbers. ... Figure 1 -Centrifugal fan scrubber Mechanically aided scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Figure 1 - Countercurrent-flow spray tower Spray towers, or chambers, are constructed very simply - consisting of empty cylindrical vessels made of steel or plastic and nozzles that spray liquid into the vessels. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... // The term nitrogen oxide typically refers to any binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or to a mixture of such compounds: Nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen(II) oxide Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen(IV) oxide Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitrogen (I) oxide Dinitrogen trioxide (N2O3), nitrogen(II, IV) oxide Dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4), nitrogen... One of John Joyces early sketches of the Low NOx burner A LO-NOx burner is a type of gas burner, invented by John Joyce, that significantly reduces the formation of oxides of nitrogen. ... Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR): Gaseous or liquid ammonia is added to the flue gas stream and is absorbed onto a catalyst. ... Selective Non Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) is a method for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in conventional power plants that burn biomass. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a NOx (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide) reduction technique used in most gasoline and diesel engines. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ... Not to be confused with absorption. ... Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ... A gas flare at an oil refinery. ... A thermal oxidizer is a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere. ... Biofiltration is a pollution control technique using living material to filter or chemically process pollutants. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... Vapor (or vapour) recovery is the process of recovering the vapors of gasoline or other fuels, so that they do not escape into the atmosphere. ... Acid gas is natural gas or any other gas mixture which contains significant amounts of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), or similar contaminants. ... Sulfur dioxide (or Sulphur dioxide) has the chemical formula SO2. ... Figure 1 - Venturi scrubber with mist eliminator Wet scrubbers are a form of pollution control technology. ... The word scrubber can mean:- The part of a rebreather breathing set which absorbs the carbon dioxide which the individual using the breathing set breathes out. ... Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ... This article is about the element. ... Dioxin is the common name for the group of compounds classified as polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ...

Legal regulations

Smog in Cairo
Smog in Cairo

In general, there are two types of air quality standards. The first class of standards (such as the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards) set maximum atmospheric concentrations for specific pollutants. Environmental agencies enact regulations which are intended to result in attainment of these target levels. The second class (such as the North American Air Quality Index) take the form of a scale with various thresholds, which is used to communicate to the public the relative risk of outdoor activity. The scale may or may not distinguish between different pollutants. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1183 × 887 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Cairo in smog. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1183 × 887 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Cairo in smog. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ...


Canada

In Canada, air quality is typically evaluated against standards set by the Canadian Council of Minister for the Environment (CCME), an inter-governmental body of federal, provincial and territorial Ministers responsible for the environment. The CCME has set Canada Wide Standards(CWS).[23][24] These are:

  • CWS for PM2.5 = 30 µg/m3 (24 hour averaging time, by year 2010, based on 98th percentile ambient measurement annually, averaged over 3 consecutive years).
  • CWS for ozone = 65 ppb (8-hour averaging time, by year 2010, achievement is based on the 4th highest measurement annually, averaged over 3 consecutive years.

Note that there is no consequence in Canada to not achieving these standards. In addition, these only apply to jurisdictions with populations greater than 100,000. Further, provinces and territories may set more stringent standards than those set by the CCME.


European Union

National Emission Ceilings (NEC) for certain atmospheric pollutants are regulated by Directive 2001/81/EC (NECD).[25] As part of the preparatory work associated with the revision of the NECD, the European Commission is assisted by the NECPI working group (National Emission Ceilings – Policy Instruments).[26] Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ...


United Kingdom

Air quality targets set by the UK's Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) are mostly aimed at local government representatives responsible for the management of air quality in cities, where air quality management is the most urgent. The UK has established an air quality network where levels of the key air pollutants[27] are published by monitoring centers.[28] Air quality in Oxford, Bath and London[29] is particularly poor. One controversial study[30] performed by the Calor Gas company and published in the Guardian newspaper compared walking in Oxford on an average day to smoking over sixty light cigarettes. The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for environmental protection, food production and standards, agriculture, fisheries and rural communities in England. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... , Bath is a small city in Somerset, England most famous for its historic baths fed by three hot springs. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Formed in 1935 Calor is the UKs leading supplier of LPG servicing around 4 million homes and businesses. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


More precise comparisons can be collected from the UK Air Quality Archive[31] which allows the user to compare a cities management of pollutants against the national air quality objectives[32] set by DEFRA in 2000.


Localized peak values are often cited, but average values are also important to human health. The UK National Air Quality Information Archive offers almost real-time monitoring of "current maximum" air pollution measurements for many UK towns and cities.[33] This source offers a wide range of constantly updated data, including:

  • Hourly Mean Ozone (µg/m³)
  • Hourly Mean Nitrogen dioxide (µg/m³)
  • Maximum 15-Minute Mean Sulphur dioxide (µg/m³)
  • 8-Hour Mean Carbon monoxide (mg/m³)
  • 24-Hour Mean PM10 (µg/m³ Grav Equiv)

DEFRA acknowledges that air pollution has a significant effect on health and has produced a simple banding index system[34] is used to create a daily warning system that is issued by the BBC Weather Service to indicate air pollution levels.[35] DEFRA has published guidelines for people suffering from respiratory and heart diseases.[36] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


United States

Looking down from the Hollywood Hills, with Griffith Observatory on the hill in the foreground, air pollution is visible in downtown Los Angeles on a late afternoon.
Looking down from the Hollywood Hills, with Griffith Observatory on the hill in the foreground, air pollution is visible in downtown Los Angeles on a late afternoon.

In the 1960s, 70s, and 90s, the United States Congress enacted a series of Clean Air Acts which significantly strengthened regulation of air pollution. Individual U.S. states, some European nations and eventually the European Union followed these initiatives. The Clean Air Act sets numerical limits on the concentrations of a basic group of air pollutants and provide reporting and enforcement mechanisms. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4128x1132, 951 KB) Summary Los Angeles and Griffin Observatory, as viewed from the Hollywood Hills. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (4128x1132, 951 KB) Summary Los Angeles and Griffin Observatory, as viewed from the Hollywood Hills. ... The Hollywood Hills, an unofficial designation of part of the City of Los Angeles, California, are part of the eastern section of the low transverse range of the Santa Monica Mountains, which extends from the Los Feliz District and Hollywood, on the south side of the Valley, to Pacific Coast... Griffith Observatory, September, 2006. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... Smog over Shanghai. ...


In 1999, the United States EPA replaced the Pollution Standards Index (PSI) with the Air Quality Index (AQI) to incorporate new PM2.5 and Ozone standards. EPA redirects here. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ...


The effects of these laws have been very positive. In the United States between 1970 and 2006, citizens enjoyed the following reductions in annual pollution emissions:[37]

  • carbon monoxide emissions fell from 197 million tons to 89 million tons
  • nitrogen oxide emissions fell from 27 million tons to 19 million tons
  • sulfur dioxide emissions fell from 31 million tons to 15 million tons
  • particulate emissions fell by 80%
  • lead emissions fell by more than 98%

In an October 2006 letter to EPA, the agency's independent scientific advisors warned that the ozone smog standard “needs to be substantially reduced” and that there is “no scientific justification” for retaining the current, weaker standard. The scientists unanimously recommended a smog threshold of 60 to 70 ppb after they conducted an extensive review of the evidence. [38] EPA redirects here. ...


The EPA has proposed, in June 2007, a new threshold of 75 ppb. This falls short of the scientific recommendation, but is an improvement over the current standard. EPA redirects here. ...


Polluting industries are lobbying to keep the current (weaker) standards in place. Environmentalists and public health advocates are mobilizing to support compliance with the scientific recommendations.[citation needed]


The National Ambient Air Quality Standards are pollution thresholds which trigger mandatory remediation plans by state and local governments, subject to enforcement by the EPA. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ...


An outpouring of dust layered with man-made sulfates, smog, industrial fumes, carbon grit, and nitrates is crossing the Pacific Ocean on prevailing winds from booming Asian economies in plumes so vast they alter the climate. Almost a third of the air over Los Angeles and San Francisco can be traced directly to Asia. With it comes up to three-quarters of the black carbon particulate pollution that reaches the West Coast. [39] Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...


Statistics

Most Polluted Cities

Most Polluted World Cities by PM[40]
Particulate
matter,
μg/m³ (2004)
City
169 Cairo, Egypt
150 Delhi, India
128 Kolkata, India (Calcutta)
125 Tianjin, China
123 Chongqing, China
109 Kanpur, India
109 Lucknow, India
104 Jakarta, Indonesia
101 Shenyang, China

Air pollution is usually concentrated in densely populated metropolitan areas, especially in developing countries where environmental regulations are generally relatively lax. However, even populated areas in developed countries attain unhealthy levels of pollution. Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: 重庆; Traditional Chinese: 重慶; pinyin: Chóngqìng; Wade_Giles: Chung_ching; Postal System Pinyin: Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four municipalities, which have provincial_level status. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Chhota Imambara in Lucknow , Lucknow ( , Hindi: लखनऊ, ) is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India. ... This page is about the capital city of Indonesia. ... This article is about a city. ...

Counties in the United States that violate National Ambient Air Quality Standards, as of June 2007. Air pollution is a health concern even in developed countries like the U.S.
Counties in the United States that violate National Ambient Air Quality Standards, as of June 2007. Air pollution is a health concern even in developed countries like the U.S.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ...

Carbon dioxide emissions

Total CO2 emissions

106 Tons of CO2 per year:[41] Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

  • United States: 2,790
  • China: 2,680
  • Russia: 661
  • India: 583
  • Japan: 400
  • Germany: 356
  • Australia: 226
  • South Africa: 222
  • United Kingdom: 212
  • South Korea: 185
Per capita CO2 emissions

Tons of CO2 per year per capita:[41]

  • Australia: 10
  • United States: 8.2
  • United Kingdom: 3.2
  • China: 1.8
  • India: 0.5

Atmospheric dispersion

The basic technology for analyzing air pollution is through the use of a variety of mathematical models for predicting the transport of air pollutants in the lower atmosphere. The principal methodologies are: Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. ...

Visualization of a buoyant Gaussian air pollution dispersion plume as used in many atmospheric dispersion models
Visualization of a buoyant Gaussian air pollution dispersion plume as used in many atmospheric dispersion models

The point source problem is the best understood, since it involves simpler mathematics and has been studied for a long period of time, dating back to about the year 1900. It uses a Gaussian dispersion model for buoyant pollution plumes to forecast the air pollution isopleths, with consideration given to wind velocity, stack height, emission rate and stability class (a measure of atmospheric turbulence).[42][43] This model has been extensively validated and calibrated with experimental data for all sorts of atmospheric conditions. Air pollution dispersion terminology describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. ... Air pollution dispersion terminology describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. ... Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... Air pollution dispersion terminology describes the words and technical terms that have a special meaning to those who work in the field of air pollution dispersion modeling. ... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Satellite photo of a Saharan dust cloud (2000) over the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. ... Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... GAUSSIAN is a computational chemistry software program, first written by John Pople. ... Contour and Contour map redirect here. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ...


The roadway air dispersion model was developed starting in the late 1950s and early 1960s in response to requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act and the U.S. Department of Transportation (then known as the Federal Highway Administration) to understand impacts of proposed new highways upon air quality, especially in urban areas. Several research groups were active in this model development, among which were: the Environmental Research and Technology (ERT) group in Lexington, Massachusetts, the ESL Inc. group in Sunnyvale, California and the California Air Resources Board group in Sacramento, California. The research of the ESL group received a boost with a contract award from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to validate a line source model using sulfur hexafluoride as a tracer gas. This program was successful in validating the line source model developed by ESL inc. Some of the earliest uses of the model were in court cases involving highway air pollution, the Arlington, Virginia portion of Interstate 66 and the New Jersey Turnpike widening project through East Brunswick, New Jersey. Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... The National Environmental Policy Act (or, NEPA) was signed into law on January 1, 1970 by US President Richard Nixon. ... The United States Department of Transportation (DOT) is a Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with transport. ... Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Middlesex Settled 1642 Incorporated 1713 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 16. ... Location in Santa Clara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Clara Government  - Mayor Otto Lee Area  - Total 22. ... California Air Resources Board (CARB) is the clean air agency of the state of California in the United States. ... Sacramento redirects here. ... EPA redirects here. ... Sulfur hexafluoride is an inorganic compound with the formula . ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... Interstate 66 (abbreviated I-66) is an interstate highway in the eastern United States. ... This article is about the modern freeway. ... East Brunswick is an suburban township located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ...


Area source models were developed in 1971 through 1974 by the ERT and ESL groups, but addressed a smaller fraction of total air pollution emissions, so that their use and need was not as widespread as the line source model, which enjoyed hundreds of different applications as early as the 1970s. Similarly photochemical models were developed primarily in the 1960s and 1970s, but their use was more specialized and for regional needs, such as understanding smog formation in Los Angeles, California. Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Environmental impacts

The greenhouse effect is a phenomenon whereby greenhouse gases, create a condition in the upper atmosphere causing a trapping of heat and leading to increased surface and lower tropospheric temperatures. It shares this property with many other gases, the largest overall forcing on Earth coming from water vapour. Other greenhouse gases include methane, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons, NOx, and ozone. Many greenhouse gases, contain carbon, and some of that from fossil fuels. Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Top: Increasing atmospheric levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Air redirects here. ... For other uses, see Heat (disambiguation) In physics, heat, symbolized by Q, is energy transferred from one body or system to another due to a difference in temperature. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... This is a list of greenhouse gases as used by the IPCC TAR. Gases relevant to radiative forcing only (per IPCC documentation) Gases relevant to radiative forcing and ozone depletion (per IPCC documentation) (Source: IPCC radiative forcing report 1994 updated (to 1998) by IPCC TAR table 6. ... Note: This Wikipedia article is a work in progress. ... Boundaries: Phase, Pressure, Temperature Evaporation/Sublimation Whenever a water molecule leaves a surface, it is said to have evaporated. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... CFC molecules CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons) are a family of artificial chemical compounds containing chlorine, fluorine and carbon. ... Fluorotelomer alcohol FTOH 8:2 Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are compounds derived from hydrocarbons by replacement of hydrogen atoms by fluorine atoms. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Look up nox, Nox in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ...


This effect has been understood by scientists for about a century, and technological advancements during this period have helped increase the breadth and depth of data relating to the phenomenon. Currently, scientists are studying the role of changes in composition of greenhouse gases from natural and anthropogenic sources for the effect on climate change. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


A number of studies have also investigated the potential for long-term rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide to cause slight increases in the acidity of ocean waters and the possible effects of this on marine ecosystems. However, carbonic acid is a very weak acid, and is utilized by marine organisms during photosynthesis. Change in sea surface pH caused by anthropogenic CO2 between the 1700s and the 1990s Ocean acidification is the name given to the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earths oceans, caused by their uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. ... Carbonic acid (ancient name acid of air or aerial acid) has the formula H2CO3. ... Photosynthesis splits water to liberate O2 and fixes CO2 into sugar The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ...


See also

The term acid rain is commonly used to mean the deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry particles. ... Air pollution is a concern to citizens, governments, industry and First Nations in British Columbia (BC), Canada because of its effects on health and visibility. ... An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland The Air Quality Index (AQI) is a standardized indicator of the air quality in a given location. ... -1... The AP 42 Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, was first published by the U.S. Public Health Service in 1968. ... Severe haze affecting Ampang, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in August 2005 ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is an environmental agreement signed in 2002 between ASEAN nations to bring haze pollution under control in Southeast Asia. ... The Asian Brown Cloud is an enormous, three-kilometer thick layer of haze covering the northern Indian Ocean, India, Pakistan, and much of South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China. ... Atmospheric chemistry is a branch of atmospheric science in which the chemistry of the Earths atmosphere and that of other planets is studied. ... Atmospheric dispersion modeling is performed with computer programs that use mathematical equations and algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse in the atmosphere. ... A beehive burner is a large conical steel shell with an opening in the top in which woodwaste is burned. ... Best Available Control Technology (BACT) is an emission limitation based on the maximum degree of reduction for each regulated air pollutant emitted from or that results from any new or modified stationary source. ... Building biology (or Baubiologie as it was coined in Germany) is a science that investigates the indoor living environment for a variety of irritants. ... Atmospheric dispersion models are computer programs that use mathematical algorithms to simulate how pollutants in the ambient atmosphere disperse and, in some cases, how they react in the atmosphere. ... Emission standards are requirements that set specific limits to the amount of pollutants that can be released into the environment. ... The Emissions & Generation Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) is a comprehensive source of data on the environmental characteristics of almost all electric power generated in the United States. ... There are numerous international environmental agreements made to protect the environment in different ways. ... Flue gas desulfurization is technology that employs a sorbent, usually lime or limestone, to remove sulfur dioxide(SO2) from the gases produced by burning fossil fuels. ... The combustion product gas resulting from the burning of fossil fuels (or any other combustible fuel) is called flue gas. ... Global Atmosphere Watchs logo The Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) is a worldwide system established by the World Meteorological Organization – a United Nations agency – to monitor trends in the Earths atmosphere. ... Global dimming is the gradual reduction in the amount of global direct irradiance at the Earths surface that was observed for several decades after the start of systematic measurements in 1950s. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... A schematic representation of the exchanges of energy between outer space, the Earths atmosphere, and the Earth surface. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency that apply for outdoor air throughout the country. ... Particulates, alternatively referred to as particulate matter (PM), aerosols or fine particles, are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in a gas. ... It has been suggested that Polluter Pays be merged into this article or section. ... Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ... The Spare the Air program operates to combat air pollution during the summer in the San Francisco Bay Area. ...

References

  1. ^ Starting from [1] Pollution - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  2. ^ Air Pollution, Heart Disease and Stroke from the website of the American Heart Organization January 5, 2008
  3. ^ a b Estimated deaths & DALYs attributable to selected environmental risk factors, by WHO Member State, 2002
  4. ^ National Research Council: Committee on Air Quality Management in the United States, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies (2004). Air Quality Management in the United States. National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-08932-8. 
  5. ^ AP 42, Volume I
  6. ^ United Kingdom's emission factor database
  7. ^ http://reports.eea.eu.int/EMEPCORINAIR4/en European Environment Agency's 2005 Emission Inventory Guidebook]
  8. ^ Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (reference manual)
  9. ^ Australian National Pollutant Inventory Emissions Estimation Technique Manuals
  10. ^ Canadian GHG Inventory Methodologies
  11. ^ "Study links traffic pollution to thousands of deaths", The Guardian, London, UK: Guardian Media Group, 2008-04-15. Retrieved on 2008-04-15. (English) 
  12. ^ Simi Chakrabarti. "20th anniversary of world's worst industrial disaster", Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 
  13. ^ Davis, Devra (2002). When Smoke Ran Like Water: Tales of Environmental Deception and the Battle Against Pollution. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-01521-2. 
  14. ^ Christopher H. Goss, Stacey A. Newsom, Jonathan S. Schildcrout, Lianne Sheppard and Joel D. Kaufman (2004). "Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Pulmonary Exacerbations and Lung Function in Cystic Fibrosis". American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 169: 816-821. doi:10.1164/rccm.200306-779OC. 
  15. ^ Michael Kymisis, Konstantinos Hadjistavrou (2008). "Short-Term Effects Of Air Pollution Levels On Pulmonary Function Of Young Adults". The Internet Journal of Pulmonary Medicine 9 (2). 
  16. ^ Zoidis, John D. (1999). "The Impact of Air Pollution on COPD". RT: For Decision Makers in Respiratory Care. 
  17. ^ Holland WW, Reid DD. The urban factor in chronic bronchitis. Lancet. 1965;I:445-448.
  18. ^ J. Sunyer (2001). "Urban air pollution and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary disease: a review". European Respiratory Journal 17: 1024-1033. 
  19. ^ Nielsen, John. "The Killer Fog of ’52: Thousands died as Poisonous Air Smothered London", National Public Radio, 2002-12-12. 
  20. ^ "On this Day: 1952 London Fog Clears After days of Chaos", BBC News, 2005-12-09. 
  21. ^ Polluted Cities: The Air Children Breathe. World Health Organization.
  22. ^ Committee on Environmental Health (2004). "Ambient Air Pollution: Health Hazards to Children". Pediatrics 114 (6): 1699-1707. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2166. 
  23. ^ Canada-wide Standards
  24. ^ Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) and Ozone
  25. ^ Directive 2001/81/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2001 on national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants
  26. ^ Terms of Reference, Working Group on the Revision of National Emissions Ceilings and Policy InstrumentsPDF (24.4 KiB)
  27. ^ The Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (DEFRA): Air Pollution
  28. ^ LAQM Air Quality Management Areas
  29. ^ London
  30. ^ Taking the Oxford air adds up to a 60-a-day habit (a newspaper article in The Guardian
  31. ^ UK Air Quality Archive
  32. ^ UK National Air Quality Objectives
  33. ^ Current Air Pollution Bulletin
  34. ^ Air Pollution Bandings and Indexes
  35. ^ BBC Weather Service
  36. ^ Air Pollution - What it means for your health
  37. ^ Wall Street Journal article, May 23, 2006
  38. ^ American Lung Association, June 2, 2007
  39. ^ Wall Street Journal article, July 20, 2007
  40. ^ World Bank Statistics
  41. ^ a b The source of these data is the Carbon Monitoring for Action (CARMA) database produced by the Center for Global Development. CARMA, Geographic Regions
  42. ^ Turner, D.B. (1994). Workbook of atmospheric dispersion estimates: an introduction to dispersion modeling, 2nd Edition, CRC Press. ISBN 1-56670-023-X.  www.crcpress.com
  43. ^ Beychok, M.R. (2005). Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion, 4th Edition, author-published. ISBN 0-9644588-0-2.  www.air-dispersion.com

For other uses, see Guardian. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... NPR redirects here. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Pediatrics is an official peer-reviewed journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... For other uses, see Guardian. ... The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a think tank focused on reducing global poverty and inequality, headquartered in Washington, D.C. CGD was founded in November 2001 by Edward W. Scott, Jr. ... Fundamentals Of Stack Gas Dispersion is a book devoted to the basic fundamentals of air pollution dispersion modeling of continuous, buoyant pollution plumes from stationary point sources. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Air pollution
Air quality science and general information
  • International Conference on Urban Air Quality.
  • UNEP Urban Issues
  • European Commission > Environment > Policies > Air >Air Quality.
  • UNEP Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles
Air quality modelling
  • Stuff in the Air Standard air quality modelling procedure for industrial sources.
  • Wiki on Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling. Addresses the international community of atmospheric dispersion modellers - primarily researchers, but also users of models. Its purpose is to pool experiences gained by dispersion modellers during their work.
  • Air Dispersion Modeling Conversions and Formulas One of six technical articles devoted to air quality and air pollution dispersion modeling.
Effects on human health
  • Air Pollution Triggers Blood Clots.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Air Pollution - MSN Encarta (1182 words)
Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living...
Some air pollutants return to Earth in the form of acid rain and snow, which corrode statues and buildings, damage crops and forests, and make lakes and streams unsuitable for fish and other plant and animal life.
Air pollution is subject to weather patterns that can trap it in valleys or blow it across the globe to damage pristine environments far from the original sources.
Air pollution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2621 words)
Worldwide air pollution is responsible for large numbers of deaths and cases of respiratory disease.
A direct release air pollutant is one that is emitted directly from a given source, such as the carbon monoxide or sulfur dioxide, all of which are byproducts of combustion; whereas, a subsequent air pollutant is formed in the atmosphere through chemical reactions involving direct release pollutants.
The basic technology for analyzing air pollution is through the use of a variety of mathematical models for predicting the transport of air pollutants in the lower atmosphere.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m