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Encyclopedia > Aikido
Aikido
合気道

Shihonage technique performed in "half-seated" position (hamni-handachi waza). Uke is taking forward breakfall (mae ukemi) to safely reach the ground.
Focus Grappling
Country of origin Japan
Creator Morihei Ueshiba
Parenthood aiki-jūjutsu; judo; jujutsu; kenjutsu; sōjutsu
Olympic Sport No

Aikido (合気道 aikidō?) is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. Aikido is often translated as "the Way of unifying (with) life energy"[1] or as "the Way of harmonious spirit."[2] Ueshiba's goal was to create an art that practitioners could use to defend themselves while also protecting their attacker from injury. For other uses, see Grapple. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883–April 26, 1969) was a famous martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido. ... Daitō-ryÅ« aiki-jÅ«jutsu (大東流合気柔術), originally called Daito-ryÅ« jujutsu (大東流柔術), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku). ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... Japanese martial arts refers to the enormous variety of martial arts native to Japan. ... Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883–April 26, 1969) was a famous martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido. ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ...


Aikido is performed by blending with the motion of the attacker and redirecting the force of the attack rather than opposing it head-on. The aikidōka (aikido practitioner) "leads" the attacker's momentum using entering and turning movements. The techniques are completed with various throws or joint locks.[3] Aikido can be categorized under the general umbrella of grappling arts. This article is about momentum in physics. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... A joint lock (in Japanese, 関節技 kansetsu-waza) is the general term for martial arts techniques involving painful manipulation of the joints. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ...


Aikido derives mainly from the martial art of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, but began to diverge from it in the late 1920s, partly due to Ueshiba's involvement with the Ōmoto-kyō religion. Ueshiba's early students' documents bear the term aiki-jūjutsu.[4] Many of Ueshiba's senior students have different approaches to aikido, depending on when they studied with him. Today aikido is found all over the world in a number of styles, with broad ranges of interpretation and emphasis. However, they all share techniques learned from Ueshiba and most have concern for the well-being of the attacker. Daitō-ryÅ« Aiki-jÅ«jutsu ), originally called Daitō-ryÅ« Jujutsu ), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Takeda Sokaku. ... Oomoto (大本, literally foundation), also known as Omoto-kyo (大本教) or similar Omoto, is a Japanese religion, often categorized as a new Japanese religion and offshoot of Shinto. ...

Contents

Etymology and basic philosophy

The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji: Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...

  • - ai - joining, harmonizing
  • - ki - spirit, life energy
  • - - way, path

The term connects the practice of aikido with the philosophical concept of Tao, which can be found in martial arts such as judo and kendo, and in more peaceful arts such as Japanese calligraphy (shodō) and flower arranging (kadō). The term aiki refers to the martial arts principle or tactic of blending with an attacker's movements for the purpose of controlling their actions with minimal effort.[5] One applies aiki by understanding the rhythm and intent of the attacker to find the optimal position and timing to apply a counter-technique. Historically, aiki was mastered for the purpose of killing; however in aikido one seeks to control an aggressor without causing harm.[2] The founder of aikido declared: "To control aggression without inflicting injury is the Art of Peace."[6] A number of aikido practitioners interpret aikido metaphorically, seeing parallels between aikido techniques and other methods for conflict resolution.[7][8][9][10][11] These kanji are identical to the Korean versions of the characters that form the word hapkido, a Korean martial art. Although there are no known direct connections between the two arts, it is suspected that the founders of both arts trained in Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu. This article is about the Chinese character and the philosophy it represents. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... The History of Japanese calligraphy () has been heavily influenced by Chinese calligraphy. ... Ikebana arrangement A Japanese hanging scroll (kakemono) and Ikebana Ikebana arranged flower),[1] is the Japanese art of flower arrangement, also known as kadō , the way of flowers) In contrast to the decorative form of flower arranging in western countries, Japanese flower arrangement emphasizes the linear aspects. ... Aiki is a martial arts principle or tactic. ... For the episode of the television series The Office, see Conflict Resolution (The Office episode) As you know, wikipedia. ... This article is about Martial art. ...


History

Morihei Ueshiba, founder of aikido.

Aikido was created by Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, 14 December 188326 April 1969), referred to by some aikido practitioners as Ōsensei ("Great Teacher").[12] Ueshiba envisioned aikido not only as the synthesis of his martial training, but also an expression of his personal philosophy of universal peace and reconciliation. During Ueshiba's lifetime and continuing today, aikido has evolved from the koryū (old-style martial arts) that Ueshiba studied into a wide variety of expressions by martial artists throughout the world.[3] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Morihei Ueshiba (植芝 盛平 Ueshiba Morihei, December 14, 1883–April 26, 1969) was a famous martial artist and founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... Look up Sensei in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... KoryÅ« (古流) is a Japanese word that is used in association with the ancient Japanese martial arts. ...

Initial development

Takeda Sokaku

Ueshiba developed aikido primarily during the late 1920s through the 1930s through the synthesis of the older martial arts that he had studied.[13] The core martial art from which aikido derives is Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu, which Ueshiba studied directly with Takeda Sokaku, the revivor of that art. Additionally, Ueshiba is known to have studied Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū with Tozawa Tokusaburō in Tokyo in 1901, Gotōha Yagyū Shingan-ryū under Nakai Masakatsu in Sakai from 1903 to 1908, and judo with Kiyoichi Takagi (高木 喜代子 Takagi Kiyoichi, 1894–1972) in Tanabe in 1911.[14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Daitō-ryÅ« aiki-jÅ«jutsu (大東流合気柔術), originally called Daito-ryÅ« jujutsu (大東流柔術), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku). ... Sokaku Takeda (武田惣角 Takeda Sokaku, October 10, 1859 - April 25, 1943) was known as the founder of a school of jujutsu known as Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. ... Tenjin Shinyo-ryu (NOTE: the correct spelling is TENJIN not Tenji in the translated Japanese English language) Is classified as a Koryu(traditional)form of Jujutsu that was founded by Iso Mataemo Minamoto no Masatari in the 1830s. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... YagyÅ« Shingan-ryÅ« ), is a traditional school (koryÅ«) of Japanese martial arts. ... Sakai ) is a city located in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Categories: Cities in Wakayama Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ...


The art of Daitō-ryū is the primary technical influence on aikido. Along with empty-handed throwing and joint-locking techniques, Ueshiba incorporated training movements with weapons, such as those for the spear (yari), short staff (), and perhaps the bayonet (銃剣 jūken?). However, aikido derives much of its technical structure from the art of swordsmanship (kenjutsu).[2] Spears were one of the most common personal weapons from the late Bronze Age until the advent of firearms. ... several yari, including one hafted with a simple crossbar straight yari head with saya Jumonji yari head use of yari in mock combat Yari (槍) is the Japanese term for spear, or more specifically, the straight-headed spear. ... For other uses of the word staff, see staff. ... A jō ) is an approximately four-foot (1. ... For other uses, see bayonet (disambiguation). ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ...


Ueshiba moved to Hokkaidō in 1912, and began studying under Takeda Sokaku in 1915. His official association with Daitō-ryū continued until 1937.[13] However, during the latter part of that period, Ueshiba had already begun to distance himself from Takeda and the Daitō-ryū. At that time Ueshiba was referring to his martial art as "Aiki Budō". It is unclear exactly when Ueshiba began using the name "aikido", but it became the official name of the art in 1942 when the Greater Japan Martial Virtue Society (Dai Nippon Butoku Kai) was engaged in a government sponsored reorganization and centralization of Japanese martial arts.[3]   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... The Great Japan Martial Arts Virtues Association was founded between 780 and 806 C.E. by Kanmu, the 50th Emperor of Japan. ...


Religious influences

Onisaburo Deguchi

After Ueshiba left Hokkaidō in 1919, he met and was profoundly influenced by Onisaburo Deguchi, the spiritual leader of the Ōmoto-kyō religion (a neo-Shinto movement) in Ayabe.[15] One of the primary features of Ōmoto-kyō is its emphasis on the attainment of utopia during one's life. This was a great influence on Ueshiba's martial arts philosophy of extending love and compassion especially to those who seek to harm others. Aikido demonstrates this philosophy in its emphasis on mastering martial arts so that one may receive an attack and harmlessly redirect it. In an ideal resolution not only is the receiver unharmed but so is the attacker.[16] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Onisaburo Deguchi (1871-1948) was one of the chief figures of the Omoto religious movement in Japan. ... Oomoto (大本, literally foundation), also known as Omoto-kyo (大本教) or similar Omoto, is a Japanese religion, often categorized as a new Japanese religion and offshoot of Shinto. ... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... Ayabe (綾部市; -shi) is a city located in Kyoto, Japan. ... For other uses, see Utopia (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the effect on his spiritual growth, the connection with Deguchi gave Ueshiba entry to elite political and military circles as a martial artist. As a result of this exposure, he was able to attract not only financial backing but also gifted students. Several of these students would found their own styles of aikido.[17]


International dissemination

Aikido was first brought to the West in 1951 by Minoru Mochizuki with a visit to France where he introduced aikido techniques to judo students.[18] He was followed by Tadashi Abe in 1952 who came as the official Aikikai Hombu representative, remaining in France for seven years. Kenji Tomiki toured with a delegation of various martial arts through fifteen continental states of the United States in 1953.[17] Later in that year, Koichi Tohei was sent by Aikikai Hombu to Hawaii, for a full year, where he set up several dojo. This was followed up by several further visits and is considered the formal introduction of aikido to the United States. The United Kingdom followed in 1955; Italy in 1964; Germany and Australia in 1965. Designated "Official Delegate for Europe and Africa" by Morihei Ueshiba, Masamichi Noro arrived in France in September 1961. Today there are aikido dojo available throughout the world. Minoru Mochizuki (April 7, 1907 in Shizuoka, Japan - May 30, 2003 in Aix-en-Provence, France) founded Yoseikan Budo. ... Tadashi Abe (1926 - November 23, 1984) was the first aikido master to live and teach in the west. ... Aikikai Hombu Dojo Aikikai Hombu Dojo (合気会 本部道場) is the headquarters of the Aikikai which is an umbrella organisation of various national, as well as smaller, aikido organisations. ... Kenji Tomiki (1900–1979) is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of aikido style Shodokan, often referred to as Tomiki Aikido. ... Koichi Tohei (藤平光一) (born January 1920) is a 10th Dan aikidoka and founder of the Ki Society and its style of aikido, officially known as Shin-Shin Toitsu Aikido - aikido with mind and body unified, but commonly known as Ki-Aikido. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ... Masamichi Noro (born in 1935 is a Japanese aikido master established in France. ...


Proliferation of independent organisations

Further information: Aikido styles
See also: List of aikidōka

The biggest aikido organisation is the Aikikai Foundation which remains under the control of the Ueshiba family. However, aikido has many styles, mostly formed by Morihei Ueshiba's major students.[17] // The major styles of aikido each have their own headquarters (honbu dōjō) in Japan, have an international breadth, and were founded by direct students of Morihei Ueshiba. ... This is a list of famous and well-known aikido practitioners (aikidoka) sorted by area of primary residence. ... The Aikikai Foundation ) is the original organisation for the Japanese martial art aikido, officially recognized by the Japanese government in 1940. ...


The earliest independent styles to emerge were Yoseikan Aikido, begun by Minoru Mochizuki in 1931,[18] Yoshinkan Aikido founded by Gozo Shioda in 1955,[19] and Shodokan Aikido, founded by Kenji Tomiki in 1967.[20] The emergence of these styles pre-dated Ueshiba's death and did not cause any major upheavals when they were formalized. Shodokan Aikido, however, was controversial, since it introduced a unique rule-based competition that some felt was contrary to the spirit of aikido.[17] Yoseikan Aikido: the aikido taught at the Yoseikan Dojo in Shizuoka, Japan, under the direction of Minoru Mochizuki. ... Minoru Mochizuki (April 7, 1907 in Shizuoka, Japan - May 30, 2003 in Aix-en-Provence, France) founded Yoseikan Budo. ... Aikido Yoshinkan ) (lit. ... Gozo Shioda (塩田剛三) (September 9, 1915 - July 17, 1994), is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of Yoshinkan style of aikido. ... Tomiki Aikido is the style of Aikido founded by Professor Kenji Tomiki (富木謙治). It is sometimes referred to as Sport Aikido due to the fact that it is the only style of Aikido to hold regular competitions. ... Kenji Tomiki (1900–1979) is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of aikido style Shodokan, often referred to as Tomiki Aikido. ...


After Ueshiba's death in 1969, two more major styles emerged. Significant controversy arose with the departure of the Aikikai Hombu Dojo's chief instructor Koichi Tohei, in 1974. Tohei left as a result of a disagreement with the son of the founder, Kisshomaru Ueshiba , who at that time headed the Aikikai Foundation. The disagreement was over the proper role of ki development in regular aikido training. After Tohei left, he formed his own style, called Shin Shin Toitsu Aikido, and the organization which governs it, the Ki Society.[21] Aikikai Hombu Dojo Aikikai Hombu Dojo (合気会 本部道場) is the headquarters of the Aikikai which is an umbrella organisation of various national, as well as smaller, aikido organisations. ... Koichi Tohei (藤平光一) (born January 1920) is a 10th Dan aikidoka and founder of the Ki Society and its style of aikido, officially known as Shin-Shin Toitsu Aikido - aikido with mind and body unified, but commonly known as Ki-Aikido. ... Kisshomaru Ueshiba (植芝 吉祥丸 Ueshiba Kisshomaru) (June 27, 1921-January 4, 1999) was the third son of Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido. ... Ki-Aikido is the style of aikido developed by 10th Dan aikidokaKoichi Tohei. ... The Ki no Kenkyukai (氣の研究会), often called Ki Society, is an aikido organization founded by Koichi Tohei in 1971, while he was the chief instructor at the Aikikai Hombu Dojo. ...


A final major style evolved from Ueshiba's retirement in Iwama, Ibaraki, and the teaching methodology of long term student Morihiro Saito. It is unofficially referred to as the "Iwama style", and at one point a number of its followers formed a loose network of schools they called Iwama Ryu. Although Iwama style practitioners remained part of the Aikikai until Saito's death in 2002, followers of Saito subsequently split into two groups; one remaining with the Aikikai and the other forming the independent organization the Shinshin Aikishuren Kai, in 2004 around Saito's son Hitohiro Saito. Iwama (岩間町; -machi) is a small town located in Nishiibaraki District, Ibaraki, Japan. ... Morihiro Saito (斉藤 守弘 Saitō Morihiro, March 31, 1928–May 13, 2002) was a teacher of the Japanese martial art of aikido, with many students around the world. ... Iwama style is a name often used about the aikido in the lineage of Morihiro Saito, a close disciple of the founder of aikido Morihei Ueshiba for 23 years. ... Iwama Ryu was an aikido organization in which some of the students of Morihiro Saito, a close disciple of the founder of aikido Morihei Ueshiba was included. ... Aikido master Hitohiro Saito (斎藤仁弘) is the son and successor of Morihiro Saito. ...


Today, the major styles of aikido are each run by a separate governing organization, have their own headquarters (本部道場 honbu dōjō?) in Japan, and have an international breadth.[17]


Physical training

In aikido, as in virtually all Japanese martial arts, there are both physical and mental aspects of training. The physical training in aikido is diverse, covering both general physical fitness and conditioning, as well as specific techniques.[22] Because a substantial portion of any aikido curriculum consists of throws, the first thing most students learn is how to safely fall or roll.[22] The specific techniques for attack include both strikes and grabs; the techniques for defense consist of throws and pins. After basic techniques are learned, students study freestyle defense against multiple opponents, and in certain styles, techniques with weapons. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Conditioning is a psychological term for what Ivan Pavlov described as the learning of conditional behavior. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ...


Fitness

Physical training goals pursued in conjunction with aikido include controlled relaxation, flexibility, and endurance, with less emphasis on strength training. In aikido pushing or extending movements are much more common than pulling or contracting movements. This distinction can be applied to general fitness goals for the aikido practitioner.[2] Relaxation techniques are used by people who wish to relax, for a wide variety of reasons. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Look up Endurance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Strength training is the use of resistance to muscular contraction to build the strength, endurance and size of skeletal muscles. ...


Certain anaerobic fitness activities, such as weight training, emphasize contracting movements. In aikido specific muscles or muscle groups are not isolated and worked to improve tone, mass, and power. Aikido related training emphasizes the use of coordinated whole body movement and balance similar to yoga or pilates. For example many dojo begin each class with warm-up exercises (準備体操 junbi taisō?), which may include stretching and break falls.[23] Fox and Haskell formula Anaerobic exercise is used by athletes in non-endurance sports to build power and by body builders to build muscle mass. ... This article is about strength training using weight (gravity) to generate resistance to contraction. ... For other uses such as Yoga postures, see Yoga (disambiguation) Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Sanskrit: योग Yog, IPA: ) is a group of ancient spiritual practices designed for the purpose of cultivating a steady mind. ... The Pilates Method (or simply Pilates), pronounced // is a physical fitness system developed in the early 20th century by Joseph Pilates. ... An actively stretching Siberian tiger Cat stretching in utterly relaxed position Stretching, as theorized in literature, is the deliberate act of lengthening of muscles, in order to increase muscle flexibility and/or joint range of motion (Weerapong et al 189-206). ... Breakfalls are the specialised landing abilities of the practitioners of martial arts. ...


Roles of uke and nage

Aikido training is based primarily on two partners practicing pre-arranged forms (kata) rather than freestyle practice. The basic pattern is for the receiver of the technique (uke) to initiate an attack against the thrower (投げ nage, also referred to as 取り tori, or 仕手 shite, depending on aikido style), who neutralises this attack with an aikido technique.[24] Kata (åž‹ or å½¢) (literally: form) is a Japanese word describing detailed choreographed patterns of movements practiced either solo or in pairs. ... Tori is the member of a pair who performs the action in a drill or kata. ...


Both halves of the technique, that of uke and that of nage, are considered essential to aikido training.[24] Both are studying aikido principles of blending and adaptation. Nage learns to blend with and control attacking energy, while uke learns to become calm and flexible in the disadvantageous, off-balance positions in which nage places them. This "receiving" of the technique is called ukemi.[24] Uke continuously seeks to regain balance and cover vulnerabilities (e.g., an exposed side), while nage uses position and timing to keep uke off-balance and vulnerable. In more advanced training, uke will sometimes apply reversal techniques (返し技 kaeshi-waza?) to regain balance and pin or throw nage.


Ukemi (受身?) refers to the act of receiving a technique. Good ukemi involves a parry or breakfall that is used to avoid pain or injury, such as joint dislocations or atemi.[24]


Initial attacks

Aikido techniques are usually a defense against an attack; therefore, to practice aikido with their partner, students must learn to deliver various types of attacks. Although attacks are not studied as thoroughly as in striking-based arts, "honest" attacks (a strong strike or an immobilizing grab) are needed to study correct and effective application of technique.[2]


Many of the strikes (打ち uchi?) of aikido are often said to resemble cuts from a sword or other grasped object, which may suggest origins in techniques intended for armed combat.[2] Other techniques, which appear to explicitly be punches (tsuki), are also practiced as thrusts with a knife or sword. Kicks are generally reserved for upper-level variations; reasons cited include that falls from kicks are especially dangerous, and that kicks (high kicks in particular) were uncommon during the types of combat prevalent in feudal Japan. Some basic strikes include: Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Kick (disambiguation). ...

  • Front-of-the-head strike (正面打ち shōmen'uchi?) a vertical knifehand strike to the head.
  • Side-of-the-head strike (横面打ち yokomen'uchi?) a diagonal knifehand strike to the side of the head or neck.
  • Chest thrust (胸突き mune-tsuki?) a punch to the torso. Specific targets include the chest, abdomen, and solar plexus. Same as "middle-level thrust" (中段突き chūdan-tsuki?), and "direct thrust" (直突き choku-tsuki?).
  • Face thrust (顔面突き ganmen-tsuki?) a punch to the face. Same as "upper-level thrust" (上段突き jōdan-tsuki?).

Beginners in particular often practice techniques from grabs, both because they are safer and because it is easier to feel the energy and lines of force of a hold than a strike. Some grabs are historically derived from being held while trying to draw a weapon; a technique could then be used to free oneself and immobilize or strike the attacker who is grabbing the defender.[2] The following are examples of some basic grabs: In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The abdomen in a human and an ant. ... The solar plexus, also known as the celiac plexus, plexus cœliacus or plexus solaris, is an autonomous cluster of nerve cells (see Plexus) in the human body behind the stomach and below the diaphragm near the celiac artery in the abdominal cavity. ... Choku-zuki (直突き) translates literally to direct thrust. ... The face is the front part of the head and includes the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ...

  • Single-hand grab (片手取り katate-dori?) one hand grabs one wrist.
  • Both-hands grab (諸手取り morote-dori?) both hands grab one wrist.
  • Both-hands grab (両手取り ryōte-dori?) both hands grab both wrists. Same as "double single-handed grab" (両片手取り ryōkatate-dori?).
  • Shoulder grab (肩取り kata-dori?) a shoulder grab. "Both-shoulders-grab" is ryōkata-dori (両肩取り?)
  • Chest grab (胸取り mune-dori?) grabbing the (clothing of the) chest. Same as "collar grab" (襟取り eri-dori?).

Basic techniques

Diagram of ikkyō, or "first technique". Yonkyō has a similar mechanism of action, although the upper hand grips the forearm rather than the elbow.

The following are a sample of the basic or widely practiced throws and pins. The precise terminology for some may vary between organisations and styles, so what follows are the terms used by the Aikikai Foundation. Note that despite the names of the first five techniques listed, they are not universally taught in numeric order.[25] Image File history File links Aikido_ikkyo. ... Image File history File links Aikido_ikkyo. ...

  • First technique (一教 ikkyō?) a control using one hand on the elbow and one hand near the wrist which leverages uke to the ground.[26] This grip also applies pressure into the ulnar nerve at the wrist.
  • Second technique (二教 nikyō?) a pronating wristlock that torques the arm and applies painful nerve pressure. (There is an adductive wristlock or Z-lock in ura version.)
  • Third technique (三教 sankyō?) a rotational wristlock that directs upward-spiraling tension throughout the arm, elbow and shoulder.
  • Fourth technique (四教 yonkyō?) a shoulder control similar to ikkyō, but with both hands gripping the forearm. The knuckles (from the palm side) are applied to the recipient's radial nerve against the periosteum of the forearm bone.[27]
  • Fifth technique (五教 gokyō?) visually similar to ikkyō, but with an inverted grip of the wrist, medial rotation of the arm and shoulder, and downward pressure on the elbow. Common in knife and other weapon take-aways.
  • Four-direction throw (四方投げ shihōnage?) The hand is folded back past the shoulder, locking the shoulder joint.
  • Forearm return (小手返し kotegaeshi?) a supinating wristlock-throw that stretches the extensor digitorum.
  • Breath throw (呼吸投げ kokyūnage?) a loosely used term for various types of mechanically unrelated techniques.[28]
  • Entering throw (入身投げ iriminage?) throws in which nage moves through the space occupied by uke. The classic form superficially resembles a "clothesline" technique.
  • Heaven-and-earth throw (天地投げ tenchinage?) beginning with ryōte-dori; moving forward, nage sweeps one hand low ("earth") and the other high ("heaven"), which unbalances uke so that he or she easily topples over.
  • Hip throw (腰投げ koshinage?) aikido's version of the hip throw. Nage drops his or her hips lower than those of uke, then flips uke over the resultant fulcrum.
  • Figure-ten throw (十字投げ jūjinage?) or figure-ten entanglement (十字絡み jūjigarami?) a throw that locks the arms against each other (The kanji for "10" is a cross-shape: 十).[29]
  • Rotary throw (回転投げ kaitennage?) nage sweeps the arm back until it locks the shoulder joint, then uses forward pressure to throw.[30]
  • Rotary lock (回転押さえ kaiten osae?)
  • Elbow lock (肘極め押さえ hijikime osae?)
  • Arm entanglement (腕絡み udegarami?)
  • Breathing technique (呼吸法 kokyūhō?)

Leverage is related to torque; leverage is a factor by which lever multiplies a force. ... In human anatomy, the ulnar nerve is a nerve which runs from the shoulder to the hand, at one part running near the ulna bone. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a mans head down on a curb. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a mans head down on a curb. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a mans head down on a curb. ... The radial nerve is a nerve in the human body, that supplies the arm, the forearm and the hand. ... The periosteum is an envelope of fibrous connective tissue that is wrapped around the bone in all places except at joints (which are protected by cartilage). ... Internal rotation (or medial rotation) is rotation towards the center of the body. ... This article is about the tool. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a mans head down on a curb. ... The Extensor digitorum communis arises from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, by the common tendon; from the intermuscular septa between it and the adjacent muscles, and from the antibrachial fascia. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... Look up Fulcrum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...

Implementations

Diagram showing two versions of the ikkyō technique: one moving forward (the omote version) and one moving backward (the ura version). See text for more details.

Aikido makes use of body movement (tai sabaki) to blend with uke. For example, an "entering" (irimi) technique consists of movements inward towards uke, while a "turning" (転換 tenkan?) technique uses a pivoting motion.[31] Additionally, an "inside" ( uchi?) technique takes place in front of uke, whereas an "outside" ( soto?) technique takes place to his side; a "front" ( omote?) technique is applied with motion to the front of uke, and a "rear" ( ura?) version is applied with motion towards the rear of uke, usually by incorporating a turning or pivoting motion. Finally, most techniques can be performed while in a seated posture (seiza). Seated techniques are called suwari-waza.[32] Image File history File links Aikido_ikkyo_omote_ura. ... Image File history File links Aikido_ikkyo_omote_ura. ... Alternative spellings: taisabaki, tai sabaki, tai-sabaki Tai sabaki is a term from Japanese martial arts and which relates to whole body movement, or repositioning. ... Aikido (合気道 Aikidō, also 合氣道 using an older style of kanji), literally meaning harmony energy way, or with some poetic license, way of the harmonious spirit) is a gendai budo — a modern Japanese martial art. ... A woman in seiza, on tatami, performing a Japanese tea ceremony Seiza (正座, literally correct sitting) is the traditional formal way of sitting in Japan. ...


Thus, from fewer than twenty basic techniques, there are thousands of possible implementations. For instance, ikkyō can be applied to an opponent moving forward with a strike (perhaps with an ura type of movement to redirect the incoming force), or to an opponent who has already struck and is now moving back to reestablish distance (perhaps an omote-waza version). Specific aikido kata are typically referred to with the formula "attack-technique(-modifier)".[33] For instance, katate-dori ikkyō refers to any ikkyō technique executed when uke is holding one wrist. This could be further specified as katate-dori ikkyō omote, referring to any forward-moving ikkyō technique from that grab.


Atemi (当て身) are strikes (or feints) employed during an aikido technique. Some view atemi as attacks against "vital points" meant to cause damage in and of themselves. For instance, Gōzō Shioda described using atemi in a brawl to quickly down a gang's leader.[34] Others consider atemi, especially to the face, to be methods of distraction meant to enable other techniques. A strike, whether or not it is blocked, can startle the target and break his or her concentration. The target may also become unbalanced in attempting to avoid the blow, for example by jerking the head back, which may allow for an easier throw.[32] Many sayings about atemi are attributed to Morihei Ueshiba, who considered them an essential element of technique.[35] In Japanese martial arts, atemi ) designate blows to the body, as opposed to twisting of joints , strangleholds, holding technique and throws. ... Feints are maneuvers designed to distract or mislead. ... For the use of pressure points in first aid, see Emergency bleeding control In the study of martial arts, practitioners do not focus just on increasing the brute strength of their strikes, but also on the target of their strikes to maximum the impact, and to achieve specific outcomes. ... Gozo Shioda (塩田剛三) (September 9, 1915 - July 17, 1994), is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of Yoshinkan style of aikido. ...


Weapons training

Disarming an attacker using a "sword taking" (太刀取り tachi-dori?) technique.

Weapons training in aikido traditionally includes the short staff (), wooden sword (bokken), and knife (tantō).[36] Today, some schools also incorporate firearms-disarming techniques. Both weapon-taking and weapon-retention are sometimes taught, to integrate armed and unarmed aspects, although some schools of aikido do not train with weapons at all. Others, such as the Iwama style of Morihiro Saito, usually spend substantial time with bokken and , practised under the names aiki-ken, and aiki-jō, respectively. The founder developed much of empty handed aikido from traditional sword and spear movements, so the practice of these movements is generally for the purpose of giving insight into the origin of techniques and movements, as well as vital practice of these basic building blocks.[37] Image File history File links PRehse002-cropped. ... Image File history File links PRehse002-cropped. ... A jō ) is an approximately four-foot (1. ... A pair of bokken A bokken (, bok(u), wood, and ken, sword), is a wooden Japanese sword used for training, usually the size and shape of a katana, but sometimes shaped like other swords. ... Two Tantō tantō blade hidden in a fan-shaped mounting A Tantō (短刀) is a Japanese knife or dagger with a blade length of about 15 - 30 cm (6 - 12). There is a disputed saying about the tantō, wakizashi, and katana stating they are The Tantō differs from the others as... Saito teaching Aiki ken in Iwama Aiki ken is a set of sword techniques practiced according to the principles of aikido. ... Aiki-jō ) is the name given specifically to the set of techniques practiced with a jō (a wooden staff about four feet long), practiced according to the principles of aikido, taught first by Morihei Ueshiba (aikidos founder), then further developed by Morihiro Saito, one of Ueshibas most prominent...


Multiple attackers and randori

Technique performed against two attackers.

One feature of aikido is training to defend oneself against multiple attackers. Freestyle (randori, or jiyūwaza) practice with multiple attackers is a key part of most curricula and is required for the higher level ranks.[38] Randori exercises a person's ability to intuitively perform techniques in an unstructured environment.[38] Strategic choice of techniques, based on how they reposition the student relative to other attackers, is important in randori training. For instance, an ura technique might be used to neutralise the current attacker while turning to face attackers approaching from behind.[2] Image File history File links Embukai01. ... Image File history File links Embukai01. ... Randori (乱取り) is a term used in Japanese martial arts to describe free-style practice or sparring, sometimes with multiple attackers. ...


In Shodokan Aikido, randori differs in that it is not performed with multiple persons with defined roles of defender and attacker, but between two people, where both participants attack, defend, and counter at will. In this respect it resembles judo randori.[20] Tomiki Aikido is the style of Aikido founded by Professor Kenji Tomiki (富木謙治). It is sometimes referred to as Sport Aikido due to the fact that it is the only style of Aikido to hold regular competitions. ...


Injuries

In applying a technique during training, it is the responsibility of nage to prevent injury to uke by employing a speed and force of application that is commensurate with their partner's proficiency in ukemi.[24] Injuries (especially those to the joints), when they do occur in aikido, are often the result of nage misjudging the ability of uke to receive the throw or pin.[39][40]


A study of injuries in the martial arts showed that while the type of injuries varied considerably from one art to the other, the differences in overall rates of injury were much less pronounced. Soft tissue injuries are one of the most common types of injuries found within aikido although a few deaths from repetitive "shihōnage" have been reported.[39][40][41]


Mental training

Aikido training is mental as well as physical, emphasizing the ability to relax the mind and body even under the stress of dangerous situations.[42] This is necessary to enable the practitioner to perform the bold enter-and-blend movements that underlie aikido techniques, wherein an attack is met with confidence and directness.[22] Morihei Ueshiba once remarked that one "must be willing to receive 99% of an opponent's attack and stare death in the face" in order to execute techniques without hesitation.[6] As a martial art concerned not only with fighting proficiency but also with the betterment of daily life, this mental aspect is of key importance to aikido practitioners.[43]


Ki

This was the kanji for ki until 1946, when it was changed to .

The study of ki is a critical component of aikido, and its study defies categorization as either "physical" or "mental" training, as it encompasses both. The original kanji for ki was (shown right), and is a symbolic representation of a lid covering a pot full of rice; the "nourishing vapors" contained within are ki.[44] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 Category The tōyō kanji (当用漢字, kanji for general use) are the result of a... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


The character "ki" is used in everyday Japanese terms, such as "health" (元気 genki?), or "shyness" (内気 uchiki?). Ki is most often understood as unified physical and mental intention, however it is often found in traditional martial arts related with "life energy". Gōzō Shioda's Yoshinkan Aikido, considered one of the 'hard styles', largely follows Ueshiba's teachings from before World War II, and surmises that the secret to ki lies in timing and the application of the whole body's strength to a single point.[34] In later years, Ueshiba's application of ki in aikido took on a softer, more gentle feel. This was his Takemusu Aiki and many of his later students teach about ki from this perspective. Koichi Tohei's Ki Society centers almost exclusively around the study of the empirical (albeit subjective) experience of ki with students ranked separately in aikido techniques and ki development.[45] Aikido Yoshinkan ) (lit. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Takemusu ) was the concept developed by Morihei Ueshiba of how the ultimate martial art should be, how his aikido should be, an art which may harmonize all living beings and free techniques could be spontaneously executed. ... The Ki no Kenkyukai (氣の研究会), often called Ki Society, is an aikido organization founded by Koichi Tohei in 1971, while he was the chief instructor at the Aikikai Hombu Dojo. ... A central concept in science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. ...


Uniforms and ranking

Aikido practitioners, commonly called aikidōka, generally progress by promotion through a series of "grades" (kyū), followed by a series of "degrees" (dan), pursuant to formal testing procedures. Most aikido organisations use only white and black belts to distinguish rank, but some use various belt colors. Testing requirements vary, so a particular rank in one organization is not always comparable or interchangeable with the rank of another.[2] KyÅ« (ç´š:きゅう) is a Japanese term used in martial arts, chadō, ikebana, go, shogi and in other similar activities to designate various degrees or levels of proficiency or experience. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

rank belt color type
kyū white mudansha
dan black yūdansha

The uniform worn for practicing aikido (aikidōgi) is similar to the training uniform (keikogi) used in most other modern martial arts; simple trousers and a wraparound jacket, usually white. Both thick ("judo-style"), and thin ("karate-style") cotton tops are used.[2] Aikido-specific tops are also available with shorter sleeves which reach to just below the elbow. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 30 KB) Ceinture blanche. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (851x333, 28 KB) Ceinture noire. ... Aikidogi (合気道着 or 合気道衣) is the formal Japanese name for the uniform used for Aikido training. ... Keikogi (稽古着 or 稽古衣) is a Japanese word which means uniform for training (keiko means practice, gi means dress or clothes), another posibility is to use the word Dogi which means the uniform you wear on the path that you have been chosen, if you put the name of the sport itself... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ...


Most aikido systems also add a pair of wide pleated black or indigo trousers called a hakama. In many styles its use is reserved for practitioners with black belt (dan) ranks, while others allow all practitioners or female practitioners to wear a hakama regardless of rank.[2] Hakama worn by an aikidoka (left of the picture) An Edo-era kamishimo outfit, consisting of a kataginu (a sleeveless jacket with exaggerated shoulders) (left) and hakama (centre). ...


Criticisms

The most common criticism of aikido is that it suffers from a lack of realism in training. The attacks initiated by uke (and which nage must defend against) have been criticized as being "sloppy," and "little more than caricatures of an attack."[46] Weak attacks from uke cause a conditioned response from nage, and result in underdevelopment of the strength and conditioning needed for the safe and effective practice of both partners.[46] To counteract this, a number of styles allow students -- after having demonstrated proficiency in being able to protect themselves and their training partners -- to become less compliant over time. Yoshinkan-style is noted for vigorous attack and defense. Shodokan Aikido addresses the issue by practicing in a competitive format.[20] Aikido Yoshinkan ) (lit. ... Tomiki Aikido is the style of Aikido founded by Professor Kenji Tomiki (富木謙治). It is sometimes referred to as Sport Aikido due to the fact that it is the only style of Aikido to hold regular competitions. ...


Another criticism is that after the end of Ueshiba's seclusion in Iwama from 1942 to the mid 1950s, he increasingly emphasized the spiritual and philosophical aspects of aikido. As a result, strikes to vital points by nage, entering (irimi) and initiation of techniques by nage, the distinction between omote and ura techniques, and the practice of weapons, were all deemphasized or eliminated from practice. Lack of training in these areas is thought to lead to an overall loss of effectiveness by some aikido practitioners.[47]


Alternately, there are some who criticize aikido practitioners for not placing enough importance on the spiritual practices emphasized by Ueshiba. The premise of this criticism is that "O-Sensei’s aikido was not a continuation and extension of the old and has a distinct discontinuity with past martial and philosophical concepts."[48] That is, that aikido practitioners who focus on aikido's roots in traditional jujutsu or kenjutsu are diverging from what Ueshiba taught. Such critics urge practitioners to embrace the assertion that "[Ueshiba's] transcendence to the spiritual and universal reality was the fundamentals of the paradigm that he demonstrated."[48] Jujutsu )  , literally meaning the art of softness, is a Japanese martial art consisting primarily of grappling techniques. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ...


References

  1. ^ Saotome, Mitsugi (1989). The Principles of Aikido. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, 222. ISBN 978-0877734093. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Westbrook, Adele; Ratti, Oscar (1970). Aikido and the Dynamic Sphere. Tokyo, Japan: Charles E. Tuttle Company, 16-96. ISBN 978-0804800044. 
  3. ^ a b c Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Aikido". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  4. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Aikijujutsu". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  5. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Aiki". Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved on 2007-08-21. 
  6. ^ a b Ueshiba, Morihei; trans. by Stevens, John (1992). The Art of Peace. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala Publications, Inc.. ISBN 978-0877738510. 
  7. ^ Ringer, Judy (2006). Unlikely Teachers: Finding the Hidden Gifts in Daily Conflict. OnePoint Press. ISBN 978-0977614905. 
  8. ^ Crum, Thomas F. (1998). The Magic of Conflict: Turning a Life of Work into a Work of Art, 2nd rev. ed., Touchstone. ISBN 978-0684854489. 
  9. ^ Dobson T, Miller V (1994). Aikido in Everyday Life: Giving In to Get Your Way, 2nd ed., North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1556431517. 
  10. ^ Dobson, Terry (1994). It's a Lot Like Dancing: An Aikido Journey. Blue Snake Books. ISBN 978-1883319021. 
  11. ^ Siegel, Andrea (1993). Women in Aikido. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1556431616. 
  12. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "O-Sensei". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  13. ^ a b Stevens, John (1984). Aikido: The Way of Harmony. Boston, Massachusetts: Shambhala, 3-17. ISBN 978-0394714264. 
  14. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Ueshiba, Morihei". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  15. ^ Pranin, Stanley "Morihei Ueshiba and Onisaburo Deguchi". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  16. ^ Oomoto Foundation (2007). The Teachings. Teachings and Scriptures. Netinformational Commission. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  17. ^ a b c d e Shishida, Fumiaki. "Aikido". Aikido Journal. 
  18. ^ a b Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Mochizuki, Minoru". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  19. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Yoshinkan Aikido". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  20. ^ a b c Shishido, Fumiaki; Nariyama, Tetsuro (2002). Aikido: Tradition and the Competitive Edge. Shodokan Publishing USA. ISBN 978-0964708327. 
  21. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Tohei, Koichi". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  22. ^ a b c Homma, Gaku (1990). Aikido for Life. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 20. ISBN 978-1556430787. 
  23. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2006). "Jumbi Taiso". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  24. ^ a b c d e Homma, Gaku (1990). Aikido for Life. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 20–30. ISBN 978-1556430787. 
  25. ^ Shifflett, C.M. (1999). Aikido Exercises for Teaching and Training. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1556433146. 
  26. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008). "Ikkyo". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  27. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008). "Yonkyo". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  28. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008). "Kokyunage". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  29. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008). "Juji Garami". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  30. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2008). "Kaitennage". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  31. ^ Amdur, Ellis. "Irimi". Aikido Journal. 
  32. ^ a b Shioda, Gōzō (1968). Dynamic Aikido. Kodansha International, 52–55. ISBN 978-0870113017. 
  33. ^ Taylor, Michael (2004). Aikido Terminology - An Essential Reference Tool In Both English and Japanese. Lulu Press. ISBN 978-1411618466. 
  34. ^ a b Shioda, Gōzō; trans. by Payet, Jacques, and Johnston, Christopher (2000). Aikido Shugyo: Harmony in Confrontation. Shindokan Books. ISBN 978-0968779125. 
  35. ^ Scott, Nathan (2000). Teachings of Ueshiba Morihei Sensei. Retrieved on 2007-02-01.
  36. ^ Dang, Phong (2006). Aikido Weapons Techniques: The Wooden Sword, Stick, and Knife of Aikido. Charles E Tuttle Company. ISBN 978-0804836418. 
  37. ^ Ratti, Oscar; Westbrook, Adele (1973). Secrets of the Samurai: The Martial Arts of Feudal Japan. Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 23, 356–359. ISBN 978-0785810735. 
  38. ^ a b Ueshiba, Kisshomaru; Moriteru Ueshiba (2002). Best Aikido: The Fundamentals (Illustrated Japanese Classics). Kodansha International. ISBN 978-4770027627. 
  39. ^ a b Aikido and injuries: special report by Fumiaki Shishida Aiki News 1989;80 (April); partial English translation of article re-printed in Aikido Journal [1]
  40. ^ a b Pranin, Stanley (1983). "Aikido and Injuries". Encyclopedia of Aikido.  
  41. ^ Zetaruk, M; M A Violán, D Zurakowski, and L J Micheli (2005). "Injuries in martial arts: a comparison of five styles". British journal of sports medicine 39 (1): 29–33. BMJ Publishing Group. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2003.010322. PMID 15618336. 15618336. Retrieved on 2008-08-15. 
  42. ^ Hyams, Joe (1979). Zen in the Martial Arts. New York: Bantam Books, 53-57. ISBN 767-8300450. 
  43. ^ Heckler, Richard (1985). Aikido and the New Warrior. Berkeley, California: North Atlantic Books, 51-57. ISBN 978-0938190516. 
  44. ^ YeYoung, Bing F.. The Conceptual Scheme of Chinese Philosophical Thinking - Qi. Literati Tradition. Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  45. ^ Reed, William (1997). A Test Worth More than a Thousand Words. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  46. ^ a b Pranin, Stanley; Fisher, Alex (Fall 1990). "Aikido Practice Today". Aiki News 86. Aiki News. Retrieved on 2007-11-02. 
  47. ^ Pranin, Stanley (1994). "Challenging the Status Quo". Aiki News 98. Aiki News. Retrieved on 2007-11-02. 
  48. ^ a b Shibata, Minoru J. (2007). "A Dilemma Deferred: An Identity Denied and Dismissed". Aikido Journal. www.aikidojournal.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-09. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Stevens (born 1947) is a buddhist priest, teacher of buddhist studies and aikido teacher. ... John Stevens (born 1947) is a buddhist priest, teacher of buddhist studies and aikido teacher. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fumiaki Shishida is a Japanese 8th Dan aikido teacher, and one of traditionally two Shihan of the Japan Aikido Association. ... Nariyama Tetsuro is a Japanese aikido teacher, the technical director of the Japan Aikido Association and chief instructor (shihan) of the Shodokan Hombu Dojo in Osaka, Japan. ... Gozo Shioda (塩田剛三) (September 9, 1915 - July 17, 1994), is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of Yoshinkan style of aikido. ... Gozo Shioda (塩田剛三) (September 9, 1915 - July 17, 1994), is a Japanese aikido teacher and the founder of Yoshinkan style of aikido. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fumiaki Shishida is a Japanese 8th Dan aikido teacher, and one of traditionally two Shihan of the Japan Aikido Association. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  • Aikido Journal—an extensive source of aikido historical information.

For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... This article is about a martial art forms practiced throughout the Malay Archipelago. ... Stick fighting is a generic term for martial arts which utilize simple long slender, blunt, hand-held, generally wooden sticks for fighting such as a staff, cane, walking stick, baton or similar. ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
www.aikido-international.org - Home (204 words)
Obituary: Mr Paul CN Lee, Presiden of the ROC Aikido Association
Welcome to the web site of the International Aikido Federation, the world federation of the Japanese martial art of aikido.
Here you can find information about aikido, our organization, the member federations from nations around the world, issues and projects on our agenda, aikido events past and coming, and more.
About Aikido (4531 words)
Aikido is sometimes held up for comparison to other martial arts, and aikido students are frequently curious about how well a person trained in aikido would stand up against someone of comparable size and strength who has trained in another martial art such as karate, judo, ju jutsu, or boxing.
Aikido may be ill-suited to conflicts involving deliberate provocation of an adversary to fight.
Aikido requires a sensitivity to such diverse variables as timing, momentum, balance, the speed and power of an attack, and especially to the psychological state of one's partner (or of an attacker).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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