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Look up Aid in
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Aid (or "international aid", "overseas aid", or "foreign aid", especially in the United States) is the help, mostly economic, which may be provided to communities or countries in the event of a humanitarian crisis or to achieve a socioeconomic objective. Humanitarian aid is therefore primarily used for emergency relief, while development aid aims to create long-term sustainable economic growth. Wealthier countries typically provide aid to economically developing countries. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Look up Aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aide may refer to: A person who assists another. ... Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ... A humanitarian crisis or (in the language of history) a humanitarian disaster is a health or otherwise natural disaster which mortally threatens a very large number of people. ... Socioeconomics or Socio-economics is the study of the relationship between economic activity and social life. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... // Emergency management (or disaster management) is the discipline dealing of with and avoiding risks. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... It has been suggested that Underdevelopment be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Sources and distribution

Bilateral Aid is given by the government of one country directly to another. Many dedicated governmental aid agencies dispense bilateral aid, for example USAID, and DFID. An aid agency is an organisation dedicated to distributing aid. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... DFID is the United Kingdom Department for International Development, it is headed by the Secretary of State for International Development. ...


Multilateral aid is given from the government of a country to an international agency, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, or the European Development Fund. These organizations are usually governed by the contributing countries. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... The European Development Fund (EDF) is the main instrument for European Community aid for development cooperation in the Africa, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries and the Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT). ...


Donations from private individuals and for-profit companies are another significant type of aid. The practice of giving such donations, especially on the part of wealthy individuals, is known as philanthropy. Many immigrants move to areas of increased economic opportunity, and send money to friends and family members who still live in the countries they left. These payments are known as remittances (rather than philanthropy) and constitute a significant portion of international monetary transfers. Philanthropy is the act of donating money, goods, time, or effort to support a charitable cause, usually over an extended period of time and in regard to a defined objective. ...


Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) play a major role in distributing aid - examples include ActionAid, Oxfam, and the Mercy Corps. Many non-profit charitable organizations solicit donations from the public to support their work; charitable foundations often oversee an endowment which they invest and use the proceeds to support aid organizations and other causes. Aid organizations may provide both humanitarian and development aid, or specialize in one or the other. A number of aid NGOs have an affiliation with a religious denomination. A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... ActionAid was founded in 1972 as a child sponsorship charity when 88 UK supporters sponsored 88 children in India and Kenya, the focus primarily being to provide children with an education. ... Oxfam International logo Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working together with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice. ... Mercy Corps logo Mercy Corps is a non-profit organization engaged in humanitarian aid and development activities. ... Endowment may refer to many things: Finance Financial endowment; relating to funds or property donated to institutions or individuals. ...


Many NGOs conduct their own international operations - distributing food and water, building pipelines and homes, teaching, providing health care, lending money, etc. Some government aid agencies also conduct direct operations, but there are also many contracts with or grants to NGOs who actually provide the desired aid.


Scholarships to foreign students, whether from a government or a private school or university, might also be considered a type of development aid.


Types of aid

(The use of the term "given" in this section is potentially misleading. Almost all aid from multilateral donors (e.g. World Bank) is in the form of loans.)

  • Project aid: Aid is given for a specific purpose e.g. building materials for a new school.
  • Programme aid: Aid is given for a specific sector e.g. funding of the education sector of a country.
  • Budget support: A form of Programme Aid that is directly channelled into the financial system of the recipient country.
  • Sectorwide Approaches (SWAPs): A combination of Project aid and Programme aid/Budget Support e.g. support for the education sector in a country will include both funding of education projects (like school buildings) and provide funds to maintain them (like school books).
  • Food aid: Food is given to countries in urgent need of food supplies, especially if they have just experienced a natural disaster.
  • Technical assistance: Educated personnel, such as doctors are moved into developing countries to assist with a program of development. Can be both programme and project aid.
  • Emergency aid: This is given to countries in the event of a natural disaster or human event, like war, and includes basic food supplies, clothing and shelter.

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Development aid (also development assistance, international aid, overseas aid or foreign aid) is aid given by developed countries to support economic development in developing countries. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ...

Aid terms related to DAC members

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is the principal body through which the OECD study issues related to cooperation with developing countries. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is the principal body through which the OECD study issues related to cooperation with developing countries. ... For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is the principal body through which the OECD study issues related to cooperation with developing countries. ...

Other Terms

  • Tied aid: Aid that has geographical limitations on where it is used.
  • Disbursements: Aid that is actually provided, as opposed to the amount promised (commitment).

Source: OECD 2006 Tied aid is foreign aid that must be spent in the country providing the aid (the donor country) or in a group of selected countries. ...

Humanitarian aid

Main article: Humanitarian aid

Humanitarian aid is rapid assistance given to people in immediate distress by individuals, organisations, or governments to relieve suffering, during and after man-made emergencies (like wars) and natural disasters. The term often carries an international connotation, but this is not always the case. It is often distinguished from development aid by being focussed on relieving suffering caused by natural disaster or conflict, rather than removing the root causes of poverty or vulnerability. Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is the consequence of a natural hazard (e. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ...


The provision of humanitarian aid or humanitarian response consists of the provision of vital services (such as food aid to prevent starvation) by aid agencies, and the provision of funding or in-kind services (like logistics or transport), usually through aid agencies or the government of the affected country. Humanitarian aid is distinguished from humanitarian intervention, which involves armed forces protecting civilians from violent oppression or genocide by state-supported actors. Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... A female child during the Nigerian-Biafran war of the late 1960s, shown suffering the effects of severe hunger and malnutrition. ... Humanitarian intervention is a term used to describe the interference in a sovereign state by another with the stated objective of ending or reducing suffering within the first state. ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or...


The Geneva Conventions give a mandate to the International Committee of the Red Cross and other impartial humanitarian organizations to provide assistance and protection of civilians during times of war. The ICRC, has been given a special role by the Geneva Conventions with respect to the visiting and monitoring of prisoners of war. Original document. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... Original document. ...


The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is mandated to coordinate the international humanitarian response to a natural disaster or complex emergency acting on the basis of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/182. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), is a organisation under the United Nations which was formed in December 1991 with the General Assembly Resolution 46/182. ...


The Sphere Project handbook, Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response, which was produced by a coalition of leading non-governmental humanitarian agencies, lists the following principles of humanitarian action:

  1. The right to life with dignity.
  2. The distinction between combatant and non-combatants.
  3. The principle of non-refoulement.

Non-refoulement The principle of non-refoulement concerns the protection of refugees from being returned to places where their lives or freedoms could be threatened. ...

Development aid

Main article: Development aid

Development aid is aid given by developed countries to support development in general which can be economic development or social development in developing countries. It is distinguished from humanitarian aid as being aimed at alleviating poverty in the long term, rather than alleviating suffering in the short term. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aid. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... Economic development is a sustainable increase in living standards that implies increased per capita income, better education and health as well as environmental protection. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ...


The term "development aid" is often used to refer specifically to Official Development Assistance (ODA), which is aid given by governments on certain concessional terms, usually as simple donations. It is given by governments through individual countries' international aid agencies and through multilateral institutions such as the World Bank, and by individuals through development charities such as ActionAid, Caritas, Care International or Oxfam. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ... ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... ... ActionAid was founded in 1972 as a child sponsorship charity when 88 UK supporters sponsored 88 children in India and Kenya, the focus primarily being to provide children with an education. ... The Caritas House in Caine Road, Mid-levels, Hong Kong Island, Hong Kong. ... Look up care, carer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oxfam International logo Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working together with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice. ...


The offer to give development aid has to be understood in the context of the Cold War. The speech in which Harry Truman announced the foundation of NATO is also a fundamental document of development policy. "In addition, we will provide military advice and equipment to free nations which will cooperate with us in the maintenance of peace and security. Fourth, we must embark on a bold new program for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of these people." For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For the victim of Mt. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ...


Development aid wanted to offer technical solutions to social problems without altering basic social structures. Wherever even moderate changes in these social structures were undertaken, e.g. the land reforms in Guatemala in the early 1950s, the United States usually forcefully opposed these changes.


Economic criticism of aid

The economist William Easterly and others argue that aid can often distort incentives in poor countries in various harmful ways. Aid can also involve inflows of money to poor countries that have some similarities to inflows of money from natural resources that provoke the resource curse. [1][2] William Easterly is Professor of Economics at New York University, joint with Africa House, and Co-Director of NYU’s Development Research Institute. ... The resource curse or paradox of plenty refers to the paradox that countries with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth than countries without these natural resources. ...


Many also criticize U.S. Aid in particular for the policy conditionalities that often accompany it. Emergency funds from the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, for instance, are linked to a wide range of free-market policy prescriptions that some argue interfere in a country's sovereignty.


Also in an episode of 20/20 Stossel showed flaws in the distribution of the foreign aid, and the governments of countries receiving aid. 20/20 is an American television newsmagazine broadcast on ABC since June 6, 1978. ...

  • Food given as aid often ended up on markets being sold privately
  • The government receiving aid often had secret bank accounts in which it hid foreign aid money for private purposes

James Shikwati, a Kenyan economist, has argued that foreign aid causes harm to the recipient nations, specifically because aid is distributed by local politicians, finances the creation of corrupt government bureaucracies, and hollows out the local economy. James Shikwati (born 1970) is a Kenyan libertarian economist and Director of the Inter Region Economic Network. ...


In an interview in Germany's Der Spiegel magazine, Shikwati uses the example of food aid delivered to Kenya in the form of a shipment of corn from America. Portions of the corn may be diverted by corrupt politicians to their own tribes, or sold on the black market at prices that undercut local food producers. Similarly, Kenyan recipients of donated Western clothing will not buy clothing from local tailors, putting the tailors out of business. [3] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Corn” redirects here. ...


See also

Look up aid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Debt relief is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Humanitarian aid workers belonging to UN organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties. ... The United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) was launched on March 9, 2006, by Secretary-General Kofi Annan to help those regions threatened with starvation, particularly the Horn of Africa, the Central African Republic, Ivory Coast and Chad. ... This is a list of aid agencies which provide regional and international development aid or assistance, divided between national and international organizations. ... Participants in the Program; United States as donor is in green, red countries have active compacts, blue countries have active threshold compacts, purple countries are in negotations for either, and pink countries have negotiated threshold agreements and are negotiating for full compacts The Millennium Challenge Account (MCA), run by the... Development Ratings is part of a growing sector in philanthropy that the Monitor Institute, a leading think tank on philanthropy, has termed infrastructure. According to Monitor, these are organisations that attempt to fix some of the failings of philanthropy by enabling greater sharing of information and best practices, as well... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... The following is a timeline of key events in the history of humanitarian aid, international relief and development aid. ...

Notes

  1. ^  Lars Schoultz, “U.S. Foreign Policy and Human Rights Violations in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis of Foreign Aid Distributions”, Comparative Politics, Volume 13, Number 2, January 1981 (2 of the graphs from the study can be found here)
  2. ^  Martha Knisely Huggins, Political Policing: The United States and Latin America, Duke University Press (July 1998) ISBN 0-8223-2172-6 p. 6

References

  • Håkan Malmqvist (2000), "Development Aid, Humanitarian Assistance and Emergency Relief", Ministry for Foreign Affairs, Sweden [1]
  • The White Man's Burden : Why the West's Efforts to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good by William Easterly
  • Andrew Rogerson with Adrian Hewitt and David Waldenberg (2004), "The International Aid System 2005–2010 Forces For and Against Change", ODI Working Paper 235 [2]
  • "The US and foreign aid assistance" [3]
  • Millions Saved A compilation of case studies of successful foreign assistance by the Center for Global Development.
  • ActionAid, May 2005, "Real Aid" - analysis of the proportion of aid wasted on consultants, tied aid, etc

Cross references

  1. ^ Collier, Paul (2005). Is Aid Oil? An analysis of whether Africa can absorb more aid. Centre for the study of African Economies, Oxford University.
  2. ^ Djankov, Montalvo, Reynal-Querol (2005). The curse of aid. The World Bank. http://www.econ.upf.edu/docs/papers/downloads/870.pdf
  3. ^ Thilo Thielke (interviewer), translated by Patrick Kessler. "For God's Sake, Please Stop the Aid!" http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,363663,00.html

Further Reading

  • Banerjee, Abhijit Vinayak (2007). Making Aid Work. The MIT Press. ISBN 978-0-262-02615-4. 
  • Calderisi, Robert (2006). The Trouble with Africa: Why Foreign Aid Isn't Working. Macmillan. ISBN 1403971250. 
  • Easterly, William (2006). The White Man's Burden: Why the West's Effort to Aid the Rest Have Done So Much Ill and So Little Good. Penguin. ISBN 1594200378. 
  • Lancaster, Carol; Ann Van Dusen (2005). Organizing Foreign Aid: Confronting the Challenges of the 21st Century. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815751133. 
  • Sogge, David (2002). Give and Take: What's the Matter with Foreign Aid?. Zed Books. ISBN 1842770691. 

MIT Press Books The MIT Press is a university publisher affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ...

External links

  • V-Generations Discussion Board: Talk about aid organizations
  • OECD Development Co-operation Directorate (DAC)
  • AiDA: Accessible Information on Development Activities
  • www.realityofaid.org
  • AidMarket
  • Aid Harmonization: What Will It Take to Meet the Millennium Development Goals?
  • US And Foreign Aid Assistance
  • Euforic makes information on Europe's development cooperation more accessible
  • The Development Executive Group Resource for staffing, tracking, winning, and implementing development projects.

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