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Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ...


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Primary Topics

Zoroastrianism / Mazdaism
Ahura Mazda
Zarathustra (Zoroaster)
aša (asha) / arta Faravahar, The depiction of the Human soul before birth and after death. ... Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, ZōroastrÄ“s) or Zarathustra (Avestan: ZaraθuÅ¡tra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...

Angels and Demons

Overview of the Angels
Amesha Spentas · Yazatas
Ahuras · Daevas
Angra Mainyu Zoroastrian angelology is branch of Zoroastrian doctrine that deals with the hierarchical system of divinities introduced by the reforms of Zarathustra (Zoroaster). ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zoroastrian angelology. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ... The Daeva are a fictional clan of vampires in the role-playing game Vampire: The Requiem, published by White Wolf Game Studio . ... Angra Mainyu is the Avestan language name of the hypostasis of the destructive spirit. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. ...

Scripture and Worship

Avesta · Gathas
Vendidad
The Ahuna Vairya Invocation
Fire Temples
See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Faravahar, believed to be a depiction of a Farvashi, as mentioned in the Yasna, Yashts and Vendidad The Avesta is a collection of the sacred texts of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion. ... Ahuna Vairya is the Avestan language name of the most sacred of the Gathic hymns of the Avesta, the revered texts of Zoroastrianism. ... A Zoroastrian Fire Temple is a place of worship for Zoroastrians. ...

Accounts and Legends

Dēnkard · Bundahišn
Book of Arda Viraf
Book of Jamasp
Story of Sanjan
The Denkard is the largest encyclopedia of Zoroastrianism written in 9th century. ... Category: ... The Book of Arda Viraf is a Zoroastrian religious text which describes the dream-journey of a devout Zoroastrian through the next world. ... The Jamasp Nameh (var: Jāmāsp Nāmag, Jāmāsp Nāmeh, Story of Jamasp) is a Middle Persian book of revelations. ... The Qissa-i Sanjan (or Kisse-i Sanjan, the Story of Sanjan) is an account of the early years of Zoroastrian settlers on the Indian subcontinent. ...

History and Culture

Zurvanism
Calendar · Festivals
Marriage
Eschatology
Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... Zoroastrianism has numerous festivals and holy days, all of which are bound to the Zoroastrian calendar. ... In the Zoroastrian faith marriage is encouraged, an institution greatly favoured by the religious texts[1]. As of such, a Zoroastrian Wedding is a cause for celebration. ... Zoroastrianism eschatology is the oldest eschatology in recorded history. ...

Adherents

Zoroastrians in Iran
Parsis · Iranis
• • •
Persecution of Zoroastrians Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd Zoroastrians in Iran have had a long history, being the oldest religious community of that nation to survive to the present-day. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... Irani is a term used to denote Indian Zoroastrians whose ancestors emigrated from Iran within the last two centuries, as opposed to the longer residing Parsis. ... The persecution of Zoroastrians has been common since the fall of the Sassanid Empire and the rule of Umayyad Arab empire that replaced it. ...

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Ahura Mazda (Ahura Mazdā) is the Avestan language name for a divinity exalted by Zoroaster as the one uncreated Creator, hence God. Avestan is an Eastern Old Iranian language that was used to compose the sacred hymns and canon of the Zoroastrian Avesta. ... Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, ZōroastrÄ“s) or Zarathustra (Avestan: ZaraθuÅ¡tra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


The Zoroastrian faith is thus described by its adherents as Mazdayasna, the worship of Mazda. In the Avesta, "Ahura Mazda is the highest object of worship"[1], the first and most frequently invoked divinity in the Yasna liturgy. In Zoroastrian cosmogony and tradition, all the lesser divinities are also creations of Mazda. (eg Bundahishn III) Zoroastrianism is the religion and philosophy based on the teachings ascribed to the prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra, Zartosht). ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... Category: ...


Ahura Mazda is 'Auramazdā'[2] in Old Persian, 'Aramazd' in Parthian[3] and Armenian (cf. also Aramazd). Middle- and New Persian language usage varies, but 'Hormizd', 'Hormuzd', 'Ohrmazd' and 'Ormazd' are common transliterations. See Aryan Language or Old Persian For more information visit: *[Ancient Iranian Languages & Literature The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies (CAIS) ... The Iranian languages are a part of the Indo-European language family with estimated 150-200 million native speakers. ... In Armenian mythology, Aramazd was the father of all gods and goddesses, the creator of heaven and earth. ... Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ...

Contents

Nomenclature

'Mazda', or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is generally taken to be the proper name of the deity, and like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European *mn̩sdʰeh1, literally meaning "placing (dʰeh1) one's mind (mn̩-s)", hence "wise". The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Proto-Indo-Iranian, the Indo-European language spoken by the Indo-Iranians in the late 3rd millennium BC was a Satem language still not removed very far from the Proto-Indo-European language, and in turn only removed by a few centuries from the Vedic Sanskrit of the Rigveda. ...


'Ahura' was originally an adjective meaning ahuric, characterizing a specific Indo-Iranian entity named *asura.[4][5][6] Although traces of this figure are still evident in the oldest texts of both India and Iran,[7] in both cultures the word eventually appears as the epithet of other divinities. Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ...


In the Gathas (Gāθās), the hymns thought to have been composed by Zoroaster himself, the two halves of the name are not necessarily used together, or are used interchangeably, or are used in reverse order. However, in the younger texts of the Avesta, both Ahura and Mazda are integral parts of the name Ahura Mazda, and which are conjoined in other old Iranian languages. The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ... See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ...


Perceived origin

Although Ahura Mazda is accepted to be the conceptual equivalent of a proto-Indo-Iranian divinity, the details are a matter of speculation and debate. Scholarly consensus identifies a connection to the prototypical *vouruna and *mitra, but whether Ahura Mazda is one of these two, or both together, or even a superior of the two has not been conclusively established.


One view[8] is that the proto-Indo-Iranian divinity is the nameless "Father Asura", that is, Varuna of the Rigveda. In this view, Zoroastrian mazda is the equivalent of the Vedic medhira, described in Rigveda 8.6.10 as the "(revealed) insight into the cosmic order" that Varuna grants his devotees. It has also been suggested[9] that Ahura Mazda could be an Iranian development of the dvandvah expression *mitra-*vouruna, with *mitra being the otherwise nameless 'Lord' (Ahura) and *vouruna being mazda/medhira as noted above. In this constellation, Ahura Mazda is then a compound divinity in which the favorable characteristics of *mitra negate the unfavorable qualities of *vouruna. In Vedic religion, Varuna (Devanagari:वरुण, IAST:) is a god of the sky, of rain and of the celestial ocean, as well as a god of law and of the underworld. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit , a compound of praise, verse[1] and knowledge) is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... The eighth Mandala of the Rigveda has 103 hymns. ... Ahura is the Avestan language designation for a class of divinity, adopted by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) from prehistoric proto-Indo-Iranian religion. ...


In another view, Ahura Mazda is seen as the Ahura par excellence, superior to both *vouruna and *mitra, and the nameless "Father Asura" of the RigVeda is a distinct divinity (see etymology above) to whom Ahura Mazda may or may not be related. In a development of this view,[10] the dvandvah expression *mitra-*vouruna is none other than the archaic 'Mithra-Baga' of the Avesta. But while in the Vedas Bhaga is a minor divinity in its own right, in proto-Indo-Iranian times this was an epithet of *vouruna's concept and in Greater Iran continued to be a cult title for *vouruna and eventually replaced it.[11] It has also been noted that on Persepolis fortification tablet #337, Ahura Mazda is distinct from both Mithra and the Baga.[12] Mithra (Avestan Miθra, modern Persian مهر Mihr, Mehr, Meher) is an important deity or divine concept (so called Yazata) in Zoroastrianism and later Persian mythology and culture. ... Persepolis aerial view. ...


In Zoroaster's revelation

Although the principle of a creator divinity was not new to the two Indo-Iranian cultures, Zoroaster gives Ahura Mazda an entirely new dimension by characterizing the Creator as the one uncreated God (Yasna 30.3, 45.2). "No satisfactory evidence has yet been adduced to show that, before Zoroaster, the concept of a supreme god existed among the Iranians."[13] See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ...


Central to Zoroaster's perception of Ahura Mazda is the concept of asha, literally "truth", and in the extended sense, the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life of Zoroaster's people, the nomadic herdsmen of the Central Asian steppes.[14] For these, asha was the course of everything observable, the motion of the planets and astral bodies, the progression of the seasons, the pattern of daily nomadic herdsman life, governed by regular metronomic events such as sunrise and sunset. All physical creation (geti) was thus a product of - and ran according to - a master plan, inherent to Ahura Mazda, and violations of the order (druj) were violations against creation, and thus violations against Ahura Mazda. Avestan asha (; Old Persian arta, Middle Persian ard) is a central principle of Zoroastrianism, representing truth, justice or order. The opposite of asha is druj (Old Persian drauga), representing untruth, chaos. // Avestan and its Vedic equivalent both derive from Proto-Indo-Iranian *árta truth, which derives from Proto-Indo-European... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - , Ukrainian: - , Kazakh: - ), pronounced in English as , is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by tall grasses... Avestan asha (; Old Persian arta, Middle Persian ard) is a central principle of Zoroastrianism, representing truth, justice or order. The opposite of asha is druj (Old Persian drauga), representing untruth, chaos. // Avestan and its Vedic equivalent both derive from Proto-Indo-Iranian *árta truth, which derives from Proto-Indo-European...


This concept of asha versus the druj should not be confused with the good-versus-evil battle evident in western religions, for although both forms of opposition express moral conflict, the asha versus druj concept is more subtle and nuanced, representing, for instance, chaos (that opposes order); or 'uncreation', evident as natural decay (Avestan: nasu) that opposes creation; or more literally 'the Lie' of Yasna 31.1 (that opposes truth, righteousness).


In Zoroaster's perception of Ahura Mazda's role as the one uncreated Creator of all (Yasna 44.7), the Creator is then not also the creator of 'druj', for as anti-creation, the druj are not created (or not creatable, and thus - like Ahura Mazda - uncreated). "All" is therefore the "supreme benevolent providence" (Yasna 43.11), and Ahura Mazda as the benevolent Creator of all is consequently the Creator of only the good (Yasna 31.4). In Zoroaster's revelation, Ahura Mazda will ultimately triumph (Yasna 48.1), but cannot (or will not) control the druj in the here and now. As such, Zoroaster did not perceive Ahura Mazda to be omnipotent. Zoroaster did not hypostasize either good or evil (see asha for details). See Avesta Municipality for the Swedish town Yasna 28. ... In linguistics, a hypostasis, from the Greek word ὑπόστασις [1] meaning foundation, base or that which stands behind is a relationship between a name and a known quantity, as a cultural personification (i. ... In Vedic Sanskrit, Rta literally means the course of things. ...


Throughout the Gathas Zoroaster emphasizes deeds and actions, for it is only through "good thoughts, good words, good deeds" that order can be maintained, and in Zoroaster's revelation indeed the purpose of mankind is to assist in maintaining the order. In Yasna 45.9, Ahura Mazda "has left to men's wills" to choose between doing good (that is, good thoughts, good words and good deeds) and doing evil (bad thoughts, bad words and bad deeds). This concept of a free will is perhaps Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy. The Gathas (Gāθās) are the most sacred of the texts of the Zoroastrian faith, and are traditionally believed to have been composed by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) himself. ...


In Zurvanite Zoroastrianism

In Zurvanism, a now-extinct doctrine within greater Zoroastrianism, Ahura Mazda was not the transcendental God, but one of two equal-but-opposite divinities under the supremacy of Zurvan, 'Time'. This belief, which from a Mazdaen point of view is an apostasy, rests on an interpretation of Yasna 30.3, that makes Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu twin brothers that had co-existed for all Time. Zurvan is the Persian god of infinite time, space and fate. ... Angra Mainyu is the Avestan language name of the hypostasis of the destructive spirit. The Middle Persian equivalent is Ahriman. ...


Although Zurvanism appears to have thrived during the Sassanid era (226651), no traces of it remain beyond the 10th century. Accounts of typically Zurvanite beliefs were the first traces of Zoroastrianism to reach the west, which misled European scholars to conclude that Zoroastrianism was a monist faith. The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ...


In present-day Zoroastrianism

In 1884, Martin Haug proposed a new interpretation of Yasna 30.3 that provided an escape from (what was considered to be) the dualism implicit in the Gathas. According to Haug's interpretation, the "Twin spirits" of 30.3 were Angra Mainyu and Spenta Mainyu, the former being the 'Destructive Emanation' of Ahura Mazda and the latter being His 'Creative Emanation' (see Amesha Spenta for details on the relationship). Martin Haug (January 30, 1827 - June 3, 1876), German Orientalist, was born at Ostdorf, today belonging to the Balingen municipality, Württemberg. ... In Zoroastrianism, Amesha Spentas are the Holy Immortals, the equivalent of Archangels in Christian theology. ...


In effect, the Angra Mainyu versus Spenta Mainyu theory was simply a rediscovery of the precepts of Zurvanism, with the difference that Angra Mainyu was now not Ahura Mazda's equal, but an emanation of Him. Haug also developed the idea further, interpreting the concept of a free will of Yasna 45.9 as an accommodation to explain where Angra Mainyu came from since Ahura Mazda created only good. The free will, so Haug, made it possible for Angra Mainyu to choose to be evil.


There is no trace of such philosophy in Zoroastrian tradition,[12] but Haug's interpretation was gratefully accepted by the Parsis of Bombay since it provided a defence against Christian missionaries who were attacking the Zoroastrians for the dualism inherent to the idea of (substantiated) Evil that was as uncreated as God was. Notwithstanding the oversight that Zoroastrianism, as an eastern religion, did not hypostatize evil as western religions did, Haug's ideas were subsequently disseminated as a Parsi interpretation, thus corroborating the theories. Haug's ideas were so popular that they are now almost universally accepted as doctrine. This article is about the Parsi community. ...


In West-Iranian Iconography

Ahura Mazda (right, with high crown) invests Ardashir I (left) with the ring of kingship. (Naqsh-e Rustam, 3rd c. BC)

From the reign of Cyrus the Great down to Darius III, it was apparently customary for an empty chariot drawn by white horses to accompany the Persian army. According to Herodotus, who first described the practice, this chariot was sacred to "Zeus" who was presumably believed to position himself at the head of the army. (Ahura Mazda was frequently named Zeus by the Greeks; Aristotle refers to Zeus-Oromasdes being opposed by Hades-Aremainius). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1574 × 1038 pixel, file size: 614 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (1574 × 1038 pixel, file size: 614 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Naqsh-i Rustam (Iran). ... Silver coin of Ardashir I with a fire altar on its verso (British Museum London). ... Næqš-e Rostæm, near Shiraz A rock relief at Naqsh-e Rostam, depicting the triumph of Shapur I over three Roman Emperors Valerian, Gordian III and Philip the Arab. ... Cyrus the Great (Old Persian: Kūruš,[1] modern Persian: کوروش بزرگ, Kurosh-e Bozorg) (c. ... Darius III or Codomannus (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


The earliest reference to the use of an image to accompany devotion to Ahura Mazda is from "the 39th year of the reign of Artaxerxes Mnemon" (c. 365 BC) in which a Satrap of Lydia raised a statue (according to the Greek commentator) to "Zeus" the Lawgiver. Artaxerxes II (c. ... Centuries: 5th century BC - 4th century BC - 3rd century BC Decades: 410s BC 400s BC 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC - 360s BC - 350s BC 340s BC 330s BC 320s BC 310s BC 370 BC 369 BC 368 BC 367 BC 366 BC - 365 BC - 364 BC 363 BC 362... Look up satrap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...


The worship of Ahura Mazda with accompanying images is known to have occurred during the Arsacid era (250 BC226 AD), but by the beginning of the Sassanid period (226651), the custom appears to have fallen out of favor. A few images from Sassanid times that depict "Ohrmazd", reveal a male figure wearing a high crown. The Arsacid Dynasty ruled Persia. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC - 250s BC - 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC Years: 255 BC 254 BC 253 BC 252 BC 251 BC - 250 BC - 249 BC 248 BC... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... Events: Accession of Wei Mingdi as emperor of the Kingdom of Wei of China. ... Events End of Yazdegard IIIs attempts to drive out the Saracens. ...


In other religions

In Manichaeism, the name Ohrmazd Bay ("god Ahura Mazda") was used for the primal figure Nāšā Qaḏmāyā, the "original man" through whose fall the original Light became tainted with dark matter. Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ...


In Sogdian Buddhism, Xwrmztʔ (Sogdian was written without a consistent representation of vowels) was the name used for the Buddhist ruler-deity Śakra. Via contacts with Turkic-speaking peoples like the Uyghurs, this Sogdian name came to the Mongols, who still name this deity Qormusta Tengri; Qormusta (or Qormusda) is now a popular enough deity to appear in many contexts that are not explicitly Buddhist. A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... Åšakra (Sanskrit) or Sakka Pāli is the ruler of the Heaven of the Thirty-three gods in Buddhist cosmology. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The Uyghur (also spelled Uighur; Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر; Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...


References

  1. ^ Dhalla 1938, p. 154.
  2. ^ Kent 1945, p. 229ff.
  3. ^ Boyce 1983, p. 684.
  4. ^ Thieme 1960, p. 308.
  5. ^ Gershevitch 1964, p. 23.
  6. ^ Kuiper 1983, p. 682.
  7. ^ Thieme 1960, pp. 308-309.
  8. ^ cf. Kuiper 1976, pp. 33ff.
  9. ^ Kuiper 1983, p. 683.
  10. ^ Boyce 2001, pp. 239-257.
  11. ^ Boyce 2001, pp. 243-244.
  12. ^ a b Boyce 1983, p. 685.
  13. ^ Boyce 2001, p. 243, n.18.
  14. ^ Boyce 1975, pp. 1ff

Bibliography

  • Boyce, Mary (1975), History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. I, The early period, Leiden: Brill
  • Boyce, Mary (1982), History of Zoroastrianism, Vol. II, Under the Achamenians, Leiden: Brill
  • Boyce, Mary (1983), "Ahura Mazdā", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 684–687
  • Boyce, Mary (2001), "Mithra the King and Varuna the Master", Festschrift für Helmut Humbach zum 80., Trier: WWT, pp. 239–257
  • Dhalla, Maneckji Nusservanji (1938), History of Zoroastrianism, New York: OUP
  • Humbach, Helmut (1991), The Gathas of Zarathushtra and the other Old Avestan texts, Heidelberg: Winter
  • Kent, Roland G. (1945), "Old Persian Texts", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 4 (4): 228-233
  • Kuiper, Bernardus Franciscus Jacobus (1983), "Ahura", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 682–683
  • Kuiper, Bernardus Franciscus Jacobus (1976), "Ahura Mazdā 'Lord Wisdom'?", Indo-Iranian Journal 18 (1-2): 25-42
  • Schlerath, Bernfried (1983), "Ahurānī", Encyclopaedia Iranica, vol. 1, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 683–684

Professor Nora Elizabeth Mary Boyce (2 August 1920 - 4 April 2006) was the worlds leading doyenne of Zoroastrian studies. ...

Further reading

  • The 101 names of Ahura Mazda

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ahura Mazda (231 words)
While there are historical sources indicating that Ahura Mazda comes from indo-iranian religions, in which there were two categories of gods, ahuras and daivas, Ahura Mazda only appears in connection with Zoroastrianism, the religion that has its origins in the preaching of Zarathustra, around 600 BCE.
Ahura Mazda is not the only god in the universe of Zoroastrianism, and he is not the sole creator of the world.
Ahura Mazda is the father of two twin spirits, Spenta Mainyu and Angra Mainyu.
Ahura Mazda - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1569 words)
Ahura Mazda is the Avestan language name for an exalted divinity of ancient proto-Indo-Iranian religion that was subsequently declared by Zarathustra (Zoroaster) to be the one uncreated creator of all.
Ahura Mazda is 'Aramazd' in the Armenian and Parthian languages.
Central to Zoroaster's perception of Ahura Mazda is the concept of asha (Vedic rta), literally "truth", and in the extended sense, the equitable law of the universe, which governed the life of Zoroaster's people, the nomadic herdsmen of the Central Asian steppes (Boyce, 1975:1ff).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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