FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ahom kingdom

The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. The kingdom evolved into a multi-ethnic polity, beginning especially under Suhungmung Dihingia Raja in the 16th century. It made major advances under Susenghphaa Pratap Singha, under whom the administration was revamped and the Mughal incursions were thwarted. Mughal influence was completely removed under Gadadhar Singha and the Ahom kingdom reached its zenith under his son, Rudra Singha. The kingdom became weaker with the rise of the Moamoria rebellion, and subsequently fell to a succession of Burmese invasions. With the defeat of the Burmese after the first Anglo-Burmese War and the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, control of the kingdom passed into British hands. Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sukaphaa (reign 1228-1268) is the first king of the Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Tai peoples include: the Lao of Laos and Northeast Thailand the Northern Thai (Lanna or Thai Yuan) of Thailand the Thai of Thailand the Shan (Thai Yai) of Burma the Thai Lue of Laos and China (also called Dai) the Nung of China, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam the Black Tai (Tai... Mong Mao was an ethnically Tai state that controlled several smaller Tai states or chieftainships along the frontier of what is now Myanmar and China in the Dehong region of Yunnan with a capital near the modern-day border town of Ruili. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chutiya kingdom was established by Birpal in 1187 in northeastern Assam, with the capital at Sadiya. ... The Kachari kingdom was a powerful and advanced kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Suhungmung (reign 1497-1539) (Swarganarayan, Dihingia Raja), was an important Ahom king under whom the Ahom Kingdom expanded greatly for the first time since Sukaphaa. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Susenghphaa (reign 1603-1641), also called Pratap Singha, was one of the great Ahom kings. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... Supaatpha (reign 1681-1696) or Gadadhar Singha established the rule of the Tungkhungia clan of the Ahom kings that ruled the Ahom kingdom till its climactic end. ... Sukhrungphaa (reign 1696-1714), or Rudra Singha, was a Tungkhungia king of the Ahom kingdom under whom the kingdom reached its zenith of power and glory. ... The Moamoria rebellion was the conflict between the adherents of the Moamara Sattra and the Ahom kings in the 18th century. ... The Burmese invasion of Assam denotes the period between 1817 and 1826 when Assam was under the control of the Burmese rulers. ... The Treaty of Yandaboo between the British East India Company and the Burmese King of Ava, signed on February 24, 1826 marked the end of the First Burmese War. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Contents

Ahom economic system

The Ahom kingdom was based on the Paik system, a type of corvee labor that is neither feudal nor Asiatic. The Ahoms introduced wet rice cultivation in upper Assam that was largely a marshy and thinly populated land. With a superior technology of rice cultivation, as well as reclamation of land using dykes, embankments and irrigation systems, the Ahoms established the initial state structures. The first coins were introduced by Suklenmung in the 16th century, though the system of personal service under the Paik system persisted. In the 17th century when the Ahom kingdom expanded to include erstwhile Koch and Mughal areas, it came into contact with their revenue systems and adapted accordingly. The Paik system was a type of corvee labor system on which the Ahom kingdom of medieval Assam was based. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... In the theory of historical materialism, the term Asiatic mode of production describes a widespread pre-Capitalist mode of production, in which irrigation agriculture plays an important role in society. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Paik system was a type of corvee labor system on which the Ahom kingdom of medieval Assam was based. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Koch Hajo was the eastern portion of the Kamata kingdom of medieval Assam that Nara Narayan handed over to Raghudev (son of Chilarai) to govern, fixing the Subansiri river as the boundary between the western and the eastern portions. ... The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ...


Ahom administration

Swargadeo and Patra Mantris

The Ahom kingdom was ruled by a king, called Swargadeo (Ahom language: Chao-Pha), who had to be a descendant of the first king Sukaphaa. Strict progeniture was not maintained and the three great Gohains (see below) occasionally had an influence on the choice of the next king. The Ahom language was spoken by the Ahom people who ruled most of Assam from the 13th century until the British occupation in 1838. ... Sukaphaa (reign 1228-1268) is the first king of the Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam. ...


Sukaphaa had two great Gohains to aid him in administration: Burhagohain and the Borgohain. They were selected from specific families. Princes who were eligible for the position of Swargadeo were not considered for these positions and vice versa. The Burhagohain wielded strong influence in the Ahom kingdom. Suhungmung added a third Gohain, Borpatrogohain, and this position was reserved for the desendent of the first. These three officers were called Dangariyas, and they were veritable sovereigns in their given territories. They were given total command over the paiks that they controlled. Sukaphaa (reign 1228-1268) is the first king of the Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam. ... Burhagohain (Ahom language:Chao Phrang Mong) was the first of the two original counsellors in the Ahom kingdom. ... Borgohain was the second of the two original counsellors in the Ahom kingdom, also called Chao Thao Lung in the Tai language. ... Suhungmung (reign 1497-1539) (Swarganarayan, Dihingia Raja), was an important Ahom king under whom the Ahom Kingdom expanded greatly for the first time since Sukaphaa. ... Borpatrogohain was the third of the three great Gohains (counsellors) in the Ahom kingdom. ...


Pratap Singha added two offices, Borbarua and Borphukan, that were directly under the king. The Borbarua, who acted as the military as well as the judicial head, was in command of the region east of Kaliabor not under the command of the Dangariyas. He could use only a section of the paiks at his command for his personal use (as opposed to the Dangariyas), the rest rendering service to the Ahom state. The Borphukan was in military and civil command over the region west of Kaliabor, and acted as the Swargadeo's viceroy in the west. Susenghphaa (reign 1603-1641), also called Pratap Singha, was one of the great Ahom kings. ... Borbarua was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Borphukan was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position that was created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ...


The five positions constituted the patra mantris (council of ministers). One of the patra mantris was made the Rajmantri (prime minister) since the reign of Supimphaa (1492-1497), who enjoyed the service of a thousand additional paiks from the Jakaichuk village and other additional powers.


Other officials

The Borbarua and the Borphukan had military and judicial responsibilities, and they were aided by a council of Phukans. Superintending officers were called Baruas. Among the officers the highest in rank were the Phukans. Six of the formed the council of the Borbarua, but each had also his separate duties. The Naubaicha Phukan, who had an allotment of thousand men managed the royal boats, the Bhitarula Phukan, the Na Phukan, the Dihingia Phukan, the Deka Phukan and the Neog Phukan formed the council of Phukan. The Borphukan also had a similar council of six subordinate Phukans whom he was bound to consult in all matters of importance, this council included Pani Phukan, who commanded six thousand paiks, Deka Phukan who commanded four thousand paiks, the Dihingia Phukan, Nek Phukan and two Chutiya Phukans. The Baruas of whom there were twenty or more included Bhandari Barua or treasurer; the Duliya Barua, who was in charge of the royal palanquins; the Chaudang Barua who superintended executions; Khanikar Barua was the chief artificer; Sonadar Barua was the mint master and chief jeweler; the Bez Barua was the physician to the Royal family, Hati Barua, Ghora Barua, etc. Other official included twelve Rajkhowas, and a number of Katakis, Kakatis and Dolais. The Rajkhowas were commanders of three thousand paiks and were subordinate to Borbarua. They were arbitrator to settle local disputes and supervised public works. The Katakis were envoys to deal with foreign countries and hill tribes. The Kakatis were writers of official documents, and the Dolais expounded astrology and determined auspicious time and dates for any important event and undertaking. Borbarua was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Borphukan was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position that was created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Borbarua was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Borphukan was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position that was created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ...


Governors

Forward governors, who were military commanders, ruled and administered forward territories. The Sadiya Khowa Gohain and the Marangi khowa Gohain are examples of these positions. Sadiya Khowa Gohain was based in Sadiya and whose appointment dates from the overthrow of Chutiya kingdom in 1523. The Marangi Khowa Gohain governed the Naga tribes west of the Dhansiri river. The Solal Gohain administered a great part of Nagaon and a portion of Chariduar after the headquaters of the Borphukan was transferred to Gauhati. The Kajali Mukhia Gohain administered Kajalimukh. The Raja of Saring and Raja of Tipam administered the tracts round Joypur on the right bank of the Buri Dihing river. The last two mentioned were usually the relatives of the King himself, the Saring Raja being the heir apparent and the Tipam Raja the next in order of succession. The Chutiya kingdom was established by Birpal in 1187 in northeastern Assam, with the capital at Sadiya. ... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Nagaon is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... Borphukan was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position that was created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Guwahati is the commercial capital of Assam and the gateway to the seven northeastern states of India. ...


Paik officials

The Ahom kingdom was dependent on the Paik system, a form of corvee labor. Every common subject was a paik, and four paiks formed a got. At any time of the year, one of the paiks in the got rendered direct service to the king, as the others in his got tended to his fields. The Paik system was administered by the Paik officials: Bora was in charge of 20 paiks, a Saikia of 100 and a Hazarika of 1000. The Paik system was a type of corvee labor system on which the Ahom kingdom of medieval Assam was based. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ...


Land survey

Gadadhar Singha became acquainted with the land measurement system of Mughals during the time he was hiding in Kamrup, before he succeeded to the throne. As soon as the wars with Mughals were over he issued orders for the introduction of a similar system throughout his dominions. Surveyors were imported from Koch Behar and Bengal for the work. It was commenced in Sibsagar and was pushed on vigorously, but it was not completed until after his death. Nowgaon was next surveyed; and the settlement which followed was supervised by Rudra Singha himself. According to historians, the method of survey included measuring the four sides of each field with a nal, or bamboo pole of 12 feet length and calculating the area, the unit was the "pura" or 144 square feet and 14,400 Sq.ft. is one "Bigha". A similar land measurement system is still being followed in modern Assam. Supaatpha (reign 1681-1696) or Gadadhar Singha established the rule of the Tungkhungia clan of the Ahom kings that ruled the Ahom kingdom till its climactic end. ... Sukhrungphaa (reign 1696-1714), or Rudra Singha, was a Tungkhungia king of the Ahom kingdom under whom the kingdom reached its zenith of power and glory. ... Bigha (Nepali: बिघा) is a unit of measurement of area of a land, commonly used in Nepal, Bangladesh and in a few states of India like West Bengal, Assam, etc. ...


Classes of people

Subinphaa, the third Ahom king, dilineated the Satgharia Ahom ("Ahom of the seven houses") aristocracy: the royal family, the Burhagohain and the Borgohain families. From these clans, the king, and the three great Gohains were selected. The extended nobility consisted of the landed aristocracy and the spiritual class that did not pay any form of tax. The apaikan chamua was the gentry that were freed from the khels and paid only money-tax. The paikan chamua consisted of artisans, the literati and skilled people that did non-manual work and rendered service as tax. The kanri paik rendered manual labor. The lowest were the licchous, bandi-beti and other serfs and bondsmen. There was some degree of movement between the classes. Momai Tamuli Borbarua rose from a bondsman through the ranks to become the first Borbarua under Prataap Singha. Momai Tamuli was the Governor of upper Assam as also commander-in-chief of the army in the Ahom kingdom. ... Borbarua was one of the five patra mantris (councillors) in the Ahom kingdom, a position created by the Ahom king Prataap Singha. ... Susenghphaa (reign 1603-1641), also Pratap Singha, was one of the great Ahom kings of the Ahom kingdom. ...


Bibliography

  • Gogoi, Lila (1991), The History of the system of Ahom administration, Punthi Pustak, Calcutta
  • Guha, Amalendu (1991), Medieval and Early Colonial Assam: Society, Polity and Economy, K.P. Bagchi & Co, Calcutta
  • Kakoty, Sanjeeb (2003), Technology, Production and Social Formation in the Evolution of the Ahom State, Regency Publications, New Delhi

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m