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Encyclopedia > Ahom

The Ahoms established the Ahom kingdom (1228-1826) in parts of present-day Assam and ruled it for nearly 600 years. Historical documents do not call the kingdom "Ahom". They call it "Asam" (or Assam), and the subjects of this kingdom "Assamese" or "Axomiya". After the advent of the British, the meanings of these categories changed. "Ahom" as a term appears in the Buranjis to denote the collection of civil and military officers under the Ahom king, all of which were non-hereditary offices. The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... Buranjis are historical literatures written in Assamese. ...

Contents

History of Ahom kingdom

See: Ahom kingdom The Ahom Kingdom (1228-1826) was established by Sukaphaa, a Tai prince from Mong Mao, in the upper reaches of the Brahmaputra river, between the extant Chutiya kingdom in the north and the Kachari kingdom in the south. ...


Beginnings

In early 13th century, Sukaphaa, a Shan (Mong Mao) prince began his journey with about 9000 followers, mostly men. He crossed the Patkai hills, fought and defeated the Nagas and reached the Brahmaputra valley in 1228. He moved from place to place, searching for a seat. He decided not to attack the Morans and Borahis but befriend them instead. His followers, much depleted from the original 9000, married into the Borahi and the Matak ethnic groups. The Borahis, a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group, were subsumed into the Ahom fold, though the Mataks maintained their independent ethnicity. Sukaphaa finally established his capital at Charaideo near present-day Sibsagar in 1253 and began the task of state formation. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Sukaphaa (reign 1228-1268) is the first king of the Ahom kingdom in medieval Assam. ... For other uses, see Shan (disambiguation). ... The Patkai or the Purvachal are the hills on Indias eastern border with Myanmar. ... Naga people The Naga people of about two and half million are found in Nagaland, parts of Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. ... The Brahmaputra is one of the major rivers of Asia. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Charaideo is the first capital of Ahom kingdom established by the first Ahom king Sukaphaa in 1253. ... Sibsagar is an administrative district in the state of Assam in India. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ...


Expansion

The Ahom kingdom then consolidated its powers for the next 300 years or so. The first major expansion was at the cost of the Chutiya kingdom, which was annexed in 1522 under Suhungmung. The expansion was not just a success of Ahom military prowess, but also a result of changes in the Ahom social and political outlook. For example, Suhungmung was the first Ahom king to adopt a Hindu name: Swarga Narayan. The Chutiya region was placed under the Sadiyakhowa Gohain a new position that was created. In 1536 the Kacharis were uprooted from their capital at Dimapur. Thus by the middle of the 16th century, the Ahoms were in control over eastern Assam. In 17th century, after the Battle of Itakhuli in 1682 that marked the end of the Ahom-Mughal conflicts, much of the control of Koch Hajo fell into the hands of the Ahoms. The Chutiya kingdom[1] (pronounced sutia) was established by Birpal in 1187 in northeastern Assam, with the capital at Sadiya. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Suhungmung (reign 1497-1539) (Swarganarayan, Dihingia Raja), was an important Ahom king under whom the Ahom Kingdom expanded greatly for the first time since Sukaphaa. ... Year 1536 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Kachari kingdom was a powerful and advanced kingdom in medieval Assam. ... , Dimapur (Hindi: दीमापुर) is the main commercial hub and one of the three municipalities in the state of Nagaland, India, the other two being Kohima and Mokokchung. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Itakhuli or Sukreswar Hill is a small hill on the south bank of the Brahmaputra at Guwahati. ... Year 1682 (MDCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ahom-Mughal conflicts refer to the period between the first Mughal attack on the Ahom kingdom in 1615 and the final Battle of Itakhuli in 1682. ... Koch Hajo was the eastern portion of the Kamata kingdom of medieval Assam that Nara Narayan handed over to Raghudev (son of Chilarai) to govern, fixing the Subansiri river as the boundary between the western and the eastern portions. ...


End of Ahom rule

Their power declined in later half of the 18th century. The capital city was taken for a short period during the Moamoria rebellion. In the first part of the 19th century, the Burmese army invaded their kingdom who set up a puppet Ahom king. The Burmese were defeated by the British in the First Anglo-Burmese War resulting in the Treaty of Yandaboo in 1826, which paved the way for the British to convert the Ahom kingdom into a principality and which marked the end of the Ahom rule. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Moamoria rebellion was the conflict between the adherents of the Moamara Sattra and the Ahom kings in the 18th century. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants British Empire Burma Commanders Charles Grant Archibald Campbell Tharrawaddy Min Maha Bandula â€  The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... The Treaty of Yandaboo between the British East India Company and the Burmese King of Ava, signed on February 24, 1826 marked the end of the First Burmese War. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The Ahom people

The Tai Ahoms who came into Assam followed their traditional religion and spoke the Tai language. They were a very small group numerically and after the first generation, the group was a mixture of the Tai and the local population. Over time the Ahom state adopted the Assamese language and kings and other high officials converted to Hinduism. Except for some special offices (the king and the raj mantris), other positions are open to members of all tribes and religion. They kept good records, and are known for their chronicles, called Buranjis. , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Tai languages are a subgroup of the Tai Kadai language family. ... Assamese ( ) (IPA: ) is a language spoken in the state of Assam in northeast India. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Buranjis are historical literatures written in Assamese. ...


One of its greatest achievements was the stemming of Mughal expansionism. In the celebrated battle of Saraighat, the Ahom general Lachit Borphukan defeated the Mughal forces on the outskirts of present day Guwahati in 1671. The Mughal Empire (alternative spelling Mogul, which is the origin of the word Mogul) of India was founded by Babur in 1526, when he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last of the Delhi Sultans at the First Battle of Panipat. ... The Battle of Saraighat was fought between the Mughal forces lead by Raja Ram Singh and the Ahoms lead by Lachit Borphukan, the Ahom governor of Guwahati in 1671. ... Lachit Borphukan was a general from Assam, India. ... , Guwahati is a major city in eastern India, often considered as the gateway to the North-East Region (NER) of the country and is the largest city within the region. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ...


Further reading

 FOR A CRITICAL AND SCHOLARLY WORK ON THE IDEA OF BEING "AHOM"; SEE "Fragment Histories:Struggling to be Tai-Ahom". Duke University Press.2004 
  • Gogoi, N. K. (2006). Continuity and change among the Ahom. New Delhi: Concept Pub. Co. ISBN 8180692817
  • Phukon, G. (1998). State of Tai culture among the Ahoms. [Assam, India?]: G. Phukon.

See also

The Ahom Dynasty ruled parts of Assam for nearly 600 years, from the thirteenth century to the nineteenth century. ... The Burmese invasion of Assam denotes the period between 1817 and 1826 when Assam was under the control of the Burmese rulers. ... Ahom-Mughal conflicts refer to the period between the first Mughal attack on the Ahom kingdom in 1615 and the final Battle of Itakhuli in 1682. ...

External links

  • The Tai-Ahom connection by Yasmin Saikia in Gateway to the East, June 2005.
  • Polities mentioned in the Chinese Ming Shi-lu, several references are made to a Tai Ahom kingdom in this translation of an important Ming dynasty historical source
Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ming. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ahom - LoveToKnow 1911 (925 words)
AHOM, or Aham, a tribe of Shan descent inhabiting the Assam valley, and, prior to the invasion of the Burmese at the commencement of the 19th century, the dominant race in that country.
The Ahoms, together with the Shans of Burma and Eastern China and the Siamese, were members of the Tai race.
The Ahoms retained the form of government in Assam peculiar to the Shan tribes, which may be briefly described as an organized system of personal service in lieu of taxation.
Ahom Coins Assam India,Assam Ancient Ahom Coins,Excavations in Assam (1164 words)
The ahoms, a tribe from upper burma, crossed the patkai range in 1228 A.D. and settled at charaideo, near presentday sibsagar.
Further, their initial coins bore ahom legends in ahom script which gradually made way for sanskrit legends in the assamese script with the year of issue quoted in saka era as prevalent on contemporary hindu coinage.
The treaty also decreed that the ahom king defray the expenses incurred on the maintenance of the company's troops to be stationed in assam a his request.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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