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Encyclopedia > Ahmose I
Persondata
NAME Ahmose I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Amosis, according to Manetho,[1] also Amasis[2]
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pharaoh of Egypt
DATE OF BIRTH {{{Birth}}}
PLACE OF BIRTH Ancient Egypt
DATE OF DEATH {{{Death}}}
PLACE OF DEATH Ancient Egypt
Preceded by:
Kamose
Pharaoh of Egypt
18th Dynasty
Succeeded by:
Amenhotep I
Ahmose I
Amosis, according to Manetho,[1] also Amasis[2]
A fragmentary statue depicting a likeness of Ahmose I, now residing in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Reign 1550 BC to 1525 BC (though disputed)
25 years in Manetho
Praenomen




Nebpehtire[4]
The Lord of Strength is Re
Nomen

Ahmose[3]
The Moon is Born
Horus name
Image:srxtail2.GIF
Aakheperu[5]
Great of Developments[6]
Nebty name

Tutmesut[5]
Perfect of Birth[6]
Golden Horus


Tjestawy[5]
He who Knots Together
the Two Lands[6]
Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari
God's Wife of Amun
Issues Meretamun B, Sitamun A,
Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh,
Amenhotep I, Ramose A,
possibly Mutneferet A
Father Tao II Seqenenre
Mother Ahhotep I
Died 1525 BC
Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache,
but was likely originally buried in Abydos
Major
Monuments
Palace at Avaris,
Temple of Amun at Karnak,
Temple of Montu at Armant

Ahmose I (sometimes written Amosis I and meaning The Moon is Born) was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty. He was a member of the Theban royal house, the son of pharaoh Tao II Seqenenre and brother of the last pharaoh of the Seventeenth dynasty, King Kamose. Sometime during the reign of his father or grandfather, Thebes rebelled against the Hyksos, the rulers of Lower Egypt. When he was seven his father was killed,[7] and when he was about ten his brother died of unknown causes, after reigning only three years. Ahmose I assumed the throne after the death of his brother,[8] and upon coronation became known as Neb-pehty-re (The Lord of Strength is Re). Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Italic textIf youre interested in IAMX theater see, the mystery of the river Nile Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Italic textIf youre interested in IAMX theater see, the mystery of the river Nile Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550-1292 BCE) – often combined with the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties under the group title, New Kingdom – is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 252 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (764 × 1812 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 252 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (764 × 1812 pixel, file size: 1. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as The Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... (Redirected from 1550 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1600s BC 1590s BC 1580s BC 1570s BC 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC 1530s BC 1520s BC 1510s BC 1500s BC Events and Trends The city of Mycenae, located in the northeast Peloponnesus, came... (Redirected from 1525 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC Events and Trends 1523 - Traditional date for the beginning of the Shang Dynasty... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... This article is about the Egyptian god. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Image File history File links Srxtail2. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian Pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (Redirected from 1525 BC) Centuries: 17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC Decades: 1570s BC 1560s BC 1550s BC 1540s BC 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC 1500s BC 1490s BC 1480s BC 1470s BC Events and Trends 1523 - Traditional date for the beginning of the Shang Dynasty... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrÄ«, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Abydos may mean: Egyptian Mythology - The holy city of Osiris, who was buried there himself, as were many other pharaohs. ... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Αμμον Ammon, and Άμμον Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... In Egyptian mythology, Menthu was a hawk-god of war. ... The modern town of Armant (ancient Iuny, also known as Hermonthis), is located about 12 miles south of Thebes, in Egypt. ... Italic textIf youre interested in IAMX theater see, the mystery of the river Nile Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Eighteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (1550-1292 BCE) – often combined with the nineteenth and twentieth dynasties under the group title, New Kingdom – is perhaps the most famous of all the dynasties of ancient Egypt. ... Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ... Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... Map of Upper and Lower Egypt Ancient Egypt was divided into two kingdoms, known as Upper and Lower Egypt. ... This article is about the Egyptian god. ...


During his reign he completed the conquest and expulsion of the Hyksos from the delta region, restored Theban rule over the whole of Egypt and successfully reasserted Egyptian power in its formerly subject territories of Nubia and Canaan.[9] He then reorganized the administration of the country, reopened quarries, mines and trade routes and began massive construction projects of a type that had not been undertaken since the time of the Middle Kingdom. This building program culminated in the construction of the last pyramid built by native Egyptian rulers. Ahmose's reign laid the foundations for the New Kingdom, under which Egyptian power reached its peak. His reign is usually dated to about 1550–1525 BC. NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta (shown in false colour) The Nile Delta (Arabic:دلتا النيل) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ... A small cinder quarry A dimension stone quarry A quarry is a type of open-pit mine from which rock or minerals are extracted. ... This article is about mineral extraction. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... The Great Sphinx of Giza with Khafres pyramid in the background. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife...

Contents

Family

For more details on this topic, see Family tree of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt.

Ahmose descended from the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. His grandfather and grandmother, Tao I and Tetisheri, had at least twelve children, including Tao II and Ahhotep. The brother and sister, according to the tradition of Egyptian queens, married; their children were Kamose, Ahmose I and several daughters.[10] Ahmose I followed in the tradition of his father and married several of his sisters, making Ahmose-Nefertari his chief wife.[10] They had several children including daughters Meretamun B, Sitamun A and sons Siamun A, Ahmose-ankh,[11] Amenhotep I and Ramose A[12] (the "A" and "B" designations after the names are a convention used by Egyptologists to distinguish between royal children and wives that otherwise have the same name). They may also have been the parents of Mutneferet A, who would become the wife of later successor Thutmose I. Ahmose-ankh was Ahmose's heir apparent, but he preceded his father in death sometime between Ahmose's 17th and 22nd regnal year.[13] Ahmose was succeeded instead by his eldest surviving son, Amenhotep I, with whom he might have shared a short coregency. The Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt family tree is complex and unclear, especially at its end. ... Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Tao I the Elder was a Pharaoh of Egypt of teh Seventeenth dynasty based in Upper Egypt during the Second intermediate period. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... nomen or birth name Kamose was the last king of the Theban Seventeenth Dynasty. ... Queen Ahmose-Nefertari of Egypt was the sister-wife of Egypts Pharaoh King Ahmose I. She had two children-Amenhotep I and Aahhotep II, who wed each other and had the Princess Aahmes. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Aakheperkare Great is the manefestation of the soul of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to... Regnal year: the year of the reign of a sovereign. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Nebpehtire[4] The Lord of Strength is Re Nomen Ahmose[3] The Moon is Born Horus name Aakheperu[5] Great of Developments[6] Nebty name Tutmesut[5] Perfect of Birth[6] Golden Horus Tjestawy[5] He who Knots Together the Two Lands[6] Consort(s) Ahmose-Nefertari Gods Wife...


There was no distinct break in the line of the royal family between the 17th and 18th dynasties. The historian Manetho, writing much later during the Ptolemaic dynasty, considered the final expulsion of the Hyksos after nearly a century and the restoration of native Egyptian rule over the whole country a significant enough event to warrant the start of a new dynasty.[14] Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ...


Dates and length of reign

Ahmose's reign can be fairly accurately dated using the Heliacal rise of Sirius in his successor's reign, but because of disputes over where the observation was made from, he has been assigned a reign from 1570–1546, 1560–1537 and 1551–1527 by various sources.[15][16] Manetho gives Ahmose a reign of 25 years and 4 months;[15] this figure is supported by a ‘Year 22’ inscription from his reign at the stone quarries of Tura.[17] A medical examination of his mummy indicates that he died when he was about thirty-five, supporting a 25-year reign if he came to the throne at the age of 10.[15] The Sothic cycle or Canicular period is a period of 1461 ancient Egyptian years (of 365 days) or 1460 Julian years (averaging 365. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Manetho, also known as Manethon of Sebennytos, was an Egyptian historian and priest from Sebennytos who lived during the Ptolematic era, circa 3rd century BC. Manetho recorded Aegyptiaca (History of Egypt). ... Tura was a site in Ancient Egypt, located about halfway between modern Cairo and Helwan[1]. It was Egypts primary quarry for limestone. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ...


Campaigns

The conflict between the local kings of Thebes and the Hyksos king Apepi Awoserre had started sometime during the reign of Tao II Seqenenre and would be concluded, after almost 30 years of intermittent conflict and war, under the reign of Ahmose I. Tao II was possibly killed in a battle against the Hyksos, as his much-wounded mummy gruesomely suggests, and his successor Kamose (likely Ahmose's elder brother) is known to have attacked and raided the lands around the Hyksos capital, Avaris (modern Tell el-Dab'a).[18] Kamose evidently had a short reign, as his highest attested regnal year is year 3, and was succeeded by Ahmose I. Apepi may have died near the same time. There is disagreement as to whether two names for Apepi found in the historical record are of different Apepis or multiple names for the same king, but if they were indeed of different kings, Apepi Awoserre is thought to have died at around the same time as Kamose and was succeeded by Apepi II Aqenienre.[8] Apepi I, (also Auserre Apepi or Apophis) was a ruler of Lower Egypt during the Fifteenth dynasty and the end of the Second Intermediate Period. ... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Avaris, thought to be located at Tell el-Daba (some still argue for different locations), was the ancient capital of the Hyksos dynasties in Egypt. ... Apepi II, (Also Aqenienre Apepi or Apepi II) was a Hyksos ruler of Lower Egypt during the end of the Second Intermediate Period. ...


Ahmose ascended the throne when he was still a child, so his mother, Ahhotep, reigned as regent until he was of age. Judging by some of the rather unique descriptions of her regal roles while in power, including the general honorific "carer for Egypt", she effectively consolidated the Theban power base in the years prior to Ahmose assuming full control. If in fact Apepi Aqenienre was a successor to Apepi Awoserre, then he is thought to have remained bottled up in the delta during Ahhotep's regency, because his name does not appear on any monuments or objects south of Bubastis.[8] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Regent, from the Latin, a person selected to administer a state because the ruler is a minor or is not present or debilitated. ... Bubastis is an Ancient Egyptian city, located along the River Nile in the Delta region of Lower Egypt. ...

Dagger bearing the name Ahmose I on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto
Dagger bearing the name Ahmose I on display at the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1804x1212, 2671 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1804x1212, 2671 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Royal Ontario Museum, commonly known as the ROM (rhyming with Tom), is a major museum for world culture and natural history in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...

Conquest of the Hyksos

Ahmose began the re-conquest of the Hyksos starting around the 11th year of his reign. At about this time, Hyksos kingship changed from Apepi to its final king, Khamudi.[9] The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... nomen or birth name Khamudi was the last pharaoh of the Hyksos Fifteenth dynasty of Egypt who came to power around the tenth year of Ahmose I, and was defeated by his 16th year. ...


Analyzing the events of the conquest prior to the siege of the Hyksos capital of Avaris is extremely difficult. Almost everything known comes from a brief but invaluable military commentary on the back of the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, consisting of brief diary entries,[19] one of which reads The Rhind Mathematical Papyrus ( papyrus British Museum 10057 and pBM 10058), is named after Alexander Henry Rhind, a Scottish antiquarian, who purchased the papyrus in 1858 in Luxor, Egypt; it was apparently found during illegal excavations in or near the Ramesseum. ...

Regnal year 11, second month of shomu, Heliopolis was entered. First month of akhet, day 23, this southern prince broke into Tjaru.[20] Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... Tjaru was an ancient Egyptian fortress on the Way of Horus, the major road leading out of Egypt into Canaan. ...

Generally the regnal year is considered Ahmose's (hence scholars usually mark the 11th year as the beginning of his conquest), but Ahmose himself is referred to in the document as "that southern prince"; a rather disparaging term. For this reason many scholars, following the lead of Donald Redford, consider the regnal year to be that of a Hyksos king.[20] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The Rhind Papyrus does show some of the strategy used by Ahmose when attacking the delta. Entering Heliopolis in July, he moved up the eastern delta to take Tjaru in October, totally avoiding Avaris. In taking Tjaru,[20] he cut off all traffic between Canaan and Avaris; it was the first fort on the Horus Road, which was the major road from Egypt to Canaan. This indicates he was trying to blockade Avaris and isolate them from help or supplies in Canaan.[21] Canaan (Canaanite: כנען, Hebrew: , Greek: Χαναάν whence Latin: Canaan; and from Hebrew, Aramaic: whence Arabic: ‎). Canaan is an ancient term for a region approximating present-day Israel(94%.) and West Bank and Gaza plus adjoining coastal lands and parts of Lebanon and Syria. ...


Records of the latter part of the campaign were discovered on the tomb walls of a participating soldier, Ahmose, son of Ebana. These records indicate that Ahmose I led three attacks against Avaris, the Hyksos capital, but had to quell a small rebellion in Egypt. After this, in the fourth attack, he conquered the city.[22] He drove out the Hyksos completely by besieging Sharuhen in Gaza for three years and conquering it by the 16th year of his reign.[15][23] Ahmose, son of Ebana served in the Egyptian military under the pharaohs Tao II Seqenenre, Ahmose I, Amenhotep I, and Thutmose I. His autobiography has survived intact on the wall of his tomb and has proven a valuable source of information on the late 17th Dynasty and the early 18th... Sharuhen was an ancient town in the Negev Desert, between Raphia and Gaza. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ...


Foreign campaigns

After defeating the Hyksos, Ahmose began campaigning in Syria and Nubia. A campaign during his 22nd year reached Djahy in the Levant and perhaps as far as the Euphrates, although the later Pharaoh Thutmose I is usually credited with being the first to campaign that far. Ahmose did, however, reach at least as far as Kedem (thought to be near Byblos), according to an ostracon in the tomb of his wife, Ahmose-Nefertari.[24] Details on this particular campaign are scarce, as the source of most of the information, Ahmose son of Ebana, did not travel on this land expedition; he was part of Ahmose I's navy. However, it can be inferred from archaeological surveys of southern Canaan during the late 16th century BC that Ahmose and his immediate successors intended only to destroy the cities of the Hyksos and not to conquer Canaan. Many sites there were completely destroyed and not subsequently rebuilt during this period — something a Pharaoh bent on conquest and tribute would not do.[25] Today Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan, but in ancient times it was an independent kingdom. ... Djahy was the Egyptian designation for southern Retenu. ... The Levant The Levant is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Bold text For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the... Aakheperkare Great is the manefestation of the soul of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... An ostracon with Pericles name written on it (c. ... (17th century BC - 16th century BC - 15th century BC - other centuries) (1600s BC - 1590s BC - 1580s BC - 1570s BC - 1560s BC - 1550s BC - 1540s BC - 1530s BC - 1520s BC - 1510s BC - 1500s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1700 - 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests...


Ahmose I's campaigns in Nubia are better documented. Soon after the first Nubian campaign, a Nubian named Aata rebelled against Ahmose, but was crushed. After this attempt, an anti-Theban Egyptian named Tetian gathered many rebels in Nubia, but this too was defeated. Ahmose re-established Egyptian rule over Nubia and placed it under a new administrative center established at Buhen.[9] When re-establishing the national government, Ahmose appears to have rewarded various local princes who supported his cause and that of his dynastic predecessors.[26] Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated below the Second Cataract. ...


Art and monumental constructions

A stele bearing the likeness of pharaoh Ahmose I
A stele bearing the likeness of pharaoh Ahmose I

With the re-unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Ahmose, a re-dedication to the arts and monumental construction occurred. Ahmose reportedly devoted a tenth of all the productive output towards the service of the traditional gods,[27] reviving massive monumental constructions as well as the arts. However, as the defeat of the Hyksos occurred relatively late in Ahmose's reign, his subsequent monumental building program likely lasted no more than seven years,[28] and much of what was started was likely finished by his son and successor Amenhotep I.[29] Image File history File links Ahmose. ... Image File history File links Ahmose. ... Ancient Egyptian funerary stele Suenos Stone in Forres Scotland A stele (or stela) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerary or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living—inscribed, carved in relief (bas... Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the beliefs and rituals of Ancient Egypt. ...


Work from Ahmose's reign is constructed of much finer material than anything from the Second Intermediate Period; with the delta and Nubia under Egyptian control once more, access was gained to distant resources not present in Upper Egypt. Gold and silver were received from Nubia, Lapis Lazuli from distant parts of central Asia, cedar from Byblos,[30] and in the Sinai the Serabit el-Khadim turquoise mines were reopened.[31] Although the exact nature of the relationship is uncertain, at least some Minoan designs have been found on objects from this period, and Egypt considered the Aegean to be part of its empire.[30] Ahmose reopened the Tura limestone quarries to provide stone for monuments and used Asiatic cattle from Phoenicia to haul the stone, according to his quarry inscription.[32] General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... A block of lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems, with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years. ... Species Cedrus deodara Cedrus libani    var. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... Serabit el-Khadim (Arabic, also transliterated Serabit al-Khadim, Serabit el-Khadem) is a locality in the south-west Sinai Peninsula where turquoise was mined extensively in antiquity, mainly by the ancient Egyptians. ... Turquoise (or turquois) is opaque, blue-to-green hydrated copper aluminium phosphate mineral according to the chemical formula CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·5H2O. It is rare and valuable in finer grades and has been enjoyed as a gem and ornamental stone for thousands of years owing to its unique... The Minoans (Greek: Μινωίτες) were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tura was a site in Ancient Egypt, located about halfway between modern Cairo and Helwan[1]. It was Egypts primary quarry for limestone. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ...


The art during Ahmose I's reign was similar to the Middle Kingdom royal Theban style,[33] and stelae from this period were once more of the same quality.[31] This reflects a possibly natural conservative tendency to revive the fashion from the pre-Hyksos era. Despite this, only three positively identified statuary images of Ahmose I survive: a single shabti held by the British Museum, presumably from his tomb (which has never been positively located), and two life-size statues; one of which resides in the Metropolitan Museum, the other in the Khartoum Museum.[33] All display slightly bulging eyes, a feature also depicted on selected stelae depicting the pharaoh. Based on style, a small limestone sphinx that resides at the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, has also been tentatively identified as representing Ahmose I.[34] The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... Ancient Egyptian funerary stele Suenos Stone in Forres Scotland A stele (or stela) is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerary or commemorative purposes, most usually decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living—inscribed, carved in relief (bas... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with ushabti. ... The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2000 to become the Great Court, surrounding the original Reading Room. ... There is also the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), located in Manhattan. ... Nickname: The Triangular City Khartoums location in Sudan Coordinates:  - Governor Abdul Halim al Mutafi Population (2005)  - Urban Over 1 Million For other uses, see Khartoum (disambiguation). ... Museum of Scotland. ...


The art of glass making is thought to have developed during Ahmose's reign. The oldest samples of glass appear to have been defective pieces of faience, but intentional crafting of glass did not occur until the beginning of the 18th dynasty.[35] One of the earliest glass beads found contains the names of both Ahmose and Amenhotep I, which are written in a style which would be dated to about the time of their reign.[36] If glassmaking was developed no earlier than Ahmose's reign and the first objects are dated to no later than sometime in his successor’s reign, it is quite likely that it was one of his subjects who developed the craft.[36] The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ... Egyptian faience is an extension of the term faience. ...

The jewels and ceremonial weaponry found in the burial of Queen Ahhotep, including an axe whose blade depicts Ahmose I striking down a Hyksos soldier, and the golden flies awarded to the Queen for her supportive role against the Hyksos

Ahmose resumed large construction projects like those before the second intermediate period. He began the building of temples, but they were mostly of brick and only in Upper Egypt with one in Buhen, Nubia. In Upper Egypt he added his own works to the existing temple of Amun at Karnak and to the temple of Montu at Armant.[31] According to an inscription at Tura,[32] he used white limestone to build a temple to Ptah and the southern harem of Amun, but did not finish either project.[31] He built a cenotaph for his grandmother, Queen Tetisheri, at Abydos.[31] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (701x940, 1334 KB) Summary Image derived from scan of Gaston Masperos History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (701x940, 1334 KB) Summary Image derived from scan of Gaston Masperos History of Egypt, Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated below the Second Cataract. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Αμμον Ammon, and Άμμον Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... Map of Karnak, showing major temple complexes Interior of Temple First pylon of precinct of Amun viewed from the west Al-Karnak (Arabic الكرنك, in Ancient Egypt was named Ipet Sut, the most venerated place) is a small village in Egypt, located on the banks of the River Nile some 2. ... Tura was a site in Ancient Egypt, located about halfway between modern Cairo and Helwan[1]. It was Egypts primary quarry for limestone. ... Ptah In Egyptian mythology, Ptah (also spelt Peteh) was the deification of the primordial mound in the Ennead cosmogony, which was more literally referred to as Ta-tenen (also spelt Tathenen), meaning risen land, or as Tanen, meaning submerged land. ... Amun (also spelled Amon, Amoun, Amen, and rarely Imen, Greek Αμμον Ammon, and Άμμον Hammon, Egyptian Yamanu) was the name of a deity, in Egyptian mythology, who gradually rose to become one of the most important deities, before fading into obscurity. ... Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... Abydos may mean: Egyptian Mythology - The holy city of Osiris, who was buried there himself, as were many other pharaohs. ...


Excavations at the site of Avaris by Manfred Bietak have shown that Ahmose had a palace constructed on the site of the former Hyksos capital city's fortifications. Bietak found Minoan-style fragmentary remains of the frescoes that once covered the walls of the palace; there has subsequently been much speculation as to what role this Aegean civilization may have played in terms of trade and in the arts.[37] Manfred Bietak is the current Professor of Egyptology at the University of Vienna, Austria and Director of the Austrian Archaeological Institute in Cairo, Egypt (Professor der Ägyptologie an der Universität Wien und Leiter des Österreichischen Archäologischen Institutes in Kairo). ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ...


Under Ahmose's reign, the city of Thebes became the capital for the whole of Egypt, as it had been in the previous Middle Kingdom. It also became the center for a newly established professional civil service, where there was a greater demand for scribes and the literate as the royal archives began to fill with accounts and reports.[38] Having Thebes as the capital was probably a strategic choice, as it is located in the center of the country; having had to repel the Hyksos in the north as well as the Nubians to the south, Thebes' placement meant that any future opposition at either border could be easily met.[27] Thebes For the ancient capital of Boeotia, see Thebes, Greece. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th... A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. ...


Perhaps the most important shift was a religious one: Thebes effectively became the religious as well as the political center of the country, its local god Amun credited with inspiring Ahmose in his victories over the Hyksos. The importance of the temple complex at Karnak (on the east bank of the Nile north of Thebes) grew and the importance of the previous cult of Ra based in Heliopolis diminished.[39] Several stelae detailing the work done by Ahmose were found at Karnak, two of which depict him as a benefactor to the temple. In one of these stelae, known as the "Tempest Stele", he claims to have rebuilt the pyramids of his predecessors at Thebes that had been destroyed by a major storm.[40] The Thera eruption in the Aegean has been implicated by some scholars as the source of this damage, but similar claims are common in the propaganda of other pharaohs, to show them overcoming the powers of darkness. Due to the lack of evidence, no definitive conclusion can be reached. This article is about the Egyptian god. ... Heliopolis (Greek: or ), was one of the most ancient cities of Egypt, and capital of the 13th Lower Egyptian nome. ... The Tempest Stele was erected by Ahmose I early in the eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, circa 1550 BCE. The stele describes great storms striking Egypt during this time. ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ...


Pyramid

Picture taken in 2005 from the top of Ahmose I's pyramid, looking towards the mountains, with an Islamic cemetery in between
Picture taken in 2005 from the top of Ahmose I's pyramid, looking towards the mountains, with an Islamic cemetery in between

The remains of his pyramid in Abydos were discovered in 1899 and identified as his in 1902.[41] This pyramid and the related structures became the object of renewed research as of 1993 by an expedition sponsored by the Pennsylvania-Yale Institute of Fine Arts, New York University under the direction of Stephen Harvey.[42] Most of its outer casing stones had been robbed for use in other building projects over the years, and the mound of rubble upon which it was built has collapsed; however, two rows of intact casing stones were found by Arthur Mace, who estimated its steep slope as about 60 degrees, based on the evidence of the limestone casing (compare to the less acute 51 degrees of the Great Pyramid of Giza).[43] Although the pyramid interior has not been explored since 1902, work in 2006 uncovered portions of a massive mudbrick construction ramp built against its face. At the foot of the pyramid lay a complex of stone temples surrounded by mud brick enclosure walls. Research by Harvey has revealed three structures to date in addition to the "Ahmose Pyramid Temple" first located by Arthur Mace. This structure, the closest to the base of the pyramid, was most likely intended as its chief cult center. Among thousands of carved and painted fragments uncovered since 1993, several depict aspects of a complex battle narrative against an Asiatic enemy. In all likelihood, these reliefs, featuring archers, ships, dead asiatics and the first known representation of horses in Egypt, form the only representation of Ahmose's Hyksos battles.[42] Adjacent to the main pyramid temple and to its east, Harvey has identified two temples constructed by Ahmose's queen, Ahmose-Nefertary. One of these structures also bears bricks stamped with the name of Chief Treasurer Neferperet, the official responsible for re-opening the stone quarries at el-Ma'asara (Tura) in Ahmose's year 22. A third, larger temple (Temple C) is similar to the pyramid temple in form and scale, but its stamped bricks and details of decoration reinforce that it was a cult place for Ahmose-Nefertary. Image File history File linksMetadata AhmoseI-ComplexArea-01. ... Image File history File linksMetadata AhmoseI-ComplexArea-01. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza with Khafres pyramid in the background. ... Abydos (Arabic: أبيدوس), one of the most ancient cities of Upper Egypt, stood about 11 km (6 miles) west of the Nile at latitude 26° 10 N. The Egyptian name was Abdju (technically, 3bdw, hieroglyphs shown to the right), the hill of the symbol or reliquary, in which the sacred head... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the private university in Philadelphia. ... Yale redirects here. ... New York University (NYU) is a major research university in New York City. ... The Great Pyramid is the oldest and the largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa. ... The Hyksos (Egyptian heka khasewet meaning foreign rulers, Greek ) were an ethnically mixed group of Southwest Asiatic or Semitic people who appeared in the eastern Nile Delta during the Second Intermediate Period. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


The axis of the pyramid complex may be associated with a series of monuments strung out along a kilometer of desert. Along this axis are several key structures: 1) a large pyramid dedicated to his grandmother Tetisheri which contained a stele depicting Ahmose providing offerings to her; 2) a rockcut underground complex which may either have served as a token representation of an Osirian underworld or as an actual royal tomb;[44] and 3) a terraced temple built against the high cliffs, featuring massive stone and brick terraces. These elements reflect in general a similar plan undertaken for the cenotaph of Senwosret III and in general its construction contains elements which reflect the style of both Old and Middle Kingdom pyramid complexes.[44] Tetisheri was the matriarch of the Egyptian royal family of the late 17th Dynasty and early 18th Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... Khakhaure (The king of the two lands, The kas of Ra have appeared) Horus name Netcher Kheperu (Horus, divine of form) Nebty name Netcher Mesut (The two ladies, divine of birth) Golden Horus Kheper (The golden Horus has been created) Major Monuments Buhen and Toshka Senusret III (also written... The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called Kingdom periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the Nile Valley (the... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises of 2 phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th...


There is some dispute as to if this pyramid was Ahmose's burial place, or if it was a cenotaph. Although earlier explorers Mace and Currelly were unable to locate any internal chambers, it is unlikely that a burial chamber would have been located in the midst of the pyramid's rubble core. In the absence of any mention of a tomb of King Ahmose in the tomb robbery accounts of the Abbott Papyrus, and in the absence of any likely candidate for the king's tomb at Thebes, it is possible that the king was interred at Abydos, as suggested by Harvey. Certainly the great number of cult structures located at the base of the pyramid located in recent years, as well as the presence at the base of the pyramid of a cemetery used by priests of Ahmose's cult, argue for the importance of the king's Abydos cult. However, other Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was constructed (like Tetisheri's pyramid at Abydos) as a cenotaph and that Ahmose may have originally been buried in the southern part of Dra' Abu el-Naga' with the rest of the late 17th and early 18th Dynasties.[31] The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... Egyptology is the study of Ancient Egypt and Egyptian antiquities and is a regional and thematic branch of the larger disciplines of ancient history and archeology. ... The necropolis of Dra Abu el-Naga is located on the West Bank at Thebes, Egypt, just by the entrance of the dry bay that leads up to Deir el-Bahri, and north of the necropolis of el-Assasif. ...


This pyramid was the last pyramid ever built as part of a mortuary complex in Egypt. The pyramid form would be abandoned by subsequent pharaohs of the New Kingdom, for both practical and religious reasons. The Giza plateau offered plenty of room for building pyramids; but this was not the case with the confined, cliff-bound geography of Thebes and any burials in the surrounding desert were liable to flooding. The pyramid form was associated with the sun god Re, who had been overshadowed by Amun in importance. One of the meanings of Amun's name was the hidden one, which meant that it was now theologically permissible to hide the Pharaoh's tomb by fully separating the mortuary template from the actual burial place. This provided the added advantage that the resting place of the pharaoh could be kept hidden from necropolis robbers. All subsequent pharaohs of the New Kingdom would be buried in rock-cut shaft tombs in the Valley of the Kings.[45] Pyramids of Giza in 1960s Egypt: Site of Giza or Al Jizah (top center). ... This article is about the Egyptian god. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red box shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to...


Mummy

The mummified head of Ahmose I
The mummified head of Ahmose I

Ahmose I's mummy was discovered in 1881 within the Deir el-Bahri Cache, located in the hills directly above the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut. He was interred along with the mummies of other 18th and 19th dynasty leaders Amenhotep I, Thutmose I, Thutmose II, Thutmose III, Ramesses I, Seti I, Ramesses II and Ramesses IX, as well as the 21st dynasty pharaohs Pinedjem I, Pinedjem II and Siamun. Image File history File links Ahmose-mummy-head. ... Image File history File links Ahmose-mummy-head. ... A mummy is a corpse whose skin and dried flesh have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold, very low humidity, or airlessness. ... Djeser-Djeseru – the focal point of the complex Deir el-Bahri (Arabic دير البحري dayr al-baḥrī, literally meaning, “The Northern Monastery”) is a complex of mortuary temples and tombs located on the west bank of the Nile, opposite the city of Luxor, Egypt. ... Tomb DB320 is located next to Deir el-Bahri, in the Theban Necropolis, opposite modern Luxor contained an extraordinary cache of mummified remains and funeral equipment of more than 50 kings, queens, royals and various nobility. ... Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut Mortuary temples (or memorial temples) were temples constructed adjacent to, or in the vicinity of, royal tombs in the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom periods of Ancient Egypt. ... Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... Aakheperkare Great is the manefestation of the soul of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Kanekhet meri maat Mighty Bull, Beloved of Maat Nebty name Kham neseret aa pehet Crowned with the royal serpent, Great of power Golden Horus Nefer Reneput Sankhibu Good of Years, Making Hearts to... Aakheperenre Great is the manefestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Thoth is born Horus name Ka Nekhet User Pekhet The strong bull, the great one of power Nebty name Neter Nesyt Divine of kingship Golden Horus Sekhem Kheperu Powerful of Forms Consort(s) Hatshepsut, Aset Issues Thutmose III, Neferure, Meritre Father... Menkheperre Lasting is the Manifestation of Re Nomen Thutmose Neferkheperu Thoth is born, beautiful of forms Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset Mighty Bull, Arising in Thebes Nebty name Wahnesytmireempet Enduring in kingship like Re in heaven Golden Horus Sekhempahtydsejerkhaw Powerful of strength, holy of diadems Consort(s) Hatshepsut-Meryetre, Nebtu, Menwi... nomen or birth name Menpehtyre Ramesses I (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ... Menmaatre Eternal is the Justice of Re Nomen Sety Merenptah Man of Set, beloved of Ptah Horus name Kanakht Khaemwaset-Seankhtawy Nebty name Wehemmesut Sekhemkhepesh Derpedjetpesdjet Golden Horus Wehemkhau Weserpedjutemtawnebu[1] Consort(s) Queen Tuya Issues Ramesses II, Tia, Henutmire (?) Father Ramesses I Mother Sitre Died 1279 BC Burial KV17... Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef, Meritamen see also: List of children of... Tomb Interior of Ramesses IX Neferkare Ramesses IX (also written Ramses and Rameses) (1124 BC – 1106 BC) was the eighth king of the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. ... Pinedjem I was the high priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt 1070 BC to 1032 and de facto ruler of the south of the country. ... Pinedjem II (also Pinudjem II) was a High Priest of Amun at Thebes in Ancient Egypt from 990 BC to 969 BC and was the de facto ruler of the south of the country. ... Neterkheperre-setepenamun Siamun was the Sixth pharaoh of Egypt during the Twenty-first dynasty. ...


Ahmose I's mummy was unwrapped by Gaston Maspero on June 9, 1886. It was found within a coffin that bore his name in hieroglyphs, and on his bandages his name was again written in hieratic script. While the cedarwood coffin's style dates it squarely to the time of the 18th dynasty, it was neither of royal style nor craftsmanship, and any gilding or inlays it may have had were stripped in antiquity.[46] He had evidently been moved from his original burial place, re-wrapped and placed within the cache at Deir el-Bahri during the reign of the 21st dynasty priest-king Pinedjum II, whose name also appeared on the mummy's wrappings. Around his neck a garland of delphinium flowers had been placed. The body bore signs of having been plundered by ancient grave-robbers, his head having been broken off from his body and his nose smashed.[47] Gaston Camille Charles Maspero (June 23, 1846 - June 30, 1916), French Egyptologist, was born in Paris, his parents being of Lombard origin. ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ... Gilding is the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose of ornament. ... Inlay: Decorative technique of inserting pieces of coloured materials to form patterns or pictures. ... Species See text Delphinium is a genus of about 250 species of annual, biennial or perennial flowering plants in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa. ...


The body was 1.63 m in height. The mummy had a small face with no defining features, though he had slightly prominent front teeth; this may have been an inherited family trait, as this feature can be seen in some female mummies of the same family, as well as the mummy of his descendant, Thutmose II.


A short description of the mummy by Gaston Maspero sheds further light on familial resemblances:

…he was of medium height, as his body when mummified measured only 5 feet 6 inches in length, but the development of the neck and chest indicates extraordinary strength. The head is small in proportion to the bust, the forehead low and narrow, the cheek-bones project and the hair is thick and wavy. The face exactly resembles that of Tiûâcrai [Tao II Seqenenre] and the likeness alone would proclaim the affinity, even if we were ignorant of the close relationship which united these two Pharaohs.[27] Seqenenre[1] Who Strikes like Re Nomen   Thot-aa[1] Horus name Khaemwaset He appears in Thebes Issues Kamose, Ahmose, Ahmose-Nefertari Father Tao I the Elder Mother Tetisheri Burial Mummy found in Deir el-Bahri cache Major Monuments Palace and fortifications at Deir el-Ballas Sekenenra Tao II, (also...

Initial studies of the mummy were first thought to reveal a man in his 50s,[27] but subsequent examinations have shown that he was instead likely to have been in his mid-30s when he died.[26] The identity of this mummy (Cairo Museum catalog nº 61057) was called into question in 1980 by the published results of Dr. James Harris, a professor of orthodontics, and Egyptologist Edward Wente. Harris had been allowed to take x-rays of all of the supposed royal mummies at the Cairo Museum. While history records Ahmose I as being the son or possibly the grandson of Sekenenra Tao II, the craniofacial morphology of the two mummies are quite different. It is also different from that of the female mummy identified as Ahmes-Nefertari, thought to be his sister. These inconsistencies, and the fact that this mummy was not posed with arms crossed over chest, as was the fashion of the period for male royal mummies, led them to conclude that this was likely not a royal mummy, leaving the identity of Ahmose I unknown.[48] POOP (or orthodontia) is a specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions, which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Main entrance of the Egyptian Museum The Museum of Egyptian Antiquities, known commonly as the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo, Egypt, is home to the most extensive collection of pharaonic antiquities in the world. ...


The mummy is now in the Luxor Museum alongside the purported one of Ramesses I, as part of a permanent exhibition called "The Golden Age of the Egyptian Military".[49] Luxor Museum Luxor Museum is located in the Egyptian city of Luxor (ancient Thebes). ... nomen or birth name Menpehtyre Ramesses I (also written Ramses and Rameses) was the founding Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts 19th dynasty. ...


Succession

Ahmose I was succeeded by his son, Amenhotep I. A minority of scholars have argued that Ahmose had a short co-regency with Amenhotep, potentially lasting up to six years. If there was a co-regency, Amenhotep could not have been made king before Ahmose's 18th regnal year, the earliest year in which Ahmose-ankh, the heir apparent, could have died.[13] There is significant evidence indicating that a co-regency may have occurred, although definitive evidence is lacking. Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... A Co-regency is the situation where a monarchical position (such as King, Queen, Emperor or Empress), normally held by only a single person, is held by two. ...


The first piece of evidence consists of three small objects which contain both of their praenomen next to one another: the aforementioned small glass bead, a small feldspar amulet and a broken stele, all of which are written in the proper style for the early 18th dynasty.[36] The last stele said that Amenhotep was "given life eternally", which is an Egyptian idiom meaning that a king is alive, but the name of Ahmose does not have the usual epithet "true of voice" which is given to dead kings.[36] Since praenomen are only assumed upon taking the throne, and assuming that both were in fact alive at the same time, it is indicated that both were reigning at the same time; though there is the possibility that Amenhotep I may have merely wished to associate himself with his beloved father, who reunited Egypt. In the naming convention used in ancient Rome, derived from that of the Etruscan civilization, the names of male patricians normally consist of three parts (tria nomina): the praenomen (given name), nomen gentile or gentilicium (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (belonging to a family within the gens). ...


Second, Amenhotep I appears to have nearly finished preparations for a sed festival, or even begun celebrating it; but Amenhotep I's reign is usually given only 21 years and a sed festival traditionally cannot be celebrated any earlier than a ruler's 30th year. If Amenhotep I had a significant co-regency with his father, some have argued that Amenhotep planned to celebrate his Sed Festival according to the date he was first crowned instead of the date that he began ruling alone; that would better explain the degree of completion of his Sed Festival preparations at Karnak.[50] There are two contemporary New Kingdom examples of the breaking of this tradition; Hatshepsut celebrated her Heb Sed Festival in her 16th year and Akhenaten celebrated a Sed Festival near the beginning of his 17-year reign.[51] Djeserkare Holy is the soul of Re Nomen Amenhotep Amun is Satisfied Horus name Kanaftau Bull who subdues the lands Nebty name Aaneru Who inspires great fear Golden Horus Uahrenput Enduring of years Consort(s) Ahmose-Meritamon Issues Amenemhat (died young), possibly Ahmes Father Ahmose I Mother Ahmose-Nefertari Died... The sed festival (or heb sed) was an Ancient Egyptian ceremony held to celebrate the continued rule of a pharaoh. ... Maatkare[1] Truth is the Ka of Re Nomen Khnumt-Amun Hatshepsut[1] Joined with Amun, Foremost of Noble Ladies Horus name Wesretkau [1] Mighty of Kas Nebty name Wadjrenput[1] Flourishing of years Golden Horus Netjeretkhau [1] Divine of appearance Consort(s) Thutmose II Issues Neferure Father Thutmose I...


Third, Ahmose's wife, Ahmose Nefertari, was called both "King's Great Wife" and "King's Mother" in two stelae which were set up at the limestone quarries of Ma`sara in Ahmose's 22nd year. For her to literally be a "King's Mother," Amenhotep would already have to be a king. It is possible that the title was only honorific, as Ahhotep II assumed the title without being the mother of any known king;[52] though there is a possibility that her son Amenemhat was made Amenhotep I's co-regent, but preceded him in death.[53] Ahhotep II was a queen of Egypt during the early 18th Dynasty. ...


Because of this uncertainty, a co-regency is currently impossible to prove or disprove. Both Redford's and Murnane's works on the subject are undecided on the grounds that there is too little evidence, but even if there were to have been, it would make no difference to the chronology of the period because in this kind of co-regency Amenhotep would have begun counting his regnal dates from his first year as sole ruler.[54][55] However, co-regency supporters note that since at least one rebellion had been led against Ahmose during his reign, it would certainly have been logical to coronate a successor before one's death to prevent a struggle for the crown.[52]


Notes

  1. ^ Sir Alan Gardiner Egypt of the Pharaohs, OUP, 1964
  2. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Amasis I
  3. ^ Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, paperback 2006. p.100
  4. ^ Clayton, op. cit., p.100
  5. ^ a b c
  6. ^ a b c Wiener, Malcolm H. and Allen, James P. The Ahmose Tempest Stela and the Thera Eruption p.3 Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 57, No. 1 (Jan., 1998)
  7. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. p. 199. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  8. ^ a b c Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. p. 192. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  9. ^ a b c Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p. 194. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  10. ^ a b Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p. 190. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  11. ^ Aidan Dodson (1990). "Crown Prince Djhutmose and the Royal Sons of the Eighteenth Dynasty". The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 76. 
  12. ^ Dodson, Aidan; Hilton, Dyan. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, p. 126. Thames & Hudson, 2004.
  13. ^ a b Wente, Edward F. Thutmose III's Accession and the Beginning of the New Kingdom p. 271, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, University of Chicago Press, 1975.
  14. ^ Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. p. 28. University of Toronto Press, 1967.
  15. ^ a b c d Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt, p. 193. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  16. ^ Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion pp. 47–9. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983.
  17. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II p. 12. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906.
  18. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, p. 199. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  19. ^ Spalinger, Anthony J. War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom, p. 23. Blackwell Publishing, 2005.
  20. ^ a b c Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. p. 128. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1992.
  21. ^ King of the Wild Frontier. Accessed August 23, 2006.
  22. ^ Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II, pp. 7–8. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906.
  23. ^ Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies, pp. 46–49. University of Toronto Press, 1967.
  24. ^ Weinstein, James M. The Egyptian Empire in Palestine, A Reassessment, p. 6. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, nº 241. Winter 1981.)
  25. ^ Weinstein, James M. The Egyptian Empire in Palestine, A Reassessment, p. 7. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, nº 241. Winter 1981.
  26. ^ a b Shaw, Ian. & Nicholson, Paul. The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt, p. 18. The British Museum Press, 1995.
  27. ^ a b c d Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324.
  28. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt p. 209. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  29. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, p. 213. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  30. ^ a b Catalogue Général 34001, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  31. ^ a b c d e f Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt p. 200. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988.
  32. ^ a b Quarry Inauguration, accessed July 28, 2006.
  33. ^ a b Edna R. Russman et al. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum, pp. 210–211.
  34. ^ Russman, Edna A. "Art in Transition: The Rise of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the Emergence of the Thutmoside Style in Sculpture and Relief", Hatshepsut: From Queen to Pharaoh. p.24-25. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2005. ISBN 1-58839-173-6
  35. ^ Cooney, J. D. Glass Sculpture in Ancient Egypt. Journal of Glass Studies 2 (1960):11
  36. ^ a b c d Gordon, Andrew H. A Glass Bead of Ahmose and Amenhotep I. p. 296. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, October 1982.
  37. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. p208. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  38. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce. Egypt's Golden Empire: The Age of the New Kingdom, pp. 18–19. Headline Book Publishing Ltd., 2001.
  39. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce. The Private Lives of the Pharaohs, p. 100. Channel 4 Books, 2004.
  40. ^ Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. p. 210. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  41. ^ Egyptian Pharaohs: Ahmose I, accessed July 19, 2006.
  42. ^ a b Ahmose Pyramid at Abydos, accessed July 22, 2006.
  43. ^ Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids, p. 190. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1997.
  44. ^ a b Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids, p. 191. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1997.
  45. ^ Tyldesley, Joyce. The Private Lives of the Pharaohs, p. 101. Channel 4 Books, 2004.
  46. ^ Forbes, Dennis C. Tombs, Treasures, Mummies: Seven Great Discoveries of Egyptian Archaeology, p. 614. KMT Communications, Inc. 1998.
  47. ^ Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, pp. 15–17. Duckworth, 2000 (reprint).
  48. ^ Forbes, Dennis C. Tombs, Treasures, Mummies: Seven Great Discoveries of Egyptian Archaeology, p. 699. KMT Communications, Inc. 1998.
  49. ^ Bickerstaff, Dylan. Examining the Mystery of the Niagara Falls Mummy, KMT, p. 31. Vol. 17 Number 4, Winter 2006–07.
  50. ^ Wente, Edward F. Thutmose III's Accession and the Beginning of the New Kingdom, p. 272, Journal of Near Eastern Studies, University of Chicago Press, 1975.
  51. ^ Ancient Egypt.
  52. ^ a b Gordon, Andrew H. A Glass Bead of Ahmose and Amenhotep I p. 297. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, October 1982.
  53. ^ Wente, Edward F. Thutmose III's Accession and the Beginning of the New Kingdom, p. 271. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, University of Chicago Press, 1975.
  54. ^ Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies, p. 51. University of Toronto Press, 1967
  55. ^ Murnane, Willaim J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Nº 40, p. 114. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977.

Sir Alan Henderson Gardiner (March 29, 1879 Eltham - December 19, 1963 Oxford) was one of the premier British Egyptologists of the early and mid-Twentieth century. ...

References

Print sources

  • Breasted, James Henry. Ancient Records of Egypt, Vol. II University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1906. ISBN 90-04-12989-8.
  • Catalogue Gènèral 34001, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
  • Clayton, Peter. Chronicle of the Pharaohs, Thames and Hudson Ltd, paperback 2006.
  • Cooney, J. D. Glass Sculpture in Ancient Egypt. Journal of Glass Studies 2 vol. 11, 1960.
  • Dodson, Aidan. Crown Prince Djhutmose and the Royal Sons of the Eighteenth Dynasty The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, vol. 76, 1990.
  • Dodson, Aidan. Dyan, Hilton. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt Thames & Hudson, 2004. ISBN 0-500-05128-3.
  • Edna R. Russman et al. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. 2001. ISBN 0-520-23086-8.
  • Gardiner, Alan (Sir). Egypt of the Pharaohs, Oxford University Press, 1964. ISBN 0-19-500267-9
  • Gordon, Andrew H. A Glass Bead of Ahmose and Amenhotep I. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, vol. 41, no. 4, October 1982.
  • Grimal, Nicolas. A History of Ancient Egypt. Librairie Arthéme Fayard, 1988. ISBN 90-04-12989-8.
  • Helk, Wolfgang. Schwachstellen der Chronologie-Diskussion. Göttinger Miszellen, Göttingen, 1983.
  • Lehner, Mark. The Complete Pyramids. Thames & Hudson Ltd, 1997. ISBN 0-500-05084-8.
  • Maspero, Gaston. History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, Volume 4 (of 12), Project Gutenberg EBook, Release Date: December 16, 2005. EBook #17324. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/17324/17324.txt
  • Murnane, Willaim J. Ancient Egyptian Coregencies, Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization. No. 40. The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, 1977.
  • Redford, Donald B. Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times. Princeton University Press, Princeton NJ, 1992. ISBN 0-691-00086-7.
  • Redford, Donald B. History and Chronology of the 18th Dynasty of Egypt: Seven Studies. University of Toronto Press, 1967.
  • Shaw, Ian. The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-19-815034-2.
  • Smith, G Elliot. The Royal Mummies, Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd., 2000. ISBN 0-7156-2959-X.
  • Spalinger, Anthony J. War in Ancient Egypt: The New Kingdom. Blackwell Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1405113723
  • Tyldesley, Joyce. Egypt's Golden Empire: The Age of the New Kingdom. Headline Book Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 0-7472-5160-6.
  • Tyldesley, Joyce. The Private Lives of the Pharaohs. Channel 4 Books, 2004. ISBN 0-7522-1903-0.
  • Weinstein, James M. The Egyptian Empire in Palestine, A Reassessment. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research: No 241. Winter, 1981.
  • Wente, Edward F. Thutmose III's Accession and the Beginning of the New Kingdom. Journal of Near Eastern Studies, University of Chicago Press, 1975.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ahmose I
Preceded by
Kamose
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighteenth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Amenhotep I
Preceded by
Khamudi
Ruler of Lower Egypt
beginning about 1535 BC
Persondata
NAME Ahmose I
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Amosis I
SHORT DESCRIPTION Pharaoh
DATE OF BIRTH 1560 BC ?
PLACE OF BIRTH Likely Thebes
DATE OF DEATH 1525 BC ?
PLACE OF DEATH Likely buried at Abydos and later moved to Deir el-Bahri

  Results from FactBites:
 
Dynasty 18 - Ahmose I, Amenhotep I (2327 words)
Ahmose I (Amosis to the Greeks) was given the birth name Ah-mose (The Moon is Born).
In this instance, Ahmose I's mother, Ahhotpe, was probably responsible for putting down the rebellion and for this she was awarded the gold flies, an award for valor that was found on her mummy in her intact tomb at Thebes.
The son of Ahmose and Queen Ahmose Nefretiri, Amenhotep I was the second king of the18th Dynasty.
Ahmose 1 (77 words)
With Ahmose 1, the Hyksos were beaten, as he took control over their citadel, Avaris, in the north of Egypt.
To Ahmose, at Abydos, the southernmost pyramid of Egypt is found, although what remains today is little but a mound.
The pyramid did not serve the same purpose as older, more original pyramids, as Ahmose was buried in an underground chamber, cenotaph, 550 metres uphill.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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