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Encyclopedia > Ahmed Raza Khan
Islamic scholar
Medieval era
Name: Ahmed Rida Khan
Birth: 1856
Death: 1921
School/tradition: Hanafi [citation needed]
Influences:
Influenced:

Sayyidunna Mawlana Sanaadi Ala Hadrat Alshaykh Allamah Muhammad Mukhtar Ziauddin Aĥmed Riđā Abdul Mustapha Khān al-Barelwī al-Barkati al-Nuri al-Razwi al-Qadiri (18561921, sometimes transcribed as Ahmad Raza Khan) , was a prominent Muslim Alim from Bareilly, a city in Northern India during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is most well known for inspiring the Barelwi Islamic movement named after his birthpacel. Aĥmed Riđā was also poet and writer, authoring nearly 1,000 books and monographs of varying lengths in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. He was a follower of Hanafi fiqh. Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for full calendar). ... Transcription is the conversion into written, typewritten or printed form, of a spoken language source, such as the proceedings of a court hearing. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... Bareilly   (Hindi: बारैली, Urdu: باریلی) is a city in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. ... The Indo-Gangetic Plain is a rich, fertile and ancient land encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) Sunnism, the Ahle Sunnah Movement, or just the Sunni movement, is a movement within Sunni Islam that was started by Ahmed Rida Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ... Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Contents

Life history

His Family and Childhood

Aĥmed Raza was born in 1272 AH (1856 CE) into a family of Alims (legal scholars). His father, Mawlānā Naqī Áli Khān, was an alim of his time. His mother named him Amman Miyān. Riđā studied Islamic sciences mainly under the tutelage of his father. He undertook the traditional dars-e nizami course under his father's supervision and thereafter was largely self-taught. He did not proceed to take a formal course at a dar al-ulum. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Gāhshomāri-ye Hejri; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Islamic... The Common Era (CE), sometimes known as the Current Era or as the Christian Era, is the period of measured time beginning with the year 1 on the Gregorian calendar. ... Ulema (, translit: , singular: , translit: , scholar) refers to the educated class of Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ... This is a subarticle to Islamic studies and science. ... Dars-i-Nizami is a study curriculum used in a large portion of madrasahs (Islamic religious school) in South Asia. ...


Adolescence and start of his ministry

At the age of 14, Ahmad Raza, was given the responsibility of writing Fatawa (written answers to Islamic legal problems). It was through this path of life that he communicated to the groups that would carry his name, his vision of Islam and Din (faith). At this time there were competing Pirs (Islamic Holy men) throughout northern India and Kashmir, each with their own dedicated group of followers. (Like the court of a Chassidic Rebbe in Judaism) A fatwa (Arabic: ) plural fatāwa (فتاوى), is a legal pronouncement in Islam, issued by a religious law specialist on a specific issue. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up pir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות, meaning pious from the Hebrew root word chesed חסד meaning loving kindness) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Rebbe which means master, teacher, or mentor is a Yiddish word derived from the identical Hebrew word רבי. It mostly refers to the leader of a Hasidic Jewish movement. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


Adulthood

At 21 he received the blessing of one of the most outstanding Pir's of the area and sent him out to make Sufi's from anyone worthy. At 22 years of age while on Hajj with his father, he received many honours from some of the great Sufi teachers of his time. Hajj was a turning point in his life. It inspired Imam Raza Khan to make followers throughout India and impart his teachings and knowledge on them. During his lifetime he wrote over 1000 books. The Hajj (Arabic: ‎, translit: ; Turkish: ; Ottoman Turkish: حاج, Hāc; Malay: ) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam. ...


Aĥmed Riđā studied many sciences and fiqh (Sunni religious law) particularly in the Hanafi school. He earned many degrees of authorization in Hanafi. By his own affirmation, the most important one was from the Mufti of Makkah, Shaykh Ábd ar-Raĥmān as-Sirāj ibn Ábdullāh as-Sirāj. This chain of transmission is claimed to reach back to Abu Hanifah. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Mecca or Makkah (in full: Makkah al-Mukkaramah; Arabic مكة المكرمة) is revered as the holiest site of Islam, and a pilgrimage to it is required of all Muslims who can afford to go. ... Imam Abu Hanifa Númān ibn Thābit (Arabic: إمام أبو حنيفه نعمان بن ثابت) (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanafi school of fiqh. ...


He is known for his attacks on Wahabis, and other Muslim groups, libertarian religion-reformers like Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan, Abu'l Kalām Āzād, and others of the early 20th century. Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (1817 - 1898) Syed Ahmad Khan (Urdu: سید احمد خان ) (October 17, 1817, Delhi - March 27, 1898, Aligarh), was an Indian Muslim educator, jurist, and author, who led the Aligarh Movement which resulted in the formation of the Muhammedan Anglo-Oriental College,later to blossom into theAligarh Muslim University, at... Abul Kalam Azad Abul Kalam Ghulam Muhiyuddin (November 11th 1888, Mecca- February 22, 1958), better known as Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was a renowned scholar, poet, freedom fighter and leader of the Indian National Congress in Indias struggle for Independence. ...


Aĥmed Riđā took the Qadiri path and was initiated in that Sufi order by Sayyid Abu’l Ĥusayn Nūrī of Mārahra (a town in northern India). He dedicated many tracts to the love of Muhammad, as is evident in his writings and endeavors. Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...


In 1904 he founded a school, the Madrasa Manzar al-Islam. The position of chief administrator of this school was later to become a hereditary one within the Riza family for the next four generations.


Aĥmed Riđā died in 1340 AH (1921 CE) at the age of 63.


Competing Schools of Thought

Ahmad Raza came into conflict with some members of the Deobandi school whom he felt were influenced by the Wahabis. However mainstream Barelwis and Deobandiies consider each other Muslim and Sunni and in Pakistan the first purely religious political alliance was between Jamiat-e-Ulma-e-Islam (Deobandi) and Jamiat-e-Ulma-e-Pakistan (Barelwi). Later on, other schools of thought joined to form Muttahida Majlis Amal (MMA). The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) are a Muslim religious revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such Afghanistan, South Africa and the UK. They follow the fiqh (tradition of jurisprudence) of Imam Abu Hanifa and follow Imam Abu Mansur Maturidis thought in Aqeedah... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) Sunnism, the Ahle Sunnah Movement, or just the Sunni movement, is a movement within Sunni Islam that was started by Ahmed Rida Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ... The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) are a Muslim religious revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such Afghanistan, South Africa and the UK. They follow the fiqh (tradition of jurisprudence) of Imam Abu Hanifa and follow Imam Abu Mansur Maturidis thought in Aqeedah...


Authorization

He had many ijazahs (Degrees of authorization) in Hanafi fiqh, and by his own affirmation, the most important one is from the Muftī of Makkah, Shaykh abd ar-Rahmān as-Siraj ibn Abdullāh as-Siraj (The Master of the Kaba or place of hajj). This chain of transmission reaches Imām Abū Hanifah in twenty seven links and in further four to Muhammad. An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. ... Hanafi (Arabic حنفي): (sometimes known in English as Hanafites or Hanifites)-- (cf Malikite, Shafiite, Hanbalite for the other schools of thought)--.is one of the four schools of thought (Madhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... An-Númān ibn Thābit (Arabic: ) also know as Imam Abu Hanifa (Arabic: ) (699 - 765) was an important Islamic scholar and jurist and is considered the founder of the Hanafi school of fiqh. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ...


He had an authorization of hadith (Sayings of the Holy Prophet handed down from generation to generation) transmission from the great Meccan scholar, Malik al-úlamā, Sayyid Ahmed Zayni Dahlan ash-Shafiyi. Hadith ( translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. ...


He took the Qadiri path and was initiated in that Sufi order by Sayyid Abu’l Ĥusayn Nûrī of Mārahra (a town in northern India) when he turned 21 years of age. He was a great lover of Muhammad as is evident in his writings and endeavors. He was also a great poet who has to his credit abundant and sublime verse in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. The anthology of his Urdu and Persian verse is presented in a slim volume with two parts and named: ‘Hadayiq e Bakh’shish’ meaning ‘Gardens of Salvation’. Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Arabic ( or just ), is the largest member of the family of Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic, and Aramaic. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ...


His works

Aĥmed Riđā was the author of nearly 1,000 books and monographs of varying lengths, as well as poetry, in Arabic, Persian and Urdu. Amongst the most well-known are the following: Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... (اردو) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Indo-Iranian branch, belonging to Indo-European family of languages. ...

  1. Kanz ul Iman Fi Tarjamatu'l Qu'ran (The Treasure of Faith: A translation of the Koran) - This is his Urdu translation of the Koran. It combines fluency of language with Koranic exegesis and is an explanatory translation, as opposed to a literal one.
  2. Ĥadāyiq e Bakh’shish (Gardens of Salvation) - This is his slim two-volume anthology of Urdu and Persian poetry, eulogizing the Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and give him peace).
  3. Al- Átāyā an-Nabawiyyah fi’l Fatāwā ar-RiĎawiyyah (also known as Fatāwa ar-RiDawiyyah or Fatāwā Razwiyah) - His magnum opus, this is a collection of books, monographs and edicts on all aspects of Hanafī fiqh. The latest edition runs into 24 large volumes.
  4. Al-Dawlatul Makkiyah (The Meccan Treasure) - This is amongst his masterpieces and was written in a few days. It discusses, in great detail, the Prophet's Knowledge of the Unseen ( 'ilm al ghayb), one of the contentious issues between Ahlus Sunnah and their opponents, notably the literalist Wahabi school.

He also made several poems about Muhammad, such as Lam Yati Nadhiruka Fi Nadharin (in Arabic Urdu,Hindi,and in Persian) and Zamin-o-Zaman which can be found in Ĥadāyiq e Bakh’shish. Exegesis (from the Greek to lead out) involves an extensive and critical interpretation of a text, especially of a holy scripture, such as of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, the Talmud, the Midrash, the Quran, etc. ... ANThology is the first major label album by Alien Ant Farm. ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... For other uses, see Allah (disambiguation). ... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Wahhabism (sometimes spelled Wahabbism or Wahabism) is a movement of Islam named after Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). ... For other persons named Muhammad, see Muhammad (name). ... Persian (local name: FārsÄ« or PārsÄ«) is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan and by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Pakistan, India, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ...


British Empire, Khilafat, and Jihad

From the period of the Crimean War to 1878, Britain encouraged a pro-Turkish policy for Muslim India. Aĥmed Riđā's stance followed this line. In one of his famous works, Tahzib Al-Akhlaq, he is on record as praising the reforms in the Ottoman Dominions. Combatants United Kingdom France Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease 256,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War lasted from 1854 until 1 April 1856 and was... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI...


He rejected the spiritual jurisdiction of the Ottoman Khilafah based on the accepted classical Sunni position that the caliph must be from Quraysh, the tribe of the Prophet to which the Ottomans did not belong. He held the view that the real Khilafah had ended with the first four caliphs (Khulafa al-Rashidun) and protested the ban imposed by Sultan Abd Al-Hamid II against discussions on this subject, which was entirely in accordance with Sunni traditional thought. Aĥmed Riđā rejected the jihad against the British occupation of India since in his view, British India was not Dar al Harb (an abode of war), and refused to cooperate with Hindus and other Muslims who used various other means of protest against the British Empire which were against the Shariah in his view. His stance was based on the principal that one must not cooperate with people of innovation in doctrine ahl ul bid'ah and thus disobey the Shariah for political gain. Personally, it appears he did not accept the jurisdiction of the British; an indication of this was his habit of affixing postage stamps with the head of the Queen upside down and his refusal to attend British court hearings. Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Quraish (sura) is also the name of a Surah in the Quran. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak as if he were a formal representative of God. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: الخلفاء الراشدون translit: al-Khulafā’ ar-RāshidÅ«n) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd-ul-Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid, Abd al-Hamid II, or Abdul-Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Jihad, sometimes spelled Jawwad, Jahad, Jehad, Jihaad, Jiaad, Djehad, or Cihad, (Arabic: ‎ ) is an Islamic term, meaning to strive or struggle in the way of God, and is sometimes referred to as the sixth pillar of Islam, although it has no official status. ... British India (otherwise known as The British Raj) was a historical period during which most of the Indian subcontinent, or present-day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar, were under the colonial authority of the British Empire (Undivided India). ... Dar al-Islam (Arabic: دار الإسلام literally house of submission) is a term used to refer to those lands under Muslim government(s). ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... What exactly constitutes an Empire (from the Latin imperium, denoting military command within the ancient Roman government) is a topic of intense debate within the scholarly community. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... Bidah (Arabic: بدعة ) is an Islamic term meaning (improper) innovation of religious beliefs or worship. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ... A queen regnant is a female monarch who possesses all the monarchal powers that a king would have without regard to gender. ...


However, when the Non-Cooperation Movement was launched in 1920 by an alliance of the Khilafat Movement and Gandhi, Aĥmed Riđā remained aloof. He objected to collaboration with Hindus in preference to collaboration with 'People of the Book', the British, based on sound Islamic legal edicts of the past. The Non-Cooperation Movement was the first-ever series of nationwide peoples movements of nonviolent resistance, led by Mahatma Gandhi and the Indian National Congress. ... The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The term People of the Book (Hebrew עם הספר, Am HaSefer) is used in Judaism where it refers specifically to the Jewish people and the Torah. ...


Aĥmed Riđā and his disciples were the main initiators of Movement of Pakistan. Along with other prominent Muslim religious personalities of the period such as Pir Sayyid Jama'at Ali Shah Naqshbandi, his sons Mawlana Hamid Riđā Khan and Grand Mufti (Mufti-e-Aazam) Mustafa Riđā Khan, and student Mawlana Sayyid Naeemuddin Muradabadi, organized Sunni conferences and supported ideas about a separate state of Muslims. A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...


Intellectual Life

Aĥmed Riđā's spiritual and religious involvements seemingly encompassed his life. However, he was also a self-taught scientist in many fields and a mathematician. He acted upon his sincere belief of the Koran and Hadith mentioning that Islam and science are intertwined within each other. He wrote several treatises on several scientific fields. [1]. The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... Hadith ( translit: ) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of Muhammad. ...


Secularism

During the period of the Indian Khilafat Movement, Gandhi was advised that he should meet with Aĥmed Riđā. When he was told that the Gandhi wished to meet and speak to him, Aĥmed Riđā said, "What would he speak about? Religion or worldly affairs? If it is worldly affairs, what can I partake in, for I have abstained from the world and have no interest in it." (Al Mizaan, p. 335) The Khilafat Movement (1919-1924) was a movement amongst the Muslims of British India (the largest single Muslim community in one geo-political entity at the time) to ensure that the British, victors of World War I, kept a promise made at the Versailles. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called...


Hasan Nizami in an article called Kitabi Dunya (p. 2) when referring to the introduction to Dawam al-Aish (p. 18) said about Ahmad Rida Khan: "Most of his novices and followers separated from him for their disagreement with him on the Khilafat Movement."


Ahmad Rida Khan declared that in the time of British Imperialism in India, there was no Jihad against them! This led to his opponents to consider him to be a supporter of the British and some went to the level of accusing him to be funded by the British. Ahmad Rida Khan said in his al-Mahajjat al-Mu'tamana (p. 208): "Jihad is not obligatory for us, the Muslims of India, on the basis of the Qur'an. He who holds that it is obligatory is an opponent to the Muslims and intends to harm them!" He also said in his book: Dawam al-Aish (p. 46): "Jihad and fighting are not binding on the Muslims of India!"


His last will

He made a statement that his followers should strictly abide to his doctrines and ideologies His statements have been collated by a Barelvi by the name of Hasnain Rida in a book entitled: Wasaya Sharif. Rida Khan said to his followers as recorded in the Wasaya (p. 10): "Hold fast to my faith and doctrine which is apparent from my works. Hold fast to it and remain honest to it, for it is the most significant duty among the duties." He also said: "I do not know how long I shall live among you. You are the naive sheep of Mustafa and the wolves have encompassed you from all sides. They want to lead you astray and create schism and dissent among you. They wish to carry you to the hell-fire. So keep away from them, especially the Deobandi's" (Al-Bastawi in his al-Bareilawi, p. 105).


Differences from other groups

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, claimed to be a "prophet" in what he claimed to be an allegorical sense. These claims proved to be extremely controversial among Muslims and he was branded as a heretic and apostate by many religious scholars of the time, including Ahmad Rida. To prove his point, when Ahmad Rida visited Mecca and Madina for pilgrimage in 1905, he prepared a draft document entitled "AlMotamad AlMustanad" (The Reliable Proofs) for presentation to the eminent scholars of Mecca and Madina. Ahmad Rida collected opinions of the Ulama of Hejaz and compiled them in a compendium written in Arabic language with the title, Husam al Harmain(The Sword of two sanctuaries), a work containing the thirty-three Ulamas’ thirty -four verdicts(20 Meccan and 13 Medinese Ulama). The unanimous consensus was that Ghulam Ahmad's beliefs were blasphemous and tantamount to apostasy.[2]. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835; May 26, 1908), a religious figure belonging to India, was the founder of the Ahmadiyya religious movement. ... Qadian is a small town in Gurdaspur, north-east of Amritsar in Punjab, India. ... Look up Heretic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Apostasy (Greek απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is the formal renunciation of ones religion. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the Saudi city of Medina. ...


His students

Prominent Muslim alims from the Indian sub-continent who were amongst the students of Aĥmed Riđā are as follows: A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ...

  1. Muhammad Haamid Raza Khan Noori Barakaati
  2. Mustapha Raza Khan Noori Barakaati
  3. Abdus Salaam Jabalpuri
  4. Na'eemuddeen Muraadabadi
  5. Sayyid Zafar'uddeen Bihaari
  6. Abdul Aleem Siddique
  7. Mufti Amjad Ali
  8. Zia'uddeen Ahmed Al Madani
  9. Burhaanul Haq
  10. Mawlana Mukhtar Ahmad Siddiqi Meerati
  11. Muhammad Abd al-Hayy
  12. Ahmad Khalil
  13. Ahmad Khudravi
  14. Muhammad bin Abi Bakr
  15. Muhammad Sa'id
  16. Mawlana Sayyid Ahmad Ashraf
  17. Mawlana Shah Sulayman Ashraf

References

    • Baraka, A - A Saviour in a Dark World (Article) The Islamic Times, March 2003 Stockport, UK

    Haroon, M The World of Importance of Imam Ahmad Raza Kazi Publications, Lahore 1974


    See also

    Barelwi (Hindi: बरैल्वि, Urdu: بریلوی) Sunnism, the Ahle Sunnah Movement, or just the Sunni movement, is a movement within Sunni Islam that was started by Ahmed Rida Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelwi). ...

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