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Encyclopedia > Agriculture of Iran
Map of Iran's major crops, circa 1978.
Map of Iran's major crops, circa 1978.

Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is arable farmland, of which less than one-fourth—or one-tenth of the total land area—is under cultivation, because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas. Less than one-third of the cultivated area is irrigated; the rest is devoted to dry farming. The western and northwestern portions of the country have the most fertile soils. Image File history File links 604px-Iran_major_crops78. ... Image File history File links 604px-Iran_major_crops78. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ...

At the end of the 20th century, agricultural activities accounted for about one-fifth of Iran's gross domestic product (GDP) and employed a comparable proportion of the workforce. Most farms are small, less than 25 acres (10 hectares), and thus are not economically viable, which has contributed to the wide-scale migration to cities. In addition to water scarcity and areas of poor soil, seed is of low quality and farming techniques are antiquated. The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Mormon apologetics. ... This article is about non-human migration. ... Water is a tasteless, odorless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known as the universal solvent. ... Loess field in Germany Soil horizons are formed by combined biological, chemical and physical alterations. ...

All these factors have contributed to low crop yields and poverty in rural areas. Further, after the 1979 revolution many agricultural workers claimed ownership rights and forcibly occupied large, privately owned farms where they had been employed. The legal disputes that arose from this situation remained unresolved through the 1980s, and many owners put off making large capital investments that would have improved farm productivity, further deteriorating production. Progressive government efforts and incentives during the 1990s, however, improved agricultural productivity marginally, helping Iran toward its goal of reestablishing national self-sufficiency in food production. Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...

The wide range of temperature fluctuation in different parts of the country and the multiplicity of climatic zones make it possible to cultivate a diverse variety of crops, including cereals (wheat, barley, rice, and corn maize), fruits (dates, figs, pomegranates, melons, and grapes), vegetables, cotton, sugar beets and sugarcane, pistachios, nuts, olives, spices (i.e. saffron), tea, tobacco, and medicinal herbs. In thermodynamics, temperature is the physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold —something that is hotter has the greater temperature. ... The seven climes (klima, plural klimata, meaning inclination, referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon) was a notion of dividing the Earth into zones in Classical Antiquity. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Binomial name Hordeum vulgare L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a major food and animal feed crop, a member of the grass family Poaceae. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans[1]. (The term wild rice can refer to wild species... Look up corn in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Zea mays L. Maize (Zea mays ssp. ... The term date can refer to: A day according to a calendar; see calendar date. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus nota Ficus obtusifolia Ficus palmata... Species L. Balf. ... This article is about the fruits called melons. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical regions... Binomial name Pistacia vera L. The Pistachio (Pistacia vera, Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of central Asia such as the Kopet Dag mountains of Turkmenistan. ... NUTS is an acronym, meaning: Neils Unix Talk Server Nuclear Utilization Target Selection -- counterpart to MAD Nuclear Use Theorists (More properly formatted NUTs) Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics New Ulm Trebuchet Society (Minnesota) See also: NUT This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... on tobacco usage see Tobacco smoking Species Nicotiana acuminata Nicotiana alata Nicotiana attenuata Nicotiana benthamiana Nicotiana clevelandii Nicotiana excelsior Nicotiana forgetiana Nicotiana glauca Nicotiana glutinosa Nicotiana langsdorffii Nicotiana longiflora Nicotiana obtusifolia Nicotiana paniculata Nicotiana plumbagifolia Nicotiana quadrivalvis Nicotiana repanda Nicotiana rustica Nicotianasuaveolens Nicotiana sylvestris Nicotiana tabacum Nicotiana tomentosa Ref: ITIS... Medicinal herbs Achillea millefolium Yarrow Allium sativum Garlic Artemisia absinthium L, Wormwood Sweet sagewort Crataegus spp. ...

Iran is one of the largest pistachio producers in the world (38% of the world's output of 501 metric tonnes, as of 2005.) Binomial name Pistacia vera L. The Pistachio (Pistacia vera, Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of central Asia such as the Kopet Dag mountains of Turkmenistan. ...

Iran's forests cover approximately the same amount of land as its agricultural crops—about one-tenth of its total surface area. The largest and most valuable woodland areas are in the Caspian region, where many of the forests are commercially exploitable and include both hardwoods and softwoods. Forest products include plywood, fibreboard, and lumber for the construction and furniture industries. This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Model constructed from plywood. ... Fiberboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. ... Lumber is the name used, generally in North America, for wood that has been cut into boards or other shapes for the purpose of woodworking or construction. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ... A Shaker chair. ...

Fishing is also important, and Iran harvests fish both for domestic consumption and for export, marketing their products fresh, salted, smoked, or canned. Sturgeon (yielding its roe for caviar), bream, whitefish, salmon, mullet, carp, catfish, perch, and roach are caught in the Caspian Sea, Iran's most important fishery. More than 200 species of fish are found in the Persian Gulf, 150 of which are edible, including shrimps and prawns. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish. ... A can of black Iranian caviar Russian salmon caviar on butterbrot Caviar is the processed, salted roe of various species of fish, most notably sturgeon. ... Bream is a general term for a number of species of freshwater and marine fish, mainly, but not exhaustively, drawn from the genera Abramis, Acanthopagrus, Argyrops, Blicca, Brama, Etelis, Gymnocranius, Lethrinus, Nemipterus, Rhabdosargus and Scolopsis. ... Whitefish (or white fish) has several meanings: It is a fisheries term referring to the flesh of many types of fish; see Whitefish (fisheries term) It refers precisely to the whitefishes of the salmonid genus Coregonus It can refer specifically to the common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) It was formerly used... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Mullet may refer to: Mullet, a kind of fish Mullet, a haircut that is short on top, and long at the back; it is also a derogatory slang term for a kind of person Mullet, a term used in heraldry Mullet, the title of a 2001 Australian film directed by... Genera Abramis Aristichthys Barbodes Carassius Cirrhinus Ctenopharyngodon Cyprinus Epalzeorhynchos Henicorhynchus Hypophthalmichthys Labeo Mylopharyngodon and others A carp is any of various freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae. ... Families Akysidae Amblycipitidae Amphiliidae Ariidae Aspredinidae Astroblepidae Auchenipteridae Bagridae Callichthyidae Cetopsidae Chacidae Clariidae Claroteidae Cranoglanididae Diplomystidae Doradidae Erethistidae Hypophthalmidae Ictaluridae Lacantuniidae Loricariidae Malapteruridae Mochokidae Nematogenyidae Pangasiidae Parakysidae Pimelodidae Plotosidae Schilbeidae Scoloplacidae Siluridae Sisoridae Trichomycteridae Catfish (order Siluriformes) are a diverse group of fish. ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) Perca is the genus of fish referred to as perch or yellow perch, a group of freshwater fish belonging to the family Percidae. ... Binomial name Rutilus rutilus Linnaeus, 1758 The Roach (Rutilus rutilus, family Cyprinidae, plural also roach) is a small freshwater and brackish water fish native to most of Europe and western Asia. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest lake on Earth by both area and volume,[1] with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometres (143,244 mi²) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometres (18,761 mi³).[2] It is a landlocked endorheic body of water and lies between... It has been suggested that Persian Gulf States be merged into this article or section. ... Suborders Not necessary complete list: Aristeidae Penaeidae Sergestidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Nematocarcinidae Atyidae Pasiphaeoidae Rhynocinetidae Campylonotidae Palaemonidae Alpheidae Ogyrididae Hippolytidae Proussidae Pandalidae Crangonidae True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans usually classified in the suborder Natantia, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Suborders Not necessary complete list: Aristeidae Penaeidae Sergestidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Nematocarcinidae Atyidae Pasiphaeoidae Rhynocinetidae Campylonotidae Palaemonidae Alpheidae Ogyrididae Hippolytidae Proussidae Pandalidae Crangonidae True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans usually classified in the suborder Natantia, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ...

Of the country's livestock, sheep are by far the most numerous, followed by goats, cattle, asses, horses, water buffalo, and mules. The raising of poultry for eggs and meat is prevalent, and camels are still raised and bred for use in transport. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For the animal, see goat. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, kine or kyne in pre-modern English, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Ass has several meaninings: Áss - One of the Aesir Asshole - a slang term Anus - an intimate part of the body Buffoon - a fool, idiot, clown Buttocks - an area of the body Donkey - an animal of the horse family Rectum - yet another part of the body Asses is also the plural... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bubalus bubalis (Kerr, 1792) The Water Buffalo is a very large ungulate and a member of the bovine subfamily. ... In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ...



Agriculture has a long history and tradition in Iran. As early as 10,000 BCE, the earliest known domestication of the goat had taken place in the Iranian plateau. [1] By 5000BCE, wine was being fermented in Iran [2] , and by 1700 BCE, the windmill had been invented in Persia for the first time in history. [3] [4] Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Spanish Windmills at La Mancha A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...

Fruits such as the peach first found their way into Europe from Persia, as indicated by their Latin name, persica, from which (by way of the French) we have the English word "peach." [5] As did Tulips, which were also first cultivated in ancient Persia [6] [7] and spinach, the word Spinach itself derived from the Persian word اسفناج Esfenaj. The Chinese referred to it in 647CE as 'the herb of Persia'. In 400BCE, a form of ice cream was in use in Persia [8] [9], and the the ancestor of the cookie is said to have come from Persia (from the Persian koolucheh) in the 7th century according to many sources. [10] [11] Binomial name Prunus persica (L.) Batsch A peach dessert The Peach (Prunus persica) is a tree native to China that bears a juicy fruit of the same name. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article is about the Tulip bulb plant. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... A chocolate chip cookie In the United States and Canada, a cookie (sometimes spelled cooky) is a small, flat baked cake. ...

Fifth century BCE Persia was even the source for introduction of the domesticated chicken into Europe. The mid fifth century BCE poet Cratinus (according to the later Greek author "Athenaeus") for example calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds (414 BC) a chicken is called "the Median bird", which points to its introduction from Persis. Trinomial name Gallus gallus domesticus A chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated bird which is often raised as a type of poultry. ...

The Qanat, a subterranean aqueduct used for irrigation in agriculture, was one of the most significant and successful achievements of the Persian tradition. Qanats were in use millenia ago, and are still in use in contemporary Iran. Some 3,000 years ago the Persians learned how to dig underground aqueducts that would bring mountain ground water to the plains. ...

Agriculture in Iran's economy

Ministry of Agricultural Jihad, Tehran.
Ministry of Agricultural Jihad, Tehran.

Overall, Iran's soil is not well suited for large scale agriculture. About 11 percent of the country's total land area of 163.6 million hectares is cultivated. Still, 63% of the cultivable lands have not been used, and 18.5 million hectares of the present farms are being used with 50 to 60% capacity. Image File history File linksMetadata 180px-Keshavarz. ... Image File history File linksMetadata 180px-Keshavarz. ... Tehran (IPA: ; Persian: تهران, also transliterated as Teheran or Tehrān), population 7,160,094 (metropolitan: 14,000,000[citation needed]), and a land area of 658 square kilometers, is the capital city of Iran and the center of Tehran Province. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ...

After nearly achieving agricultural self-sufficiency in the 1960s, Iran reached the point in 1979 where 65 percent of its food had to be imported. Declining productivity was blamed on the use of modern fertilizers, which had inadvertently scorched the thin Iranian soil. Unresolved land reform issues, a lack of economic incentives to raise surplus crops, and low profit ratios combined to drive increasingly large segments of the farm population into urban areas. This page refers to the year 1979. ...

The 1979 Revolution sought self-sufficiency in foodstuffs as part of its overall goal of decreased economic dependence on the West. Higher government subsidies for grain and other staples and expanded short- term credit and tax exemptions for farmers complying with government quotas were intended by the new regime to promote self-sufficiency. But by early 1987, Iran was actually more dependent on agricultural imports than in the 1970s. This page refers to the year 1979. ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

By 1997, the gross value of products in Iran's agricultural sector had reached $25 billion. By 2003, a quarter of Iran's non-oil exports were agricultural based. Today, according to a senior Agriculture Jihad Ministry official said here on Friday that Iran has attained 94 percent self-sufficiency in essential agricultural products. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Mechanized agricultural has had a slow but steady growth in Iran. Industrial facilities in Tabriz and Arak are Iran's largest producers of machinery and equipment for the agricultural sector (i.e. tractors and combine harvesters). Tabriz City Hall, built in 1934, by Arfaol molk, with the aid of German engineers. ... Arak may refer to: Arak, a city in centeral Iran Arak, an alcoholic beverage made from grapes and anise This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... A postage stamp of a combine honors Russian agriculture. ...

In 2000, the Construction Jihad Organization and the Ministry of Agriculture were merged by national legislation, to form the new Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. This article is about the year 2000. ...

While the Iranian Government policy is aimed at self-sufficiency, it’s unlikely the country will produce enough agricultural products in the short- to medium-term to meet that goal. Iran has struggled to provide enough basic food commodities to its local market demands, following a significant population increase over the past two decades. For example, annual wheat production ranges between six and 10 million tonnes, yet the government currently imports between three and four million tonnes to meet demand. Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...

The focus areas for agriculture are:

  • Financing and low-interest loans for investment in agriculture and agro-industrial projects.
  • Ensuring self-sufficiency in the provision of national food requirements.
  • Budgets for agro-industrial projects in the food processing, packaging and irrigation sectors.
  • Provision of agricultural machinery and equipment with emphasis on local production by making transfer of technology a required clause in foreign contracts.
  • Allocation of government loans and financing for agro-industrial projects.

In the livestock sector, Iran has a large poultry and dairy industry and imports close to two million tonnes of feed grain annually as of 2006. Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara ( ) Irrigation is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops or plants. ... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ... Ducks amongst other poultry The Poultry-dealer, after Cesare Vecellio. ... Dairy farm near Oxford, New York A dairy is a facility for the extraction and processing of animal milk (mostly from cows, sometimes from buffalo, sheep or goats) and other farm animals, for human consumption. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


  1. ^ http://web.utk.edu/~persian/goat.htm
  2. ^ http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/NearEast/wine.shtml
  3. ^ http://www.catpress.com/bplanet9/eeolica.htm
  4. ^ http://web.utk.edu/~persian/windmill.htm
  5. ^ http://www.birdnature.com/nov1899/peach.html
  6. ^ http://www.flowermonthclub.com/newsletters/vol3no4.htm
  7. ^ http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/articles/tulips2.html
  8. ^ http://www.krysstal.com/inventions_06.html
  9. ^ http://www.mmdtkw.org/VAncientInventions.html
  10. ^ http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/CookieHistory.htm
  11. ^ http://www.kitchenproject.com/history/cookies.htm

See also

Geography of Iran
Economy of Iran

This article or section needs to be updated. ... Irans economy is a mixture of central planning, state ownership of oil and other large enterprises, village agriculture, and small-scale private trading and service ventures. ...

External Links

  • Iran Ministry of Agricultural Jihad
  • Department of Land Cultivation and Management
  • Iran's Agricultural Research and Education Organization
  • Iran Forest Service
  • Soil Science Society of Iran
  • Iran Soil Conservation Research Institute
  • Iran National Salinity Research Center
  • Iran Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation Center
  • Iran Pistachi Research Institute
  • Plant Pathology Research Institute of Iran
  • Industry Profile for the Agriculture of Iran

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