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Encyclopedia > Agriculture in Iran
Map of Iran's major crops, circa 1978.

Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation. Only 12% of the total land area is under cultivation (arable land, orchards and vineyards) but less than one-third of the cultivated area is irrigated; the rest is devoted to dry farming. The western and northwestern portions of the country have the most fertile soils. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Irrigating cotton fields Irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ...

One third of the total land area (35%) is used for grazing and small fodder production. Most of the grazing is done on mostly semi-dry rangeland in mountain areas and on areas surrounding the large deserts ("Dasht's") of Central Iran.

The non-agricultural surface represents 53% of the total area of Iran, as follows: - Abb. 35% of the country is covered by deserts, salt flats ("kavirs") and bare-rock mountains, not suited for agricultural purposes. - An additional 11% of Iran's total surface is covered by woodlands. - And 7% is covered by cities, towns, villages, industrial areas and roads.

At the end of the 20th century, agricultural activities accounted for about one-fifth of Iran's gross domestic product (GDP) and employed a comparable proportion of the workforce. Most farms are small, less than 25 acres (10 hectares), and thus are not economically viable, which has contributed to the wide-scale migration to cities. In addition to water scarcity and areas of poor soil, seed is of low quality and farming techniques are antiquated. The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... The Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies (FARMS) is an informal collaboration of academics devoted to Mormon apologetics. ... Rural-urban migration is the migration of people from rural areas into cities. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Technically, soil forms the pedosphere: the interface between the lithosphere (rocky part of the planet) and the biosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere. ...

All these factors have contributed to low crop yields and poverty in rural areas. Further, after the 1979 revolution many agricultural workers claimed ownership rights and forcibly occupied large, privately owned farms where they had been employed. The legal disputes that arose from this situation remained unresolved through the 1980s, and many owners put off making large capital investments that would have improved farmproductivity, further deteriorating production. Progressive government efforts and incentives during the 1990s, however, improved agricultural productivity marginally, helping Iran toward its goal of reestablishing national self-sufficiency in food production. Yield may mean: In economics, yield is a measure of the amount of income an investment generates over time (related to return on investment). ...



The wide range of temperature fluctuation in different parts of the country and the multiplicity of climatic zones make it possible to cultivate a diverse variety of crops, including cereals (wheat, barley, rice, and maize (corn)), fruits (dates, figs, pomegranates,melons, and grapes), vegetables, cotton, sugar beets and sugarcane, pistachios (38% of the world's output in 2005), nuts, olives, spices (i.e. saffron), tea, tobacco, and medicinal herbs[1]. More than 2,000 plant species are grown in Iran; only 100 of which are being used in pharmaceutical industries. The land covered by Iran’s natural flora is four times that of the Europe’s. [2] For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... The seven climes (klima, plural klimata, meaning inclination, referring to the angle between the axis of the celestial sphere and the horizon) was a notion of dividing the Earth into zones in Classical Antiquity. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... The term date can refer to: A day according to a calendar; see calendar date. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis - Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina - Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica - Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus microcarpa - Chinese Banyan Ficus nota Ficus obtusifolia Ficus palmata... Species L. Balf. ... This article is about the fruits called melons. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Binomial name L. The pistachio (Pistacia vera L., Anacardiaceae; sometimes placed in Pistaciaceae) is a small tree up to 10 m tall, native to mountainous regions of Iran, Turkmenistan and western Afghanistan. ... Look up nuts in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... External links Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Spice Food Bacteria-Spice Survey Shows Why Some Cultures Like It Hot Citat: ...Garlic, onion, allspice and oregano, for example, were found to be the best all-around bacteria killers (they kill everything). ... Binomial name Crocus sativus L. Saffron (IPA: ) is a spice derived from the flower of the saffron crocus (Crocus sativus), a species of crocus in the family Iridaceae. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Medicinal herbs Achillea millefolium Yarrow Allium sativum Garlic Artemisia absinthium L, Wormwood Sweet sagewort Crataegus spp. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Simplified schematic of an islands flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes. ...


Iran's forests cover approximately the same amount of land as its agricultural crops—about one-ninth of its total surface area. The largest and most valuable woodland areas are in the Caspian region and the northern slopes of the Elburz Mts., where many of the forests are commercially exploitable and include both hardwoods and softwoods. Forest products include plywood, fiberboard, and lumber for the construction and furniture industries. The cutting of trees is rigidly controlled by the government, which also has a reforestation program. This article is about forests as a massing of trees. ... For Caspian Sea, go to: Caspian Sea CASPIAN Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering (CASPIAN) is a national grass-roots consumer group dedicated to fighting supermarket loyalty or frequent shopper cards. ... Toy constructed from plywood. ... Fiberboard is a type of engineered wood product that is made out of wood fibers. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Lumber or Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... Biodiversity on a 15-year-old reforested plot of land. ...


Fishing is also important, and Iran harvests fish both for domestic consumption and for export, marketing their products fresh, salted, smoked, or canned. Sturgeon (yielding its roe for caviar), bream, whitefish, salmon, mullet, carp, catfish, perch, and roach are caught in the Caspian Sea, Iran's most important fishery. More than 200 species of fish are found in the Persian Gulf, 150 of which are edible, including shrimps and prawns. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering. ... For the band of the same name, see Caviar (band). ... Bream caught in the Volga River near Kashin, Russia. ... Whitefish (or white fish) has several meanings: It is a fisheries term referring to the flesh of many types of fish; see Whitefish (fisheries term) It refers precisely to the whitefishes of the salmonid genus Coregonus It can refer specifically to the common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) It was formerly used... Illustration of a male Coho Salmon The Chinook or King Salmon is the largest salmon in North America and can grow to 1. ... Mullet may refer to: Two families of fish: The grey mullets of the family Mugilidae, of which the most widely known species is the striped mullet, Mugil cephalus. ... For other uses, see Carp (disambiguation). ... This article is about the siluriform catfishes; for the Atlantic catfish, see Seawolf (fish); for other uses, see Catfish (disambiguation). ... Species P. flavescens (Yellow perch) P. fluviatilis (European perch) P. schrenkii (Balkhash perch) For other meanings of the word perch, including fish not in the Perca genus, see Perch (disambiguation). ... Roach can refer to: Cockroach, an insect. ... The Caspian Sea (Russian: Каспийское море; Kazakh: Каспий теңізі; Turkmen: Hazar deňizi; Azeri: XÉ™zÉ™r dÉ™nizi; Persian: دریای خزر Daryā-ye Khazar) is the largest lake on Earth by area[2], with a surface area of 371,000 square kilometers (143,244 sq mi) and a volume of 78,200 cubic kilometers (18... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Suborders Not necessary complete list: Aristeidae Penaeidae Sergestidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Nematocarcinidae Atyidae Pasiphaeoidae Rhynocinetidae Campylonotidae Palaemonidae Alpheidae Ogyrididae Hippolytidae Proussidae Pandalidae Crangonidae True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans usually classified in the suborder Natantia, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... Suborders Not necessary complete list: Aristeidae Penaeidae Sergestidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Nematocarcinidae Atyidae Pasiphaeoidae Rhynocinetidae Campylonotidae Palaemonidae Alpheidae Ogyrididae Hippolytidae Proussidae Pandalidae Crangonidae True shrimp are small, swimming, decapod crustaceans usually classified in the suborder Natantia, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ...


Of the country's livestock, sheep are by far the most numerous, followed by goats, cattle, donkeys, horses, water buffalo, and mules. The raising of poultry for eggs and meat is prevalent, and camels are still raised and bred for use in transport. Iran has also a large dairy industry and imported close to two million tonnes of feed grain annually in 2006. The raising of swine is forbidden in Iran due to Islamic law. [3] Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Species See text. ... For the animal, see goat. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ... For the controversy at the University of Pennsylvania, see Water buffalo incident. ... In its common modern meaning, a mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... A dairy farm near Oxford, New York in the United States. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ... Binomial name Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms The domestic pig is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, though some authors call it , reserving for the wild boar. ... Sharia (Arabic شريعة also Sharia, Shariah or Syariah) is traditional Islamic law. ...


Agriculture has a long history and tradition in Iran. As early as 10,000 BCE, the earliest known domestication of the goat had taken place in the Iranian plateau. [4] By 5000BCE, wine was being fermented in Iran [5] , and by 1700 BCE, the windmill had been invented in Persia for the first time in history. [6] [7] Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... A Dutch tower windmill, sporting sails, surrounded by tulips A windmill is an engine powered by the wind to produce energy, often contained in a large building as in traditional post mills, smock mills and tower mills. ...

Fruits such as the peach first found their way into Europe from Persia, as indicated by their Latin name, persica, from which (by way of the French) we have the English word "peach." [8] As did Tulips, which were also first cultivated in ancient Persia [9] [10] and spinach, the word Spinach itself derived from the Persian word اسفناج Esfenaj. The Chinese referred to it in 647CE as 'the herb of Persia'. In 400BCE, a form of ice cream was in use in Persia [11] [12], and the ancestor of the cookie is said to have come from Persia (from the Persian koolucheh) in the 7th century according to many sources. [13] [14] Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... This article is about the Tulip bulb plant. ... Binomial name Spinacia oleracea L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Missing image Ice cream is often served on a stick Boxes of ice cream are often found in stores in a display freezer. ... This article is about the food. ...

Fifth century BCE Persia was even the source for introduction of the domesticated chicken into Europe. The mid fifth century BCE poet Cratinus (according to the later Greek author "Athenaeus") for example calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds (414 BC) a chicken is called "the Median bird", which points to its introduction from Persis. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The Qanat, a subterranean aqueduct used for irrigation in agriculture, was one of the most significant and successful achievements of the Persian tradition. Qanats were in use millennia ago, and are still in use in contemporary Iran. A qanat (from Persian: ‎) or kareez (from Persian: ‎) is a water management system used to provide a reliable supply of water to human settlements or for irrigation in hot, arid and semi-arid climates. ...

Agriculture in Iran's economy

Keshavarzi Building, Tehran.

Iran’s agricultural sector contributed 11 percent of the GDP in 2004 and employed a third of the labor force. Since 1979 commercial farming has replaced subsistence farming as the dominant mode of agricultural production. Some northern and western areas support rain-fed agriculture, while other areas require irrigation for successful crop production. Wheat, rice, and barley are the country’s major crops. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 158 KB) Licensing This photo was taken by Fereshteh Jafari If used outside Wikipedia, please credit: Photo by Fereshteh Jafari Summary Keshavarzi Building, Keshavarz Blvd. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (600x800, 158 KB) Licensing This photo was taken by Fereshteh Jafari If used outside Wikipedia, please credit: Photo by Fereshteh Jafari Summary Keshavarzi Building, Keshavarz Blvd. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 For the indie rock group see: Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an annual cereal grain, which serves as a major animal feed crop, with smaller amounts used for malting and in health food. ...

Overall, Iran's soil is not well suited for large scale agriculture. About 11 percent of the country's total land area of 163.6 million hectares is cultivated. Still, 63% of the cultivable lands have not been used, and 18.5 million hectares of the present farms are being used with 50 to 60% capacity. A hectare (symbol ha) is a metric unit of surface area, equal to 100 ares (the name is a contraction of the SI prefix hecto + are). ...

After nearly achieving agricultural self-sufficiency in the 1960s, Iran reached the point in 1979 where 65 percent of its food had to be imported. Declining productivity was blamed on the use of modern fertilizers, which had inadvertently scorched the thin Iranian soil. Unresolved land reform issues, a lack of economic incentives to raise surplus crops, and low profit ratios combined to drive increasingly large segments of the farm population into urban areas. Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... -1...

The 1979 Revolution sought self-sufficiency in foodstuffs as part of its overall goal of decreased economic dependence on the West. Higher government subsidies for grain and other staples and expanded short- term credit and tax exemptions for farmers complying with government quotas were intended by the new regime to promote self-sufficiency. But by early 1987, Iran was actually more dependent on agricultural imports than in the 1970s. After Islamic Conquest  Modern SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza...

By 1997, the gross value of products in Iran's agricultural sector had reached $25 billion. In 2000, the Construction Jihad Organization and the Ministry of Agriculture were merged by national legislation, to form the new Ministry of Agricultural Jihad. By 2003, a quarter of Iran's non-oil exports were agricultural based. Today, according to a senior Agriculture Jihad Ministry official said that Iran has attained 94 percent self-sufficiency in essential agricultural products.

Mechanized agricultural has had a slow but steady growth in Iran. Industrial facilities in Tabriz and Arak are Iran's largest producers of machinery and equipment for the agricultural sector. 12,000 combine harvesters and 300,000 tractors are currently used in the sector (2007).[15] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Arak, (in Persian: اراک) previously known as Soltan-abad, is the center of Markazi province, Iran. ... A machine is any mechanical or electrical device that transmits or modifies energy to perform or assist in the performance of tasks. ... Iran Combine Manufacturing Company is an Iranian combine harvester manufacturer. ...

While the Iranian Government policy is aimed at self-sufficiency for even more products, it’s unlikely the country will produce enough agricultural products in the short- to medium-term to meet that goal. Iran has struggled to provide enough basic food commodities to its local market demands, following a significant population increase over the past two decades. For example, annual wheat production ranges between six and 10 million tonnes, yet the government currently imports between three and four million tonnes to meet demand (partly due to consumer waste, given government subsidies for wheat and other basic commodities). Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. ...

The focus areas for agriculture are:

  • Financing and low-interest loans for investment in agriculture and agro-industrial projects.
  • Ensuring self-sufficiency in the provision of national food requirements.
  • Budgets for agro-industrial projects in the food processing, packaging and irrigation sectors.
  • Provision of agricultural machinery and equipment with emphasis on local production by making transfer of technology a required clause in foreign contracts.
  • Allocation of government loans and financing for agro-industrial projects.

Packaging is the enclosing of a physical object, typically a product that will be offered for sale. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Finance addresses the ways in which individuals, business entities and other organizations allocate and use monetary resources over time. ...


  1. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1385/2761/html/panorama.htm#s203427
  2. ^ http://www.mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=442498
  3. ^ Agriculture Canada: Agri-Food Country Profile Statistical Overview - Iran
  4. ^ http://web.utk.edu/~persian/goat.htm
  5. ^ http://www.museum.upenn.edu/new/research/Exp_Rese_Disc/NearEast/wine.shtml
  6. ^ http://www.catpress.com/bplanet9/eeolica.htm
  7. ^ http://web.utk.edu/~persian/windmill.htm
  8. ^ http://www.birdnature.com/nov1899/peach.html
  9. ^ http://www.flowermonthclub.com/newsletters/vol3no4.htm
  10. ^ http://pss.uvm.edu/ppp/articles/tulips2.html
  11. ^ http://www.krysstal.com/inventions_06.html
  12. ^ http://www.mmdtkw.org/VAncientInventions.html
  13. ^ http://whatscookingamerica.net/History/CookieHistory.htm
  14. ^ http://www.kitchenproject.com/history/cookies.htm
  15. ^ http://iran-daily.com/1386/2876/html/economy.htm

See also

Geography of Iran
Mining in Iran
Economy of Iran
Environmental issues in Iran
List of reservoirs and dams in Iran
Foreign Direct Investment in Iran

Fars Province landscape The Iranian landscape is predominantly mountainous, with high contrasting green oases. ... Iran’s mining industry is under-developed. ... The economy of Iran has been improving steadily over the past two decades but a continuing strong labour force growth unmatched by commensurate real economic growth is driving up unemployment to a level considerably higher than the official estimate of 11%. According to experts, annual economic growth above five per... Environmental issue in Iran Especially in urban areas, vehicle emissions, refinery operations, and industrial effluents contribute to poor air quality. ... The massive Karun-3 dam, was inaugurated recently as part of a drive to boost Irans growing energy demands The major reservoirs and dams in Iran are: Karun-3 dam Jiroft Dam Amir Kabir Dam Dez Dam Nader Shah Dam Categories: | | ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

External links

  • Iran Ministry of Agricultural Jihad
  • Department of Land Cultivation and Management
  • Iran's Agricultural Research and Education Organization
  • Iran Forest Service
  • Soil Science Society of Iran
  • Biotechnology Study Center, Tehran
  • Iran Soil Conservation Research Institute
  • Iran National Salinity Research Center
  • Iran Agricultural Scientific Information and Documentation Center
  • Iran Pistachi Research Institute
  • Plant Pathology Research Institute of Iran
  • Industry Profile for the Agriculture of Iran
  • Iran's Fisheries
  • Agriculture in Iran - Encyclopedia Iranica, Columbia University (New York City)

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