FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Agriculture" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Agriculture
Agriculture
General
Agribusiness · Agriculture

Agricultural science · Agronomy
Animal husbandry
Extensive farming
Factory farming · Free range
Industrial agriculture
Intensive farming
Organic farming · Permaculture
Sustainable agriculture
Urban agriculture
In agriculture, agribusiness is a generic term that refers to the various businesses involved in the food production chain, including farming, seed, agrichemicals, farm machinery, wholesaling, processing, distribution, and retail sales. ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The small pig farm in Swiss mountains. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... Free range is a method of farming husbandry where the animals are permitted to roam freely instead of being contained in small sheds. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ...

History
History of agriculture

Neolithic Revolution
Muslim Agricultural Revolution
British Agricultural Revolution
Green Revolution
This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ...

Particular
Aquaculture · Christmas trees · Dairy farming

Grazing · Hydroponics · IMTA
Intensive pig farming · Lumber
Maize · Orchard
Poultry farming · Ranching · Rice
Sheep husbandry · Soybean
System of Rice Intensification
Wheat
Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... A Christmas tree farmer in the U.S. state of Florida explains the pruning and shearing process of cultivation to a government employee. ... Dairy farm redirects here. ... Grazing To feed on growing herbage, attached algae, or phytoplankton. ... Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Harvesting of kelp (Saccharina latissima, previously known as Laminaria saccharina) cultivated in proximity to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at Charlie Cove, Bay of Fundy, Canada. ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill roni Lumber or timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use — from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use — as structural material for... This article is about the maize plant. ... A community apple orchard originally planted for productive use during the 1920s, in Westcliff on Sea (Essex, England) An orchard is an intentional planting of trees or shrubs maintained for food production. ... Poultry farming is the practice of raising poultry, such as chickens, turkeys, ducks geese, as a subcategory of animal husbandry, for the purpose of farming meat or eggs for food. ... This article is about a type of land use and method of raising livestock. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Australian Sheep Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of domestic sheep, and a subcategory of animal husbandry. ... Soy redirects here. ... The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is a method of increasing the yield of rice produced in farming. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...

Categories
Agriculture by country

Agriculture companies
Agriculture companies, U.S.
Biotechnology
Farming history
Livestock
Meat processing
Poultry farming

Agropedia portal

Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants, animals and other life forms. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. Image File history File links Portal. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. ...


Agriculture encompasses many subjects, including aquaculture, agronomy, animal husbandry, and horticulture. Each of these subjects can be further partitioned: for example, agronomy includes both sustainable agriculture and intensive farming, and animal husbandry includes ranching, herding, and intensive pig farming. Agricultural products include food (vegetables, fruits, and cereals), fibers (cotton, wool, hemp, silk and flax), fuels (methane from biomass, ethanol, biodiesel), cut flowers, ornamental and nursery plants, tropical fish and birds for the pet trade, both legal and illegal drugs (biopharmaceuticals, tobacco, marijuana, opium, cocaine), and other useful materials such as resins. Recently, crops have been designed to produce plastic[1] as well as pharmaceuticals.[2] Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... Agronomy is the science of utilizing plants for food, fuel, feed, and fiber. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... Intensive farming or intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the high inputs of capital or labour relative to land area. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... A man herding goats in Tunisia Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group, maintaining the group and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those. ... Intensively farmed pigs in batch pens Intensive piggeries (or hog lots) are a type of factory farm specialized for the raising of domestic pigs up to slaughter weight. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Grain redirects here. ... Fiber or fibre[1] is a class o f materials that are continuous filaments or are in discrete elongated pieces, similar to lengths of thread. ... For other uses, see Cotton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A nursery is a place where plants are propagated, usually for sale as a business, though some gardeners and farmers keep private nurseries. ... Biopharmaceuticals are medical drugs (see pharmacology) produced by biotechnology. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Cannabis, also known as marijuana[1] or ganja (Hindi: गांजा),[2] is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa. ... This article is about the drug. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...


The history of agriculture is a central element of human history, as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socio-economic change. Wealth-building and militaristic specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures are commonplace in agricultural and agro-industrial societies—when farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families, others in the tribe/village/City-state/nation/empire were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition. Jared Diamond, among others, has argued that the development of civilization required agriculture. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the history of Earth which includes the time before human existence, see History of Earth. ... Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Militarism is an ideology which claims that military strength is the source of all security, and that the military represents the forward direction of the society as a whole, as it expands into the world, asserting its influence. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... http://www. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political and historical term. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ...


In 2007, an estimated 35 percent of the world's workers were employed in agriculture (from 42% in 1996). However, the relative significance of farming has dropped steadily since the beginning of industrialization, and in 2003 – for the first time in history – the services sector overtook agriculture as the economic sector employing the most people worldwide.[3] Despite the fact that agriculture employs over one-third of the world's population, agricultural production accounts for less than five percent of the gross world product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products).[4] Industrialisation (or industrialization) or an industrial revolution (in general, with lowercase letters) is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state . ... This article is about a term used in economics. ... An economy is a set of human and social activities and institutions related to the production, distribution, exchange and consumption of goods and services. ... Gross world product is the total Gross National Product of all the countries in the world. ... GDP redirects here. ...

Contents

Overview

The amount of workforce dedicated to agriculture tends to decrease

Agriculture has played a key role in the development of human civilization—it is widely believed that the domestication of plants and animals allowed humans to settle and give up their previous hunter-gatherer lifestyle during the Neolithic Revolution. Until the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority of the human population labored in agriculture. Development of agricultural techniques has steadily increased agricultural productivity, and the widespread diffusion of these techniques during a time period is often called an agricultural revolution. A remarkable shift in agricultural practices has occurred over the past century in response to new technologies. In particular, the Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate made the traditional practice of recycling nutrients with crop rotation and animal manure less necessary. Synthetic nitrogen, along with mined rock phosphate, pesticides and mechanization, have greatly increased crop yields in the early 20th century. Increased supply of grains has led to cheaper livestock as well. Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. The Green Revolution exported the technologies (including pesticides and synthetic nitrogen) of the developed world out to the developing world. Thomas Malthus famously predicted that the Earth would not be able to support its growing population, but technologies such as the Green Revolution have allowed the world to produce a surplus of food.[5] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Central New York City. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... In the Earths history there have been a number of agricultural revolutions. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery in order to massivly increase output. ... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is not only a measure of the yield of cereal per unit area of land under cultivation, it is also the seed generation of the plant itself, i. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Thomas Robert Malthus FRS (13 February 1766 – 23 December 1834),[1] was a political economist and British demographer. ...

Agricultural output in 2005

Many governments have subsidized agriculture to ensure an adequate food supply. These agricultural subsidies are often linked to the production of certain commodities such as wheat, corn, rice, soybeans, and milk. These subsidies, especially when done by developed countries have been noted as protectionist, inefficient, and environmentally damaging.[6] In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding, mechanization, water contamination, and farm subsidies. Proponents of organic farming such as Sir Albert Howard argued in the early 1900s that the overuse of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers damages the long-term fertility of the soil. While this feeling lay dormant for decades, as environmental awareness has increased recently there has been a movement towards sustainable agriculture by some farmers, consumers, and policymakers. In recent years there has been a backlash against perceived external environmental effects of mainstream agriculture, particularly regarding water pollution[7], resulting in the organic movement. One of the major forces behind this movement has been the European Union, which first certified organic food in 1991 and began reform of its Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2005 to phase out commodity-linked farm subsidies[8], also known as decoupling. The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management and selective breeding. Recent mainstream technological developments include genetically modified food. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of agricultural output in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - $267,000,000,000). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixels Full resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of agricultural output in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - $267,000,000,000). ... An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the market price of commodities. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Soy redirects here. ... A glass of cows milk. ... World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery in order to massivly increase output. ... Water pollution has many sources and characteristics. ... An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the market price of commodities. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Sir Albert Howard (1873-1947) was a British botanist, an organic farming pioneer, and a principal figure in the early organic movement. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... It has been suggested that Small-scale agriculture be merged into this article or section. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... Organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and organic farming, and a general opposition to agribusiness. ... Organic vegetables at a farmers market in Argentina. ... The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programmes. ... In physics, decoupling is the general phenomenon in which the interactions between some physical objects (such as elementary particles) disappear. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Kenyans examining insect-resistant transgenic Bt corn. ...


As of late 2007, several factors have pushed up the price of grain used to feed poultry and dairy cows and other cattle, causing higher prices of wheat (up 58%), soybean (up 32%), and maize (up 11%) over the year.[9][10] Food riots have recently taken place in many countries across the world.[11][12][13] An epidemic of stem rust on wheat caused by race UG99 is currently spreading across Africa and into Asia and is causing major concern.[14][15][16] Approximately 40% of the world's agricultural land is seriously degraded.[17] In Africa, if current trends of soil degradation continue, the continent might be able to feed just 25% of its population by 2025, according to UNU's Ghana-based Institute for Natural Resources in Africa.[18] Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Binomial name Pers. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ...


Practices

Agricultural practices lie on a spectrum dependent upon the intensity and technology of the methods. At the one end lies the subsistence farmer who farms a small area with limited inputs and produces only enough food to meet the needs of his or her family. At the other end lies intensive agriculture which includes traditional labor intensive farming (e.g. South-East Asia rice paddies), and modern agriculture which includes industrial agriculture, organic farming and sustainable farming. Industrial agriculture involves large fields and/or numbers of animals, high resource inputs (pesticides, fertilizers, etc.), and a high level of mechanization. These operations achieve economies of scale and require large amounts of capital in the form of land and machinery. Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the significant use of inputs, and seeking to maximize the production. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. ... Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery in order to massivly increase output. ... The increase in output from Q to Q2 causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit from C to C1. ...


The twentieth century saw changes in agricultural practice, particularly in agricultural chemistry and in mechanization. Agricultural chemistry includes the application of chemical fertilizer, chemical insecticides (see pest control), and chemical fungicides, analysis of soil makeup and nutritional needs of farm animals. Agricultural chemistry is the science of the causes and effects of biochemical reactions related to plant and animal growth. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is... Fungicides are pesticides for destruction or development prevention of fungi. ...


Mechanization has increased farm efficiency and productivity in most regions of the world, due especially to the tractor and various "gins" (short for "engine") such as the cotton gin, semi-automatic balers and threshers and, above all, the combine (see agricultural machinery). According to the National Academy of Engineering in the United States, agricultural mechanization is one of the 20 greatest engineering achievements of the 20th century. Early in the century, it took one American farmer to produce food for 2.5 people. By 1999, due to advances in agricultural technology, a single farmer could feed over 130 people.[19] A cotton gin on display at the Eli Whitney Museum. ... A round baler A baler is a piece of farm machinery that is used to compress a cut, raked, crop (such as hay or straw) into bales and bind the bales with twine. ... The thrashing machine, or, in modern spelling, threshing machine (or simply thresher), was a machine first invented by Scottish mechanical engineer Andrew Meikle for use in agriculture. ... -1... A German combine harvester. ... Founded in 1964, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in the United States provides engineering leadership in service to the nation. ...


Other recent changes in agriculture include hydroponics, plant breeding, hybridization, gene manipulation, better management of soil nutrients, and improved weed control. Genetic engineering has yielded crops which have capabilities beyond those of naturally occurring plants, such as higher yields and disease resistance. Modified seeds germinate faster, and thus can be grown on an accelerated schedule. Genetic engineering of plants has proven controversial, particularly in the case of herbicide-resistant plants. Plants grown in a hydroponics grow box made to look like a computer NASA researcher checking hydroponic onions with Bibb lettuce to his left and radishes to the right Example of autotrophic metabolism Hydroponics is a method of growing plants using mineral nutrient solutions instead of soil. ... Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Genetic engineering, genetic modification (GM), and gene splicing (once in widespread use but now deprecated) are terms for the process of manipulating genes in an organism, usually outside of the organisms normal reproductive process. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ... GMO redirects here. ... This article is about the herbicide. ...


It has been suggested that genetic engineers may some day develop transgenic plants which would allow for irrigation, drainage, conservation, sanitary engineering, and maintaining or increasing yields while requiring fewer fossil fuel derived inputs than conventional crops.[20] Such developments would be particularly important in areas which are normally arid and rely upon constant irrigation, and on large scale farms. These possibilities are questioned by ecologists and economists concerned with unsustainable GMO practices such as terminator seeds,[21][22] and a January 2008 report shows that GMO practices have failed to address sustainability issues.[23] While there has been some research on sustainability using GMO crops, at least one hyped and promonant multi-year attempt by Monsanto has been unsuccessful, though during the same period traditional breeding techniques yielded a more sustainable variety of the same crop.[24] Additionally, a survey by the bio-tech industry of subsistence farmers in Africa to discover what GMO research would most benefit sustainable agriculture only identified non-transgenic issues as areas needing to be addressed.[25] GMO redirects here. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ...


The processing, packing and marketing of agricultural products are closely related activities also influenced by science. Methods of quick-freezing and dehydration have increased the markets for many farm products (see food preservation and meat packing industry). Various preserved foods Food preservation is the process of treating and handling food in such a way as to stop or greatly slow down spoilage to prevent foodborne illness while maintaining nutritional value, density, texture and flavor. ... The meat packing industry is an industry that handles the slaughtering, processing and distribution of animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep and other livestock. ...


Animals, including horses, mules, oxen, camels, llamas, alpacas, and dogs, are often used to help cultivate fields, harvest crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm products to buyers. Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, eggs, or wool) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species for work and companionship. A green field or paddock In agriculture, a field refers generally to an area of land enclosed or otherwise and used for agricultural purposes such as: Cultivating crops Usage as a paddock or generally an enclosure of livestock Land left to lie fallow or as arable land See also Pasture... For other uses, see crop (disambiguation). ... In North America a wrangler is someone employed to handle animals professionally, especially horses, but also others. ... Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ...


Airplanes, helicopters, trucks, tractors, and combines are used in Western (and, increasingly, Eastern) agriculture for seeding, spraying operations for insect and disease control, harvesting, aerial topdressing and transporting perishable products. Radio and television disseminate vital weather reports and other information such as market reports that concern farmers. Computers have become an essential tool for farm management. Aerial Topdressing is the spreading of fertilisers such as Superphosphate over farm land. ...

Ploughing rice paddies with water buffalo, in Indonesia.

In recent years, some aspects of intensive industrial agriculture have been the subject of increasing debate. The widening sphere of influence held by large seed and chemical companies, meat packers and food processors has been a source of concern both within the farming community and for the general public. Another issue is the type of feed given to some animals that can cause bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle. There has also been concern over the effect of intensive agriculture on the environment. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 991 pixel, file size: 720 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Indonesia Water buffalo ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... For the astrodynamics term, see sphere of influence (astrodynamics). ... Classic image of a cow with BSE. A notable feature of such disease is the inability of the infected animal to stand. ...

A field of ripening barley

The patent protection given to companies that develop new types of seed using genetic engineering has allowed seed to be licensed to farmers in much the same way that computer software is licensed to users. This has changed the balance of power in favor of the seed companies, allowing them to dictate terms and conditions previously unheard of. The Indian activist and scientist Vandana Shiva argues that these companies are guilty of biopiracy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x538, 462 KB)Wheat farm By : Victor Szalvay Image located at: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x538, 462 KB)Wheat farm By : Victor Szalvay Image located at: http://www. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Vandana Shiva 2007 in Cologne, Germany Vandana Shiva (b. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Bioprospecting. ...


Soil conservation and nutrient management have been important concerns since the 1950s, with the most advanced farmers taking a stewardship role with the land they use. However, increasing contamination of waterways and wetlands by nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus are concerns that can only be addressed by "enlightenment" of farmers and/or far stricter law enforcement in many countries. Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... The conservation ethic is an ethic of resource use, allocation, exploitation, and protection. ... As defined by the Environmental Protection Agency[1], nutrient management is managing the amount, form, placement, and timing of application of nutrients (whether as animal waste, commercial fertilizer, or other form of nutrients) to plants. ... Look up stewardship in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


Increasing consumer awareness of agricultural issues has led to the rise of community-supported agriculture, local food movement, "Slow Food", and commercial organic farming. Community-supported agriculture (CSA) is a relatively new socio-economic model of food production, sales and distribution aimed at both increasing the quality of food and the quality of care given the land, plants and animals – while substantially reducing potential food losses and financial risks for the producers. ... Local food (also regional food) is a principle of sustainability relying on consumption of food products that are locally grown. ... A restaurant placard, Santorini, Greece The Slow Food movement was founded by Carlo Petrini in Italy as a resistance movement to combat fast food. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ...


Etymology

The word agriculture is the English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "a field",[26] and cultūra, "cultivation" in the strict sense of "tillage of the soil".[27] Thus, a literal reading of the word yields "tillage of a field / of fields". Tillage (American English), or cultivation (UK) is the agricultural preparation of the soil to receive seeds. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History

Sumerian Harvester's sickle, 3000 BCE. Baked clay. Field Museum.

Agriculture was developed at least 10,000 years ago, and it has undergone significant developments since the time of the earliest cultivation. Evidence points to the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East as the site of the earliest planned sowing and harvesting of plants that had previously been gathered in the wild. Independent development of agriculture occurred in northern and southern China, Africa's Sahel, New Guinea and several regions of the Americas. Agricultural practices such as irrigation, crop rotation, fertilizers, and pesticides were developed long ago but have made great strides in the past century. The Haber-Bosch method for synthesizing ammonium nitrate represented a major breakthrough and allowed crop yields to overcome previous constraints. In the past century agriculture has been characterized by enhanced productivity, the substitution of labor for synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, selective breeding, mechanization, water pollution, and farm subsidies. In recent years there has been a backlash against the external environmental effects of conventional agriculture, resulting in the organic movement. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 568 KB)Sumerian Harvesters sickle, 3000 BCE. Baked clay. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 568 KB)Sumerian Harvesters sickle, 3000 BCE. Baked clay. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Å umeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex called known as the Museum Campus which includes Soldier Field, the football stadium that is the home of the Chicago... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Satellite image of circular crop fields in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... the plane is spreading pesticide. ... The Haber Process (also Haber-Bosch process) is the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... In agriculture, crop yield (also known as agricultural output) is not only a measure of the yield of cereal per unit area of land under cultivation, it is also the seed generation of the plant itself, i. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities, which can be harmful to organisms and... An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers to supplement their income, help manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and bolster the market price of commodities. ... An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ... Organic movement broadly refers to the organizations and individuals involved worldwide in the promotion of sustainable agriculture and organic farming, and a general opposition to agribusiness. ...


Ancient origins

Further information: Neolithic Revolution
Ancient Egyptian farmer, copied from archaeologically preserved specimen by a modern artist guessing at original colors.
Source: http://www.kingtutone.com

Developed independently by geographically distant populations, systematic agriculture first appeared in Southwest Asia with the bulk of domesticated neolthic crops and livestock now being traced to Turkey via DNA studies. The first grains of domesticated Turkish emmer wheat are found at Abu Hurerya dated to 13,500 BP. The only exceptions to this are barley, domesticated in two sites; in Israel, and East of the Zagros mountains in Iran. The eight so-called founder crops of agriculture appear: first emmer and einkorn wheat, then hulled barley, peas, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax.Bitter vetch and lentils along with almonds and pistachios appear in Franchthi Cave Greece simultaneously, about 9,000 BC. Neither are native to Greece, and they appear 2,000 years prior to domesticated wheat in the same location. This suggests that the cultivation of legumes and nuts preceded that of grain. The Neolithic Revolution is the term for the first agricultural revolution, describing the transition from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands, to agriculture and settlement, as first adopted by various independent prehistoric human societies, in numerous locations on most continents between 10-12 thousand years ago. ... Ancient Egyptian Farmer, from KingTutOne. ... Ancient Egyptian Farmer, from KingTutOne. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ... The Neolithic founder crops (or primary domesticates) are the eight species of plant that were domesticated by early Holocene (Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and B) farming communities in the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. ... Binomial name triticum dicoccoides Emmer Grain is an ancient grain officially known as Triticum dicoccoides. ... Binomial name Triticum boeoticum Boss. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses and abbreviations, see PEA. Binomial name L. A pea, although treated as a vegetable in cooking, is botanically a fruit; the term is most commonly used to describe the small spherical seeds or the pods of the legume Pisum sativum. ... This article is about the species Lens culinaris. ... The Bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) is a an ancient grain legume crop of the Mediterranean region (common names are: bitter vetch (English), kersannah (Arabic), yero (Spanish), rovi (Greek), burcak (Turkish)). The nutritional value of the grain for ruminant production has guaranteed the continued cultivation of V. ervilia in Morocco, Spain... Binomial name Cicer arietinum L. The chickpea, garbanzo bean or bengal gram (Cicer arietinum) is an edible pulse of the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family, subfamily India. ... For other uses, see Flax (disambiguation). ... Franchthi Cave (Greek Σπήλαιον Φράγχθη) is a cave overlooking the Argolic Gulf that has yielded large numbers of artifacts relating to Neolithic Greece. ...


By 7000 BCE, small-scale agriculture reached Egypt. From at least 7000 BCE the Indian subcontinent saw farming of wheat and barley, as attested by archaeological excavation at Mehrgarh in Balochistan. By 6000 BCE, mid-scale farming was entrenched on the banks of the Nile. About this time, agriculture was developed independently in the Far East, with rice, rather than wheat, as the primary crop. Chinese and Indonesian farmers went on to domesticate mung, soy, azuki and taro. To complement these new sources of carbohydrates, highly organized net fishing of rivers, lakes and ocean shores in these areas brought in great volumes of essential protein. Collectively, these new methods of farming and fishing inaugurated a human population boom dwarfing all previous expansions, and is one that continues today. Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... This article is about the wider Balochistan region. ... There is also Nile, a death metal band from South Carolina, USA. The Nile in Egypt Length 6 695 km Elevation of the source 1 134 m Average discharge 2 830 m³/s Area watershed 3 400 000 km² Origin Africa Mouth the Mediterranean Basin countries Uganda - Sudan - Egypt The... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) R. Wilczek Synonyms Phaeolus aureus Roxb. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Binomial name (Willd. ... This article is about the plant. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... For the computer security term, see Phishing. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ...


By 5000 BCE, the Sumerians had developed core agricultural techniques including large scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigation, and use of a specialized labour force, particularly along the waterway now known as the Shatt al-Arab, from its Persian Gulf delta to the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates. Domestication of wild aurochs and mouflon into cattle and sheep, respectively, ushered in the large-scale use of animals for food/fiber and as beasts of burden. The shepherd joined the farmer as an essential provider for sedentary and semi-nomadic societies. Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Å umeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... Mono-cropping is the agricultural practice of growing the same crop year after year on the same land, without crop rotation through other crops. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrÅ«d in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Binomial name Subspecies Bos primigenius primigenius   (Bojanus, 1827) Bos primigenius namadicus   (Falconer, 1859) Bos primigenius mauretanicus   (Thomas, 1881) See Ur (rune) for the rune. ... Binomial name Ovis musimon, Ovis ammon musimon, Ovis orientalis Pallas, 1762 European Mouflon The Mouflon is a species of wild sheep and as such is one of the Caprinae or goat antelopes. It is thought to be one of the two ancestors for all modern domestic sheep breeds[1]. It... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Species See text. ... Shepherd in FăgăraÅŸ Mountains, Romania. ... i am vegeta ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ...


Maize, manioc, and arrowroot were first domesticated in the Americas as far back as 5200 BCE. [28] The potato, tomato, pepper, squash, several varieties of bean, Canna, tobacco and several other plants were also developed in the New World, as was extensive terracing of steep hillsides in much of Andean South America. This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Manihot esculenta Crantz Cassava or manioc (Manihot esculenta; also yuca in Spanish, and mandioca, aipim, or macaxera in Portuguese) is a woody perennial shrub of the spurge family, that is extensively cultivated as an annual crop for its edible starchy tuberous root. ... Binomial name Maranta arundinacea L. Arrowroot, or obedience plant, (Maranta arundinacea) is a large perennial herb of genus Maranta found in rainforest habitats. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... Species C. annuum (incl. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Species 19 classified species, see list below Canna (or Canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of nineteen species of flowering plants, the only genus in the family Cannaceae. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Terraced vineyards near Lausanne The Incan terraces at Písac are still used today. ... This article is about the mountain range in South America. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


In later years, the Greeks and Romans built on techniques pioneered by the Sumerians but made few fundamentally new advances. Southern Greeks struggled with very poor soils, yet managed to become a dominant society for years. The Romans were noted for an emphasis on the cultivation of crops for trade. The percentages and figures displayed below represent possible theoretical values. ... This article is about economic exchange. ...

A valve-operated reciprocating suction piston pump water-raising machine with a crankshaft-connecting rod mechanism invented by al-Jazari.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... // These water valves are operated by handles. ... Internal combustion piston engine Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, internal combustion piston engine. ... Suction is the creation of a partial vacuum, or region of low pressure. ... For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ... Diagram from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by al-Jazari. ...

Middle Ages

Main article: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

During the Middle Ages, Muslim farmers in North Africa and the Near East developed and disseminated agricultural technologies including irrigation systems based on hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, the use of machines such as norias, and the use of water raising machines, dams, and reservoirs. They also wrote location-specific farming manuals, and were instrumental in the wider adoption of crops including sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, cotton, artichokes, aubergines, and saffron. Muslims also brought lemons, oranges, cotton, almonds, figs and sub-tropical crops such as bananas to Spain. The Islamic Golden Age from the 8th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture known as the Muslim Agricultural Revolution,[1] Arab Agricultural Revolution,[2] or Green Revolution. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Fluid pressure is the pressure on an object submerged in a fluid, such as water. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ...


The invention of a three field system of crop rotation during the Middle Ages, and the importation of the Chinese-invented moldboard plow, vastly improved agricultural efficiency. Crop rotation is the practice of growing two (or more) dissimilar type of crops in the same space in sequence. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Modern era

Further information: British Agricultural Revolution and Green Revolution
A tractor ploughing an alfalfa field

After 1492, a global exchange of previously local crops and livestock breeds occurred. Key crops involved in this exchange included the tomato, maize, potato, cocoa and tobacco going from the New World to the Old, and several varieties of wheat, spices, coffee, and sugar cane going from the Old World to the New. The most important animal exportations from the Old World to the New were those of the horse and dog (dogs were already present in the pre-Columbian Americas but not in the numbers and breeds suited to farm work). Although not usually food animals, the horse (including donkeys and ponies) and dog quickly filled essential production roles on western hemisphere farms. The British Agricultural Revolution describes a period of agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, which saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Download high resolution version (1379x969, 643 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1379x969, 643 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For the Our Gang (Little Rascals) character, see Carl Switzer. ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cocoa (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... horse, see Horse (disambiguation). ...


By the early 1800s, agricultural techniques, implements, seed stocks and cultivars had so improved that yield per land unit was many times that seen in the Middle Ages. With the rapid rise of mechanization in the late 19th and 20th centuries, particularly in the form of the tractor, farming tasks could be done with a speed and on a scale previously impossible. These advances have led to efficiencies enabling certain modern farms in the United States, Argentina, Israel, Germany, and a few other nations to output volumes of high quality produce per land unit at what may be the practical limit. This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Mechanised agriculture is the process of using agricultural machinery in order to massivly increase output. ...


In 2005, the agricultural output of China was the largest in the world, accounting for almost one-sixth world share followed by the EU, India and the USA, according to the International Monetary Fund. Economists measure the total factor productivity of agriculture and by this measure agriculture in the United States is roughly 2.6 times more productive than it was in 1948.[29] Agriculture is the most important economic sector of China, employing over 300 million farmers. ... IMF redirects here. ... Total-factor productivty (TFP) addresses any effects in total output not caused by inputs or productivity. ...


Crops

Crop statistics

Specific crops are cultivated in distinct growing regions throughout the world. In millions of metric tons, based on FAO estimates. A growing region is an area suited by climate and soil conditions to the cultivation of a certain type of crop. ... FAO redirects here. ...

Top agricultural products, by crop types
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Cereals 2,263
Vegetables and melons 866
Roots and Tubers 715
Milk 619
Fruit 503
Meat 259
Oilcrops 133
Fish (2001 estimate) 130
Eggs 63
Pulses 60
Vegetable Fiber 30
Source:
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
[30]
Top agricultural products, by individual crops
(million metric tons) 2004 data
Sugar Cane 1,324
Maize 721
Wheat 627
Rice 605
Potatoes 328
Sugar Beet 249
Soybean 204
Oil Palm Fruit 162
Barley 154
Tomato 120
Source:
Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
[30]


Grain redirects here. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Melon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... For fungal genus, see tuber (genus). ... A glass of cows milk. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with cooking oil. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Chicken egg (left) and quail eggs (right), the types of egg commonly used as food An egg is a body consisting of an ovum surrounded by layers of membranes and an outer casing of some type, which acts to nourish and protect a developing embryo. ... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... Fiber crops are field crops grown for their fibers, which are used to make paper, cloth, or rope. ... FAO redirects here. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Soy redirects here. ... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... For other uses, see Barley (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... FAO redirects here. ...

Crop alteration

Main article: Plant breeding
An agricultural scientist records corn growth
Netting protecting wine grapes from birds

Domestication of plants has, over the centuries increased yield, improved disease resistance and drought tolerance, eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. Plant breeders use greenhouses (known as glasshouses or hothouses in some areas) and other techniques to get as many as three generations of plants per year towards the continued effort of improvement. Plant selection and breeding in the 1920s and 1930s improved pasture (grasses and clover) in New Zealand. Extensive X-ray an ultraviolet induced mutagenesis efforts (i.e. primitive genetic engineering) during the 1950s produced the modern commercial varieties of grains such as wheat, corn and barley.[31][32] Plant breeding is the purposeful manipulation of plant species in order to create desired genotypes and phenotypes for specific purposes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1152x864, 600 KB) Summer 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1152x864, 600 KB) Summer 2004 File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Tractor and chaser bin A chaser bin is a trailer towed by a tractor with an in-built auger system, usually with a large capacity (around 15 Tonnes is average). ... Soil scientist measures corn growth and other processes [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Category:Technology Categories: Agricultural Research Service images ... Soil scientist measures corn growth and other processes [1] File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Category:Technology Categories: Agricultural Research Service images ... Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 300 KB)Bird netting on wine grapes File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 300 KB)Bird netting on wine grapes File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ...


For example, average yields of corn (maize) in the USA have increased from around 2.5 tons per hectare (t/ha) (40 bushels per acre) in 1900 to about 9.4 t/ha (150 bushels per acre) in 2001. Similarly, worldwide average wheat yields have increased from less than 1 t/ha in 1900 to more than 2.5 t/ha in 1990. South American average wheat yields are around 2 t/ha, African under 1 t/ha, Egypt and Arabia up to 3.5 to 4 t/ha with irrigation. In contrast, the average wheat yield in countries such as France is over 8 t/ha. Variation in yields are due mainly to variation in climate, genetics, and the level of intensive farming techniques (use of fertilizers, chemical pest control, growth control to avoid lodging).[33][34][35] This article is about the maize plant. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A crop duster applies low-insecticide bait that is targeted against Western corn rootworms Pest control refers to the regulation or management of another species defined as a pest, usually because it is believed to be detrimental to a persons health, the ecology or the economy Pest control is...


After mechanical tomato-harvesters were developed in the early 1960s, agricultural scientists bred tomatoes that were more resistant to mechanical handling. These varieties have been criticized as being harder and having poor texture[citation needed]. More recently, genetic engineering has begun to be employed in large parts of the world to speed up the selection and breeding process. One widely used modification is a herbicide resistance gene that allows plants to tolerate exposure to glyphosate, a non-systemic (i.e kills all plants) chemical used to control weeds in a crop such as oilseed rape. Normally, expensive systemic herbicides would have to be applied to kill the weeds without harming the crop. Relatively cheap and safe glyphosate may be applied to the modified crops, efficiently killing weeds without harming the resistant crop. Another modification causes the plant to produce a toxin to reduce damage from insects (c.f. Starlink). This, in contrast, requires fewer insecticides to be applied to the crop. Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... This article is about the herbicide. ... It has been suggested that Roundup be merged into this article or section. ... Systemic Relating to, or affecting a particular body system; especially the nervous system. ... Transgenic maize (corn) has been deliberately genetically modified to have agronomically desirable traits. ...


Aquaculture, the farming of fish, shrimp, and algae, is closely associated with agriculture. Workers harvest catfish from the Delta Pride Catfish farms in Mississippi Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... For the programming language, see algae (programming language). ...


Apiculture, the culture of bees, traditionally for honey—increasingly for crop pollination. Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (14th century) Honey seeker depicted on 6000 year old cave painting near Valencia, Spain Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete...

See also : cultigen, botany, List of domesticated plants, List of vegetables, List of herbs, List of fruit

A cultigen is a plant that has been deliberately altered or selected by humans; it is man-made (human-altered) or anthropogenic. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... This is a list of plants that have been domesticated by humans. ... This is a list of vegetables in the culinary sense, which means it includes some botanical fruits like pumpkins and doesnt include herbs, spices, cereals and most culinary fruits and culinary nuts. ... By far the most commonly used seasoning for food is table salt; however, it is a mineral, not a spice. ... Here are lists of all the fruits considered edible in some cuisine. ...

Livestock

Main article: Livestock

The farming practices of livestock vary dramatically world-wide and between different types of animals. Livestock are generally kept in an enclosure, are fed by human-provided food and are intentionally bred, but some livestock are not enclosed, or are fed by access to natural foods, or are allowed to breed freely, or all three. Approximately 68% of all agricultural land is used in the production of livestock as permanent pastures.[36] Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


Environmental impact

Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, US (c.2005)

Agriculture may often cause environmental problems because it changes natural environments and produces harmful by-products. Some of the negative effects are: Download high resolution version (400x604, 82 KB)Image Number K5951-1 Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University. ... Download high resolution version (400x604, 82 KB)Image Number K5951-1 Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... Washington State University (WSU) is a major public research university in Pullman, Washington. ...

According to the United Nations, the livestock sector (primarily cows, chickens, and pigs) emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to our most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global. Livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the planet.[37]It is one of the largest sources of greenhouse gases—responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as measured in CO2 equivalents. By comparison, all transportation emits 13.5% of the CO2. It produces 65% of human-related nitrous oxide (which has 296 times the global warming potential of CO2) and 37% of all human-induced methane (which is 23 times as warming as CO2). It also generates 64% of the ammonia, which contributes to acid rain and acidification of ecosystems.[38] Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ... It has been suggested that ovicide be merged into this article or section. ... A biocide is a chemical substance capable of killing different forms of living organisms used in fields such as medicine, agriculture, forestry, and mosquito control. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Simple use of biomass fuel (Combustion of wood for heat). ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, or movement in response to gravity. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For other uses, see Soil (disambiguation). ... Particulates, alternately referred to as Particulate Matter (PM) , aerosols or fine particles are tiny particles of solid or liquid suspended in the air. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... A ball-and-stick model of the ammonium cation Ammonium is also an old name for the Siwa Oasis in western Egypt. ... Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the environment. ... Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damage the environment. ... A feral horse (an American mustang) in Wyoming A feral animal or plant is one that has escaped from domestication and returned, partly or wholly, to its wild state. ... For other uses, see Waste (disambiguation). ... Visible salt deposits on the former bed of the Aral Sea Soil salination is the accumulation of free salts to such an extent that it leads to degradation of soils and vegetation. ... Deforestation of the Madagascar Highland Plateau has led to extensive siltation and unstable flows of western rivers. ...


Biodiversity

See also: Genetic erosion and Agricultural biodiversity

Genetic erosion in crops and livestock biodiversity is propelled by several major factors such as variety replacement, land clearing, overexploitation of species, population pressure, environmental degradation, overgrazing, policy and changing agricultural systems.[citation needed] Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Unusual and wild strains of maize are collected to increase the crop diversity when selectively breeding domestic corn. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... // In the dictionary and agriculture, overgrazing is when plants are exposed to grazing for too long, or without sufficient recovery periods. ...


The main factor, however, is the replacement of local varieties of domestic plants and animals by high yielding or exotic varieties or species. A large number of varieties can also often be dramatically reduced when commercial varieties (including GMOs) are introduced into traditional farming systems. Many researchers believe that the main problem related to agro-ecosystem management is the general tendency towards genetic and ecological uniformity imposed by the development of modern agriculture.[who?] GMO redirects here. ...


In agriculture and animal husbandry, the green revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield many folds by creating "high-yielding varieties". Often the handful of breeds of plants and animals hybridized originated in developed countries and were further hybridized with local varieties in the rest of the developing world to create high yield strains resistant to local climate and diseases. Hybridization of local breeds to improve performance may lead to the loss of the local breed over time and consequently the loss of the genetic material that adapted that breed specifically to the local conditions. When viewed across the world as a whole, the consequent loss in genetic diversity and biodiversity could be placing the food supply in jeopardy, as a highly specialized breed may not contain sufficient genetic material to adapt to new diseases or environments even with an intensive breeding program.[39] Shepherd with his sheep in Făgăraş Mountains, Romania. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... This article is about a biological term. ... High-yielding varieties (HYVs) are any of a group of genetically enhanced cultivars of crops such as rice, maize and wheat that have an increased growth rate, an increased percentage of usable plant parts or an increased resistance against crop diseases. ...


A Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using the genetic engineering techniques generally known as recombinant DNA technology. Genetic Engineering today has become another serious and alarming cause of genetic pollution because artificially created and genetically engineered plants and animals in laboratories, which could never have evolved in nature even with conventional hybridization, can live and breed on their own and what is even more alarming interbreed with naturally evolved wild varieties. Genetically Modified (GM) crops today have become a common source for genetic pollution, not only of wild varieties but also of other domesticated varieties derived from relatively natural hybridization.[40][41][42][43][44] GMO redirects here. ... Domains and Kingdoms Nanobes Acytota Cytota Bacteria Neomura Archaea Eukaryota Bikonta Apusozoa Rhizaria Excavata Archaeplastida Rhodophyta Glaucophyta Plantae Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta Alveolata Unikonta Amoebozoa Opisthokonta Choanozoa Fungi Animalia An ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Life on Earth redirects here. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Elements of genetic engineering For a non-technical introduction to the topic, see Introduction to Genetics. ... Recombinant DNA technology adds/replaces DNA in an organism resulting in the recipient organism containing exogenous DNA. Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ...


Policy

Main article: Agricultural policy

Agricultural policy focuses on the goals and methods of agricultural production. At the policy level, common goals of agriculture include: This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

  • Food safety: Ensuring that the food supply is free of contamination.
  • Food security: Ensuring that the food supply meets the population's needs.[45][46]
  • Food quality: Ensuring that the food supply is of a consistent and known quality.
  • Poverty Reduction
  • Conservation
  • Environmental impact
  • Economic stability

Food safety is a scientific discipline describing the handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent Foodborne illness. ... Subsistence farmers with a Treadle Pump. ... Food quality is the quality characteristics of food that is acceptable to consumers. ...

Agriculture and petroleum

Further information: Peak oil, agriculture and population; Effect of biofuels on food prices

Since the 1940s, agriculture has dramatically increased its productivity, due largely to the use of petrochemical derived pesticides, fertilizers, and increased mechanization. This has allowed world population to grow more than double over the last 50 years. Every energy unit delivered in food grown using modern techniques requires over ten energy units to produce and deliver.[citation needed] The vast majority of this energy input comes from fossil fuel sources. Because of modern agriculture's current heavy reliance on petrochemicals and mechanization, there are warnings that the ever decreasing supply of oil (the dramatic nature of which is known as peak oil[47][48][49][50][51]) will inflict major damage on the modern industrial agriculture system, and could cause large food shortages.[52] For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ...


Oil shortages are one of several factors making organic agriculture and other sustainable farming methods necessary. This conversion is now occurring[citation needed], but the reconditioning of soil to restore nutrients lost during the use of monoculture agriculture techniques made possible by petroleum-based technology will take time. Some farmers using modern organic-farming methods have reported yields as high as those available from conventional farming (but without the use of fossil-fuel-intensive artificial fertilizers or pesticides).[53][54][55][56] Organic farming is a way of farming that avoids the use of synthetic chemicals and genetically modified organisms (GMOs), and usually subscribes to the principles of sustainable agriculture. ... Sustainable agriculture integrates three main goals: environmental stewardship, farm profitability, and prosperous farming communities. ... Monoculture describes systems that have very low diversity. ...


Farmers have also begun raising crops such as corn for non-food use in an effort to help mitigate peak oil. This has contributed to a 60% rise in wheat prices recently, and has been indicated as a possible precursor to "serious social unrest in developing countries."[46] Such situations would be exacerbated in the event of future rises in food and fuel costs, factors which have already impacted the ability of charitable donors to send food aid to starving populations.[45] The mitigation of peak oil concerns delaying the date and minimizing the impact of peak oil production from conventional oil wells. ...


The state of financial markets following the subprime mortgage crisis increased interest in food commodities from private sectors such as pension funds, as more traditional investment opportunities came to be seen as less favourable. This in turn increased the cost of food worldwide.[57] The subprime mortgage crisis is an ongoing problem manifesting itself through liquidity issues in the banking system which have become more prevalent due to foreclosures which accelerated in the United States in late 2006 and triggered a global financial crisis during 2007 and 2008. ...


Agriculture safety and health

Satellite image of circular crop fields characteristic of center pivot irrigation in Haskell County, Kansas in late June 2001. Healthy, growing crops are green. Corn is growing leafy stalks, but Sorghum, which resembles corn, grows more slowly and is much smaller and therefore paler. Wheat is a brilliant gold as harvest occurs in June. Brown fields have been recently harvested and plowed under or lie fallow for the year.

United States Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2589x2481, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Crop rotation Center pivot irrigation Haskell County, Kansas Ogallala Aquifer Agriculture in the United States Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Image:Crops Kansas... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2589x2481, 1365 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Agriculture Crop rotation Center pivot irrigation Haskell County, Kansas Ogallala Aquifer Agriculture in the United States Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Image:Crops Kansas... Pivot irrigation in progress. ... Haskell County (county code HS) is a county located in Southwest Kansas, in the Central United States. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Species About 30 species, see text Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants either cultivated or as part of pasture. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... Growing the same crop repeatedly in the same place eventually depletes the soil of various nutrients. ...


Agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries. [58] Farmers are at high risk for fatal and nonfatal injuries, work-related lung diseases, noise-induced hearing loss, skin diseases, and certain cancers associated with chemical use and prolonged sun exposure. Farming is one of the few industries in which the families (who often share the work and live on the premises) are also at risk for injuries, illness, and death.

  • In an average year, 516 workers die doing farm work in the U.S. (1992-2005). Of these deaths, 101 are caused by tractor overturns.
  • Every day, about 243 agricultural workers suffer lost-work-time injuries, and about 5% of these result in permanent impairment.[59]

Young Workers


Agriculture is the most dangerous industry for young workers, accounting for 42% of all work-related fatalities of young workers in the U.S. between 1992 and 2000. Unlike other industries, half the young victims in agriculture were under age 15. [60]


For young agricultural workers aged 15–17, the risk of fatal injury is four times the risk for young workers in other workplaces [61] Agricultural work exposes young workers to safety hazards such as machinery, confined spaces, work at elevations, and work around livestock.

  • An estimated 1.26 million children and adolescents under 20 years of age resided on farms in 2004, with about 699,000 of these youth performing work on the farms. In addition to the youth who live on farms, an additional 337,000 children and adolescents were hired to work on U.S. farms in 2004.
  • On average, 103 children are killed annually on farms (1990-1996). Approximately 40 percent of these deaths were work-related.
  • In 2004, an estimated 27,600 children and adolescents were injured on farms; 8,100 of these injuries were due to farm work.[59]

Additional information

See also

Main lists: List of basic agriculture topics and List of agriculture topics
Part of a series on
Horticulture and Gardening
Gardening

Gardening • Garden • Botanical garden • Arboretum • Botany • Plant Agriculture, which encompasses farming, is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to sustainable agriculture. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 97 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Descripción: Pequeña regadera metálica - Regando un mininaranjo Fecha: 15/07/2006 Hora: 11:16 Cámara: EOS 30D ISO: 200 Tv: 1/1250... A gardener Gardening is the practice of growing flowering plants, vegetables, and fruits. ... For other uses, see Garden (disambiguation). ... Inside the United States Botanic Garden Washington, D.C. Botanical gardens grow a wide variety of plants primarily categorized and documented for scientific purposes. ... This article is about a type of botanical garden. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ...

Horticulture

Horticulture • Agriculture • Urban agriculture • City farm • Organic farming • Herb farm • Hobby farm • Intercropping • Farm Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... Urban (or peri-urban) agriculture is the practice of agriculture (including crops, livestock, fisheries, and forestry activities) within or surrounding the boundaries of cities. ... City farms are community-run projects in urban areas, which involve people working with animals and plants. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... An herb farm is usually a farm where herbs are grown for market sale. ... An old dairy farm has become a hobby farm near Leicester, New York A hobby farm is a small farm that is maintained without expectation of being a primary source of income. ... Intercropping is the agricultural practice of cultivating two or more crops in the same space at the same time (Andrews & Kassam 1976). ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ...

Customs

Harvest festival • Thanksgiving • History of agriculture In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ... For other uses, see Thanksgiving (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Plant protection

Phytopathology • Pesticide • Weed control Phytopathology (plant pathology) is the scientific study of plant diseases caused by pathogens (infectious diseases) and environmental conditons (non-infectiousness). ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Weed control, a botanical component of pest control, stops weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants, sometimes livestocks, by using manual techniques including soil cultivation, mulching and herbicides. ...

This box: view  talk  edit

Close-up of lettuce and wheat grown in an aeroponic (air-culture) apparatus, NASA1998 Aeroponics is the process of growing plants in an air or mist environment without the use of soil or an aggregate media. ... Agricultural engineers develop engineering science and technology in the context of agricultural production and processing and for the management of natural resources. ... An agrocenter is a shop where one sells phytosanitaries, feed and fertilizers . ... For other uses, see Peak oil (disambiguation). ... Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of one or more hives of honeybees. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The dismal science is another, often derogatory, name for economics devised by the Victorian historian Thomas Carlyle. ... The terms geoponic and geoponics refer to growing plants in a normal soil. ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Horticulture (pronounced or US [1]) is the art and science of the cultivation of plants. ... Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ... These female brood sows are confined most of their lives in gestation crates too small to enable them to turn around. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... Agricultural output in January 2008 Industrial output in January 2008 Service output in January 2008 This is a list of countries by GDP sector composition based on nominal GDP estimates and sector composition ratios provided by the CIA World Fact Book at market or government official exchange rates with figures... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Subsistence means living in a permanently fragile equilibrium between alimentary needs and the means for satisfying them. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to sustainable agriculture. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... Permaculture Mandala summarising the ethics and principles of permaculture design. ... Timeline of agriculture and food technology 12000 BC - Natufians in the Levant begin cultivating wild grasses. ... Vertical farming is a conceptual form of agriculture done in urban high-rises. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Marketwatch (2007) Plastics are Green in More Ways Than One.
  2. ^ BIO (n.d.) Growing Plants for Pharmaceutical Production vs. for Food and Feed Crops.
  3. ^ International Labour Organization Key Indicators of the Labour Market 2008, p.11-12
  4. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html#Econ.
  5. ^ New York Times (2005) Sometimes a Bumper Crop is Too Much Of a Good Thing
  6. ^ New York Times (1986) Science Academy Recommends Resumption of Natural Farming
  7. ^ The World Bank (1995) Overcoming Agricultural Water Pollution in the European Union
  8. ^ European Commission (2003) CAP Reform
  9. ^ New York Times (2007 September) At Tyson and Kraft, Grain Costs Limit Profit
  10. ^ Forget oil, the new global crisis is food
  11. ^ Riots and hunger feared as demand for grain sends food costs soaring
  12. ^ Already we have riots, hoarding, panic: the sign of things to come?
  13. ^ Feed the world? We are fighting a losing battle, UN admits
  14. ^ Millions face famine as crop disease rages
  15. ^ "Billions at risk from wheat super-blight" (2007-04-03). New Scientist Magazine (issue 2598): 6–7. Retrieved on 2007-04-19. 
  16. ^ Leonard, K.J. Black stem rust biology and threat to wheat growers, USDA ARS
  17. ^ Global food crisis looms as climate change and population growth strip fertile land
  18. ^ Africa may be able to feed only 25% of its population by 2025
  19. ^ http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_7_2.html.
  20. ^ Srinivas et al (June, 2008). "Reviewing The Methodologies For Sustainable Living" 7: 2993–3014. The Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 
  21. ^ Conway, G. (2000). "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" 4(1): 2. Conservation Ecology. 
  22. ^ . R. Pillarisetti and Kylie Radel (June 2004). "Economic and Environmental Issues in International Trade and Production of Genetically Modified Foods and Crops and the WTO" Volume 19, Number 2: 332–352. Journal of Economic Integration. 
  23. ^ Juan Lopez Villar & Bill Freese (January 2008). Who Benefits from GM Crops? (pdf). Friends of the Earth International.
  24. ^ "Monsanto's showcase project in Africa fails" (7 February 2004) Vol 181 No. 2433. New Scientist. doi:10.1080/03056240601000945<br />. Retrieved on 2008-04-18. 
  25. ^ Devlin Kuyek (August 2002). Genetically Modifi ed Crops in Africa: Implications for Small Farmers (pdf). Genetic Resources Action International (GRAIN).
  26. ^ Latin Word Lookup
  27. ^ Latin Word Lookup
  28. ^ http://www.ucalgary.ca/news/feb2007/early-farming/
  29. ^ USDA ERS. Agricultural Productivity in the United States
  30. ^ a b FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS (FAOSTAT). Retrieved on 2007-10-11.
  31. ^ Stadler, L. J.; G. F. Sprague (1936-10-15). "Genetic Effects of Ultra-Violet Radiation in Maize. I. Unfiltered Radiation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 22 (10): 572–578. US Department of Agriculture and Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
  32. ^ Berg, Paul; Maxine Singer (2003-08-15). George Beadle: An Uncommon Farmer. The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th century. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press. ISBN 0-87969-688-5. 
  33. ^ Ruttan, Vernon W. (Winter 1999). "Biotechnology and Agriculture: A Skeptical Perspective". AgBioForum 2 (1): 54–60. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
  34. ^ Cassman, K. (1998-12-05). "Ecological intensification of cereal production systems: The Challenge of increasing crop yield potential and precision agriculture". Proceedings of a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium, Irvine, California. University of Nebraska. Retrieved on 2007-10-11. 
  35. ^ Conversion note: 1 bushel of wheat = 60 pounds (lb) ≈ 27.215 kg. 1 bushel of corn = 56 pounds ≈ 25.401 kg
  36. ^ FAO Database, 2003
  37. ^ Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 27 jun 2007
  38. ^ Livestock's long shadow: Environmental issues and options
  39. ^ "Genetic Pollution: The Great Genetic Scandal"; Devinder Sharma can be contacted at: 7 Triveni Apartments, A-6 Paschim Vihar, New Delhi-110 063, India. Email: dsharma@ndf.vsnl.net.in. CENTRE FOR ALTERNATIVE AGRICULTURAL MEDIA (CAAM)., [1]
  40. ^ THE YEAR IN IDEAS: A TO Z.; Genetic Pollution By MICHAEL POLLAN, The New York Times, December 9, 2001
  41. ^ Dangerous Liaisons? When Cultivated Plants Mate with Their Wild Relatives by Norman C. Ellstrand; The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003; 268 pp. hardcover , $ 65; ISBN 0-8018-7405-X. Book Reviewed in: Hybrids abounding; Nature Biotechnology 22, 29 - 30 (2004) doi:10.1038/nbt0104-29; Reviewed by: Steven H Strauss & Stephen P DiFazio.
  42. ^ "Genetic pollution: Uncontrolled spread of genetic information (frequently referring to transgenes) into the genomes of organisms in which such genes are not present in nature." Zaid, A. et al. 1999. Glossary of biotechnology and genetic engineering. FAO Research and Technology Paper No. 7. ISBN 92-5-104369-8
  43. ^ "Genetic pollution: Uncontrolled escape of genetic information (frequently referring to products of genetic engineering) into the genomes of organisms in the environment where those genes never existed before." Searchable Biotechnology Dictionary. University of Minnesota. [2]
  44. ^ "Genetic pollution: Living organisms can also be defined as pollutants, when a non-indigenous species (plant or animal) enters a habitat and modifies the existing equilibrium among the organisms of the affected ecosystem (sea, lake, river). Non-indigenous, including transgenic species (GMOs), may bring about a particular version of pollution in the vegetal kingdom: so-called genetic pollution. This term refers to the uncontrolled diffusion of genes (or transgenes) into genomes of plants of the same type or even unrelated species where such genes are not present in nature. For example, a grass modified to resist herbicides could pollinate conventional grass many miles away, creating weeds immune to the most widely used weed-killer, with obvious consequences for crops. Genetic pollution is at the basis of the debate on the use of GMOs in agriculture." The many facets of pollution; Bologna University web site for Science Communication. The Webweavers: Last modified Tue, 20 Jul 2005
  45. ^ a b Rising food prices curb aid to global poor
  46. ^ a b Record rise in wheat price prompts UN official to warn that surge in food prices may trigger social unrest in developing countries
  47. ^ Kenneth S. Deffeyes (2007-01-19). Current Events - Join us as we watch the crisis unfolding (in English). Princeton University: Beyond Oil.
  48. ^ Ryan McGreal (2007-10-22). Yes, We're in Peak Oil Today (in English). Raise the Hammer.
  49. ^ Dr. Werner Zittel, Jorg Schindler (2007-10). Crude Oil: The Supply Outlook (in English). Energy Watch Group.
  50. ^ Dave Cohen (2007-10-31). The Perfect Storm (in English). ASPO-USA.
  51. ^ Rembrandt H.E.M. Koppelaar (2006-09). World Production and Peaking Outlook (PDF) (in English). Peak Oil Netherlands.
  52. ^ (a list of over 20 published articles and books supporting this thesis can be found here in the section: "Food, Land, Water, and Population")
  53. ^ Realities of organic farming
  54. ^ http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/organicag/researchreports/nk01ltar.pdf
  55. ^ Organic Farming can Feed The World!
  56. ^ Organic Farms Use Less Energy And Water
  57. ^ [3]The Threat of Global Food Shortages - Yale Global Online
  58. ^ NIOSH- Agriculture. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  59. ^ a b NIOSH- Agriculture Injury. United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved on 2007-10-10.
  60. ^ NIOSH [2003]. Unpublished analyses of the 1992–2000 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries Special Research Files provided to NIOSH by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (includes more detailed data than the research file, but excludes data from New York City). Morgantown, WV: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Safety Research, Surveillance and Field Investigations Branch, Special Studies Section. Unpublished database.
  61. ^ BLS [2000]. Report on the youth labor force. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, pp. 58–67.

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Lewis John Stadler (July 6, 1896 - May 12, 1954) was an American geneticist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bolens, L. (1997), 'Agriculture' in Encyclopedia of the history of Science, technology, and Medicine in Non Western Cultures, Editor: Helaine Selin; Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht/Boston/London, pp 20-2
  • Collinson, M. (editor): A History of Farming Systems Research. CABI Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-85199-405-9
  • Crosby, Alfred W.: The Columbian Exchange : Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492. Praeger Publishers, 2003 (30th Anniversary Edition). ISBN 0-275-98073-1
  • Davis, Donald R., and Hugh D. Riordan (2004) Changes in USDA Food Composition Data for 43 Garden Crops, 1950 to 1999. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 23, No. 6, 669-682.
  • Friedland, William H. and Amy Barton (1975) Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study of Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Univ. California at Sta. Cruz, Research Monograph 15.
  • Saltini A.Storia delle scienze agrarie, 4 vols, Bologna 1984-89, ISBN 88-206-2412-5, ISBN 88-206-2413-3, ISBN 88-206-2414-1, ISBN 88-206-2414-X
  • Watson, A.M (1974), 'The Arab agricultural revolution and its diffusion', in The Journal of Economic History, 34,
  • Watson, A.M (1983), ' Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World', Cambridge University Press
  • Wells, Spencer: The Journey of Man : A Genetic Odyssey. Princeton University Press, 2003. ISBN 0-691-11532-X
  • Wickens, G.M.(1976), 'What the West borrowed from the Middle East', in Introduction to Islamic Civilization, edited by R.M. Savory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Coffee Plantation in São João do Manhuaçu City - Minas Gerais State - Brazil.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x762, 1205 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x762, 1205 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Capital (and largest city) Belo Horizonte Demonym Mineiro Government  -  Governor Aécio Neves  -  Vice Governor Antônio Augusto Junho Anastasia Area  -  Total 588,528. ...

External links

  • ifap.org - International Federation of Agricultural Producers (IFAP)
  • UKAgriculture.com - Advance the education of the public in all aspects of agriculture, the countryside and the rural economy
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - Agriculture Page
  • Research on the role of Agriculture in Poverty Reduction from the Overseas Development Institute
  • Barbagallo, Tricia (June 01, 2005). Black Beach: The Mucklands of Canastota, New York. Retrieved on 2008-06-04.
  • Directorate-General Agriculture and Rural Development - European Commission
  • Tillage and Farming events in the UK
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
Genes, Technology and Policy
At Wikiversity you can learn more about Agriculture at:
The School of Agriculture
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Agriculture
Largest UK think tank and research institute on international development. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikiversity logo Wikiversity is a Wikimedia Foundation beta project[1], devoted to learning materials and activities, located at www. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ohio Department of Agriculture Home Page (123 words)
The application period for the 2008 Clean Ohio Agricultural Easement Purchase Program has closed.
The department’s Office of Farmland Preservation is currently reviewing submissions for this final funding round and will begin notifying recipients in mid-July.
Ohio Department of Agriculture Hosts Educational Seminar to Assist Ohio Companies with Export Sales to Mexico and the Caribbean
FAO: Agriculture 21 (449 words)
Our Agricultural and Food Engineering Technologies Service will lead a three-year project aimed at promoting the adoption of conservation agriculture practices among smallholder farmers in Kenya and Tanzania.
Coping with water scarcity "Given the state of global water scarcity, agriculture is under severe scrutiny to account for the water it uses..."
Brazilian technology for agriculture in Africa The objective is to boost agricultural production by encouraging a shift to conservation agriculture
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m