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Encyclopedia > Agricultural science

Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. (Veterinary science, but not animal science, is often excluded from the definition.) The social sciences are a group of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Zoology (Greek zoon = animal and logos = word) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ...

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Agriculture and agricultural science

The two terms are often confused. However, they cover different concepts:

Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use. Agriculture concerns techniques, including the application of agronomic research.
Agronomy is research and development related to studying and improving plant-based agriculture.

Agricultural sciences include research and development on: The phrase research and development (also R and D or R&D) has a special commercial significance apart from its conventional coupling of research and technological development. ...

  • Production techniques (e.g., irrigation management, recommended nitrogen inputs)
  • Improving production in terms of quantity and quality (e.g., selection of drought-resistant crops and animals, development of new pesticides, yield-sensing technologies, simulation models of crop growth, in-vitro cell culture techniques)
  • Transformation of primary products into end-consumer products (e.g., production, preservation, and packaging of dairy products)
  • Prevention and correction of adverse environmental effects (e.g., soil degradation, waste management, bioremediation)
  • Theoretical production ecology, relating to crop production modeling
  • traditional agricultural systems such as which serve to feed most people in the world and which often retain integration with nature in a way that hs proven more sustainable than modern systems
  • Food production and demand on a global basis, with special attention paid to the major producers of China and India.

High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara (, ) Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... A drought or an extreme dry periodic climate is an extended period where water availability falls below the statistical requirements for a region. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Consumers are individuals or households that consume goods and services generated within the economy. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ... Retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil. ... Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Theoretical production ecology tries to quantatively study the growth of crops. ...

Agricultural science: a local science

With the exception of theoretical agronomy, research in agronomy, more than in any other field, is strongly related to local areas. It can be considered a science of ecoregions, because it is closely linked to soil properties and climate, which are never exactly the same from one place to another. Many people think an agricultural production system relying on local weather, soil characteristics, and specific crops has to be studied locally. Others feel a need to know and understand production systems in as many areas as possible, and the human dimension of interation with nature. Theoretical production ecology tries to quantatively study the growth of crops. ... An ecoregion is a relatively large area of land or water that contains a geographically distinct assemblage of natural communities. ... Soil is the material on the surface of a lithosphere subject to weathering, and especially the earthy portion of that material. ...


History of agricultural science

Main Article: History of agricultural science Agronomy today is very different from what it was before about 1950. ...


Agricultural science is seen by some to have began with Mendel's insightful genetic work, but in modern terms might be better dated from the chemical fertilizer outputs of plant physiological understanding in eighteenth century Germany. Today it is very different from what it was even in 1950. Intensification of agriculture since the 1960s in developed and developing countries, often referred to as the Green Revolution, was closely tied to progress made in selecting and improving crops and animals for high productivity, as well as to developing additional inputs such as artificial fertilizers and phytosanitary products. Mendel is the last name of Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), often called the father of Genetics. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... The Green Revolution is the increase in food production stemming from the improved strains of wheat, rice, maize and other cereals in the 1960s developed by Dr Norman Borlaug and others under the sponsorship of the Rockefeller Foundation and other organizations. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ...


As the oldest and largest human intervention in nature, the environmental impact of agriculture in general and more recently intensive agriculture, industrial development, and population growth have raised many questions among agricultural scientists and have led to the development and emergence of new fields. These include technological fields that assume the solution to technological problems lies in better technology, such as integrated pest management, waste treatment technologies, landscape architecture, genomics, and agricultural philosophy fields that include references to food production as something essentially different from non-essential eeconomic 'goods'. In fact, the interaction between these two approaches provide a fertile field for deeper understanding in agricultural science. Intensive agriculture is an agricultural production system characterized by the significant use of inputs, and seeking to maximize the production. ... IPM bollworm trap Cotton field Manning, South Carolina In agriculture, Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a pest control strategy that uses an array of complementary methods: natural predators and parasites, pest-resistant varieties (see GMO), cultural practices, biological controls, various physical techniques, and pesticides as a last resort. ... Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. ... Landscape architecture is the art, planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of man-made constructs. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms genome and the use of the genes. ... Agricultural Philosophy is the love of, search after and wisdom associated with agriculture, as one of humankinds founding components of civilization. ...


New technologies, such as biotechnology and computer science (for data processing and storage), and technological advances have made it possible to develop new research fields, including genetic engineering, agrophysics, improved statistical analysis, and precision farming. Balancing these, as above, are the natural and human sciences of agricultural science that seek to understand the human-nature interactions of traditional agriculture, including interaction of religion and agriculture, and the non-material components of agricultural production systems. The structure of insulin Biotechnology is a technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ...   Computer science is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... An autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of the firefly, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... Agrophysics is a new branch of science bordering on physics and agronomy, whose objects of study are the ecosystem and the biological object affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences. ... A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... Precision farming or precision agriculture is an agricultural concept relying on the existence of in-field variability. ...


Prominent agricultural scientists

Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25, 1914) is an American agricultural scientist, humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and the father of the Green Revolution. ... Luther Burbank around 1922 Luther Burbank (March 7, 1849–April 11, 1926) was an American botanist, horticulturist, and pioneer of agricultural science. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... Gregor Johann Mendel Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20[1], 1822 – January 6, 1884) was an Augustinian abbot who is often called the father of genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... René Dumont (March 13, 1904 - June 18, 2001) was a French engineer in agronomy, a sociologist, and an environmental politician. ... George Washington Carver, 1906 George Washington Carver (c. ...

Agricultural science and agriculture crisis

Agriculture sciences seek to feed the world's population while preventing biosafety problems that may affect human health and the environment. This requires promoting good management of natural resources and respect for the environment, and increasingly concern for the psychological wellbeing of all concerned in the food production and consumption system. Biosafety: prevention of large-scale loss of biological integrity, focusing both on ecology and human health. ...


Economic, environmental, and social aspects of agriculture sciences are subjects of ongoing debate. Recent crises (such as Avian Flu, mad cow disease and issues such as the use of genetically modified organisms) illustrate the complexity and importance of this debate. Look up Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A tobacco plant which has been genetically engineered to express a gene taken from fireflies. ...


Fields or related disciplines

Agricultural Engineers study and advise on the application of engineering science and technology to agricultural production and to the management of natural resources. ... Agricultural Philosophy is the love of, search after and wisdom associated with agriculture, as one of humankinds founding components of civilization. ... Biological engineering (a. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... Agronomy is a branch of agricultural science that deals with the study of crops and the soils in which they grow. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... Agrophysics is a new branch of science bordering on physics and agronomy, whose objects of study are the ecosystem and the biological object affected by human activity, studied and described using the methods of physical sciences. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Agricultural soil science is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... This article needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... An autoluminograph from 1986 of a glowing transgenic tobacco plant bearing the luciferase gene of the firefly, illustrating the possibilities of genetic engineering. ... Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... High-altitude aerial view of irrigation in the Heart of the Sahara (, ) Irrigation (in agriculture) is the replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops. ... LLGHHHHHHHHHK BNMNKBV JKVGKJJH JHVG KJVH KJV KJV JKV JV JV KJFYG KHV KJV gfnnnnnnnnnnhngjkv jh b ... Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala. ... Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. ... Environmental science is the study of the interactions among the physical, chemical and biological components of the environment; with a focus on pollution and degradation of the environment related due to human activities; and the impact on biodiversity and sustainability from local and global development. ... Environmental engineering is the application of science and engineering principles to improving the environment (air, water, and/or land resources), to provide healthful water, air and land for human habitation and for other organisms, and to investigate the possibilities for remediation of polluted sites. ... Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. ... The word ecology is often used in common parlance as a synonym for the natural environment or environmentalism. ... Theoretical production ecology tries to quantatively study the growth of crops. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Agricultural science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (720 words)
Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic, and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture.
Agricultural science is seen by some to have began with Mendel's insightful genetic work, but in modern terms might be better dated from the chemical fertilizer outputs of plant physiological understanding in eighteenth century Germany.
Agriculture sciences seek to feed the world's population while preventing biosafety problems that may affect human health and the environment.
Science - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2952 words)
Science is not a source of subjective value judgements, though it can certainly speak to matters of ethics and public policy by pointing to the likely consequences of actions.
Science is practiced in universities and other scientific institutes as well as in the field; as such it is a solid vocation in academia, but is also practiced by amateurs, who typically engage in the observational part of science.
Science has become so pervasive in modern societies that it is generally perceived a necessity to communicate the achievements, news, and dreams of scientists to a wider populace.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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