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Encyclopedia > Agricultural fencing
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Fence dividing paddocks.
Fence dividing paddocks.

In agriculture, fences are used to keep animals in or out of an area. Image File history File links Wooden Fence Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Wooden Fence Taken by User:Fir0002 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A fence is a freestanding structure designed to restrict or prevent movement across a boundary. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria Placozoa Subregnum Bilateria  Acoelomorpha  Orthonectida  Rhombozoa  Myxozoa  Superphylum Deuterostomia     Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ...

Contents


History

Timber agricultural fence (photo taken in 1938).
Timber agricultural fence (photo taken in 1938).

An agricultural fence. ... An agricultural fence. ...

Early fences

In older times, livestock would roam and were fenced out of areas, such as gardens and fields of crops, where they were unwanted. This prevails yet today in sparsely populated areas. States in the American West that follow this tradition are called "fence out" states, in contrast to Midwestern states which have "fence in" laws where livestock must be confined by their owners.


The earliest fences were made of available materials, usually stone or wood. In areas where field stones are plentiful, fences have been built up over the years as the stones are removed from fields during tillage and planting of crops. The stones were placed on the field edge to get them out of the way. In time, the piles of stones grew high and wide. Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is the xylem tissue of woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ...


In other areas, fences were constructed of timber. Log fences or split rail fences were simple fences constructed in newly cleared areas by stacking log rails. Timber Timber is a term used to describe wood throughout its processing from the time it is planned for use in industrial products to the time it is used as a structural material or in other industrial product, such as wood pulp for paper production. ...


A later development was the sunken fence, or "ha-ha," a type of wall built by digging a ditch with one steep side (which animals cannot scale) and one sloped side (where the animals roam).


Barbed wire

Chain link fence with barbed wire on top.
Chain link fence with barbed wire on top.

The Industrial Revolution brought the first barbed wire fences, which were widely used after their introduction in the mid-19th century. This technology made it economically feasible to fence rangeland for the first time. The introduction of barbed wire contributed to the range wars of that century, as it exacerbated tensions between landowners seeking exclusive control over large tracts of land, and traditional transient users of that land. fence Source: Image taken by Dori License: PD This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... fence Source: Image taken by Dori License: PD This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Industrial Revolution was the major technological, socioeconomic and cultural change in the late 18th and early 19th century resulting from the replacement of an economy based on manual labor to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture. ... Modern barbed wire Barbed wire is a type of fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rangeland refers to a large, mostly unimproved section of land that is predominantly used for livestock grazing. ...


Barbed wire was made by many manufacturers in an almost endless variety of styles. For the most part these were functionally identical. The differences reflected peculiarities of each manufacturing process rather than deliberate design of the end product. Sections of unusual barbed wire are collected by some enthusiasts.


The traditional barbed wire used from the late 19th through most of the 20th century was made from two mild steel wires, usually of about 12 or 14 gauge, with about 15-30 twists per metre. Steel barbs were attached every 10-20 cm. Barbs had either two or four points, with the two point design using somewhat heavier and longer barbs. The relative merits of two point vs. four point wire are the subject of deeply held views among many farmers and ranchers, to the extent that both types are still made today. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


Barbed wire is typically run on wooden posts, either commercially grown in plantations or, particularly in the American West, often posts that have been cut from nearby trees. Wire is attached to the posts using fencing staples. Typically four or five strands of barbed wire make up a fence. Posts are usually spaced 3-6 m apart. // Forestry plantations A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, USA; note the trees of uniform size and planted in straight lines, and the lack of diversity in the ground flora In forestry, plantations of trees are typically grown as an even-aged monoculture for timber production, as opposed to a... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ...


In areas where there is more rainfall, either rot-resistant wooden posts or steel posts are used. Wood with natural rot resistance, such as oak and juniper, was often used until it became in short supply in the 1950s. Then, chemically treated pine and spruce posts became prevalent. Creosote, pentachlorophenol, and chromated copper arsenate were all widely used. Species See List of Quercus species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of several hundred species of trees and shrubs in the genus Quercus, and some related genera, notably Lithocarpus. ... Species 50-55 species; see text. ... Species About 115. ... Species About 35; see text. ...


In the 1970s, high-tensile barbed wire became available. It is lighter in gauge (usually 16 gauge) but, due to higher carbon content, just as strong as the traditional mild steel. Advantages include lighter weight and lower cost.


Barbed wire is effective for cattle and horses, but not for pigs, sheep, or goats. Where these animals are to be fenced, woven wire is used instead, often with one or several strands of barbed wire at the top. For swine, a ground-level barbed wire strand is used as well to prevent digging. Woven wire is costly to purchase and time-consuming to install. Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (called simply cows in vernacular usage) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the seven modern species of the genus Equus. ... Jump to: navigation, search Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 A sheep is any of several woolly ruminant quadrupeds, but most commonly the Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), which probably descends from the wild moufflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... Species See Species and subspecies A goat is an mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ...


Electric

Electric fencing became available in the 1950s and has been widely used for temporary fences and as a means to improve the security of fences made of other materials. It is made using lightweight steel wire (usually 14-17 gauge) attached to posts with insulators made of porcelain or plastic. A fence charger places an electrical pulse from ground to the wire about once per second. The pulse is narrow and usually around 5-20 kV. Animals receive a painful but harmless shock when contacting the wire, and learn to stay away from it. Insulators are materials which prevent the flow of heat (thermal insulators) or electric charge (electrical insulators). ... A rare Dresden porcelain figurine Porcelain is a type of hard semi-translucent ceramic generally fired at a higher temperature than glazed earthenware, or stoneware pottery. ... Jump to: navigation, search Plastic is a term that covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ...


High tensile (H-T or HT) fencing using smooth, heavy gauge (usually 12.5 gauge, 2.5mm) steel wire was introduced in the 1980s and has slowly gained acceptance. It permits the use of wider post spacings and offers improved stock safety compared to barbed and woven wire fences. It can be insulated and electrified. Trellising for horticultural purposes is generally constructed from HT wire as it is able to withstand a higher cropping load. Joining HT wire is difficult because of its stiffness and its reduction in strength when bent to form a knot.


Fences of wood, stranded cable, and pipe are used where cost is not a consideration, particularly on horse farms, or in areas like corrals where stock are likely to challenge the fence.


Maintenance

All types of agricultural fencing require regular maintenance to ensure their effectiveness. Cattle and horses are strong enough to go through most types of fence by main force, and occasionally do so when frightened or motivated by hunger, thirst, or sex drive. Weather, flood, fire, and damage from vandals or motor vehicle accidents can do similar damage and may allow livestock to escape.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Agricultural Fence - Ohio Fencing.com (130 words)
We have the ability to fence everything from chickens, cows and sheep to ostriches and red deer, no job is too big for us to handle.
The most popular type of agricultural fencing uses peeled and treated softwood stakes, struts and strainers to support stockfence and barbed wire or just 2-4 strands of barbed wire.
At Ohio Fencing we are installers of high quality fencing products, if you have special needs give us a call and we can do the job to fit your needs.
Agricultural fencing - Definition, explanation (1130 words)
In agriculture, fences are used to keep animals in or out of an area.
Electric fencing became available in the 1950s and has been widely used for temporary fences and as a means to improve the security of fences made of other materials.
Fences of wood, stranded cable, and pipe are used where cost is not a consideration, particularly on horse farms, or in areas like corrals where stock are likely to challenge the fence.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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