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Encyclopedia > Agrarian land reform in Mexico

Before the 1910 Mexican Revolution that overthrew Porfirio Díaz most of the land was owned by a single elite ruling class. Legally there was no slavery or serfdom; but through heavy debts Indian wage workers, or peasants, were basically debt-slaves to the landowners. A small percentage of rich landowners owned most of the countries farm land. With so many people brutally suppressed revolts, and revolution were common in Mexico. In order to relieve the Mexican peasant's plight and stabalize the country various leaders tried different types of agrarian land reform. 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Term of office: 29 November 1876 to 30 November 1880 (first term) – 1 December 1884 to 1910 (second term) Preceded by: Sebastián Lerdo de Tejada (1876), Manuel González (1884) Succeeded by: Manuel González (1880), Francisco León de la Barra interim (1911) Date of birth: 15 September... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

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1856 Lerdo Law

Finance Minister, Miguel Lerdo de Tejada passess the Lerdo Law. The Lerdo Law allowed the government to force the sale of all Church real estate. Miguel Lerdo de Tejada was a Mexican statesman, and a leader of the Revolution of Ayutla. ...


Land reform from 1910 to 1934

During the Álvaro Obregón presidency, Mexico began to concentrate on land reform. After the revolution, land was taken away from many people and distributed amongst the Mexicans. Obregon began to distribute the foreign own land back to its people, however, this process was very slow. Between the years of 1920-1924, only 12,000 km² was given to homeless peasants, only a portion of the unoccupied land. Many problems arose. Since Obregon feared the United States, he was very careful in implementing Article 27, signifying the slogan “Tierra y Libertad-Land and Liberty”, of the Constitution of Mexico which restricted the amount of Mexican land a foreigner can own. Term of office: 1 December 1920 – 1 December 1924 Preceded by: Adolfo de la Huerta Interim Succeeded by: Plutarco Elías Calles Date of birth: 19 February 1880 Place of birth: Navojoa, Sonora Date of death: 17 July 1928 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Military First Lady: María... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The amount of land distributed was not as important as the process in which it was done. The development took place under legislation, the Constitution of 1917, rather than through more violence. The land allocation was not a way of confiscating land but rather giving the Mexican people back what was rightfully theirs. Land owners who got their land taken away were promised compensation. This was also written in the form of legislation so that it was officially followed through. Compensation consisted of the tax value of the land with an additional ten percent. In reality, only a small portion got this payment.


Although new Agrarian laws were written, they had limitations. For example, not everyone had the right to own land; most people who lived on plantations were excluded. People who lived in villages, on the other hand, had every right to land with some exceptions. Owners had to be eighteen years old, had to be agriculturists, could not be previous land owners, could not own more than $500 USD in capital and were not allowed to possess any other professional skill that would put them to an advantage over others. Also, the new owners could not sell or lease the land received. It could only be passed down from father to son, the same way an inheritance would be handled.


Cardenista land reform 1934 to 1940

President Lázaro Cárdenas in 1934 passed the 1934 Agrarian Code. The amendment to the constitution: Term of office: November 30, 1934 – December 1, 1940 Preceded by: Abelardo L. Rodríguez Succeeded by: Manuel Ávila Camacho Date of birth: 21 May 1895 Place of birth: Jiquilpan, Michoacán Date of death: 19 October 1970 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Army General First Lady: Amalia Sol...

  • sets certain limits on division of land
  • village land to be divided amongst individuals who have no right to mortgage or sell land.

Step back 1940 to 1970

Starting with the government of Miguel Alemán (1946-52) land reform steps made in previous governments were rolled back. The Alemán's government allowed capitalist entrepreneurs to rent peasant land. This created phenomenon known as neolatifundismo, where land owners build up large-scale private farms on the basis of controlling land which remains ejidal but is not sown by the peasants to whom it is assigned. Term of office: 1 December 1946 – 1 December 1952 Preceded by: Manuel Ávila Camacho Succeeded by: Adolfo Ruiz Cortines Date of birth: 29 September 1902 Place of birth: Sayula, Veracruz Date of death: 14 May 1983 Place of death: Mexico City Profession: Lawyer First Lady: Beatriz Velasco Party: PRI Miguel... The ejido system is a process whereby the government takes land from private hands and uses it as communal land shared by the people of the community. ...


1970 and statization

In 1970 President Luis Echeverría began his term by declaring land reform dead. In the face of peasant revolt he was forced to eat his words and embarked on the biggest land reform programme since Cárdenas. Echeverría legalized land invasions of foreign-owned huge private farms which were turned into new collective ejidos. Luis Echeverría Álvarez (born 17 January 1922) was the President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976. ... The ejido system is a process whereby the government takes land from private hands and uses it as communal land shared by the people of the community. ...


Land reform from 1991 to present

In 1988 President Carlos Salinas de Gortari was elected. In Dec, 1991 he amended the constitutional Article 27 to make it legal to sell ejido land and allow peasants to put up their land as collateral for a loan. Carlos Salinas de Gortari (born April 3, 1948) was President of Mexico from 1988 to 1994. ... The ejido system is a process whereby the government takes land from private hands and uses it as communal land shared by the people of the community. ...


Effects of land reform

Today, most Mexican peasants are landowners. However, their holdings are usually too small, and farmers must supplement their incomes by working for the remaining landlords, and/or traveling to the United States. Travel is the transport of people on a trip or journey. ...


See also


 
 

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