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Encyclopedia > Agrégation

In France, the agrégation is a civil service competitive examination for some positions in the public education system. The laureates are known as agrégés. A similar system exists in other countries. A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public-sector employee working for a government department or agency. ... A competitive examination is an examination where candidates are ranked according to their grades. ... Public education is schooling provided by the government, and paid for by taxes. ...

There are actually two different agrégations:

Secondary education

The main one and the better known is for secondary education, leading to the position of professeur agrégé. Its difficulty and selectivity varies greatly between disciplines: there are about 300 such positions open each year in mathematics, but a few dozen in philosophy, and perhaps one in some rarely taught foreign languages such as Japanese. In any case, it is considered a selective to very selective exam to succeed in. Japanese high school students in uniform Secondary education is a period of education which follows directly after primary education (such as intermediate school or elementary school), and which may be followed by tertiary or post-secondary education. ... Wikibooks Wikiversity has more about this subject: School of Mathematics Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: Mathematics Look up Mathematics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has more media related to: Mathematics Bogomolny, Alexander: Interactive Mathematics Miscellany and Puzzles. ... The term Philosophy derives from a combination of the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. ... A foreign language is a language not spoken by the indigenous people of a certain place: for example, English is a foreign language in Japan. ...

The exam generally consists in a written part (admissibility) where most candidates are eliminated, followed by an oral part (admission) where the candidate must demonstrate his ability to prepare and give lessons on about any topic within the scope of his discipline.

In most disciplines, the lessons expected extend well above the secondary education level; the candidate may, in effect, have to present a lesson appropriate for the 2nd, 3rd or even 4th years of specialized studies at a university. One reason for that is that the agrégés should be able to teach in special postgraduate sections of highschools known as preparatory classes to the grandes écoles, where the level is above the normal level of 1st or 2nd year college education – though the vast majority of agrégés teach in ordinary secondary education. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... The grandes écoles (French for great schools) of France are higher education establishments outside of the mainstream framework of the public universities. ...

The agrégation is normally open only to holders of a 4-year college education (formerly, maîtrise) or above. Its preparation often takes a full additional year at the university, for the so-called external agrégation. There also exists an internal agrégation for people holding lesser positions within the education system, though it lacks the prestige of the external one.

The agrégation is also used as a kind of national ranking system for students, giving a fair comparison between students of different universities. This is especially true in the humanities, where the agrégation is highly selective and serves as a test on the culture of the candidate. The humanities are a group of academic subjects united by a commitment to studying aspects of the human condition and a qualitative approach that generally prevents a single paradigm from coming to define any discipline. ...

The student of the écoles normales supérieures often prepare the agrégation. The quadrangle at the main ENS building on rue dUlm is known as the Cour aux Ernests – the Ernests being the goldfish in the pond. ...

In addition to those teaching in the preparatory classes to the grandes écoles, some agrégés teach in normal universities, but do not, nominally, do scientific research as normal university academics do ; these positions are known as PRAG. A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...

Higher education

In some disciplines of higher education such as law and economics, there exists an agrégation for the professorship positions. In this competitive exam, the candidate also has to give a lesson in front of a committee. However, the candidate has a full day to prepare for the examination, may use several libraries as well as a team of "helpers". Higher education is education provided by universities and other institutions that award academic degrees, such as university colleges, and liberal arts colleges. ... Law (a loanword from Old Norse lag), in politics and jurisprudence, is a set of rules or norms of conduct which mandate, proscribe or permit specified relationships among people and organizations, provide methods for ensuring the impartial treatment of such people, and provide punishments for those who do not follow... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...

Some sociologists like Pierre Bourdieu have argued that this exam measures as much the candidate's ability to present a lesson as the candidate's social connections — consider, for example, that a candidate for a Law professorship may be helped by first-class attorneys if he happens to know them. Pierre Bourdieu Pierre-Félix Bourdieu (August 1, 1930-January 23, 2002) was a French sociologist. ...

External links

List of successful agrégés by subject matter and year from 1900 to 1950 (French) (http://www.inrp.fr/she/chervel_laureats2.htm)



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