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Encyclopedia > Agkistrodon piscivorus
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Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Subfamily: Crotalinae
Genus: Agkistrodon
Species: A. piscivorus
Binomial name
Agkistrodon piscivorus
(Lacépède, 1789)
Synonyms
  • Vipera aquatica - Catesby, 1743
  • Crot[alus]. Piscivorus - Lacépède, 1789
  • C[rotalus]. Aquaticus - Bonnaterre, 1790
  • Scytale piscivora - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Coluber Aquaticus - Shaw, 1802
  • Coluber Tisiphone - Shaw, 1802
  • Scytale piscivorus - Daudin, 1803
  • [Coluber (Natrix)] piscivorus - Merrem, 1820
  • Colub[er]. tisiphone - Cuvier, 1829
  • Scytale piscivorus - Harlan, 1835
  • Trigonocephalus piscivorus - Holbrook, 1838
  • Cenchris piscivorus - Gray, 1842
  • Toxicophis piscivorus - Baird & Girard, 1853
  • Toxicophis pugnax - Baird & Girard, 1853
  • Trigonocephalus tisiphone - Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854
  • A[ncistrodon]. piscivorus - Cope, 1860
  • A[ncistrodon]. pugnax - Cope, 1860
  • T[rigonocephalus]. piscivorus var. pugnax - Jan, 1863
  • Vipera Cench[ris]. Piscivorus - Higgins, 1873
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus Lacépède, ssp. piscivorus - Cope, 1875
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus Lacépède, ssp. pugnax - Cope, 1875
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus piscivorus - Yarrow, 1882
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus pugnax - Yarrow, 1882
  • [Ancistrodon piscivorus] Var. pugnax - Garman, 1884
  • Agkistrodon piscivorus - Garman, 1890
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus - Boulenger, 1896
  • Agkistrodon piscivorus piscivorus - Gloyd & Conant, 1943
  • Ancistrodon piscivorus piscivorus - Schmidt, 1953
  • Agkistrodon piscivorus laurae - Stewart, 1974
  • Agkistrodon piscivorus - Gloyd & Conant, 1990[1]
Common names: cottonmouth, water moccasin, black moccasin, black snake,[2] more.

Agkistrodon piscivorus is a venomous pitviper species found in the eastern United States. It is a close relative of the copperhead, A. contortrix. Three subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate subspecies described here.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 5. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species remaining extant either in the present day or the near future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to extant species or lower taxa which have been evaluated but do not qualify for any other category. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... Synonyms Viperae - Laurenti, 1768 Viperini - Oppel, 1811 Viperidae - Gray, 1825[1] The Viperidae are a family of venomous snakes commonly referred to as vipers, although the term viperids is more specific and distinguishes them from the viperines (subfamily Viperinae). ... {{Taxobox[[{| class=wikitable |- ]]</nowiki>]] --> </gallery> |} |}]]| [[Image:[[Media:Failed to parse (unknown error): == <nowiki>#REDIRECT [[<sup><small>[ == == == [[Image:[[Image:[[Media:[[Media:#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[ ---- ---- <math><math><math>[[Media:[[Media: == == == == == == [[[[[[color = pink]]]]]] == == == == == ==]]]] </math></math>]]]]]]]]]]]]]] == == ==]]]</nowiki> ==</math>]]]] | name = Crotalinae | image = TimberRattler. ... Synonyms Agkistrodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Agkishodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Scytale - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Cenchris - Daudin, 1803 Cenchurs - Link, 1807 Scytalus - Fischer, 1803 Tisiphone - Fitzinger, 1826 Ancistrodon - Wagler, 1830 Acontias - Troost, 1836 Toxicophis - Troost, 1836[1] Common names: moccasins, copperheads, cantils. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ... A venomous snake is a snake that uses modified saliva, venom, delivered through fangs in its mouth, to immobilize or kill its prey. ... {{Taxobox[[{| class=wikitable |- ]]</nowiki>]] --> </gallery> |} |}]]| [[Image:[[Media:Failed to parse (unknown error): == <nowiki>#REDIRECT [[<sup><small>[ == == == [[Image:[[Image:[[Media:[[Media:#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[#REDIRECT [[ ---- ---- <math><math><math>[[Media:[[Media: == == == == == == [[[[[[color = pink]]]]]] == == == == == ==]]]] </math></math>]]]]]]]]]]]]]] == == ==]]]</nowiki> ==</math>]]]] | name = Crotalinae | image = TimberRattler. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838... This article is about the zoological term. ...

Contents

Description

This is the largest species of the genus Agkistrodon. Adults commonly exceed 80 cm (roughly 2 ft. 8 in.) in length, with males growing larger than females. They have a heavy body with a moderately long tail. Occasionally, individuals may exceed 180 cm (5.9 ft) in length, especially in the eastern part of the range.[4] According to Gloyd and Conant (1990), the largest recorded specimen of A. p. piscivorus was 74 inches (1879 mm) in length (Conant, 1975), based on a specimen caught in the Dismal Swamp region and given to the Philadelphia Zoological Garden. It should be noted, however, that this snake had apparently been injured during capture, died several days later and was measured when straight and relaxed.[5] Synonyms Agkistrodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Agkishodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Scytale - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Cenchris - Daudin, 1803 Cenchurs - Link, 1807 Scytalus - Fischer, 1803 Tisiphone - Fitzinger, 1826 Ancistrodon - Wagler, 1830 Acontias - Troost, 1836 Toxicophis - Troost, 1836[1] Common names: moccasins, copperheads, cantils. ... The Great Dismal Swamp is located in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina in the United States on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. ...

A. piscivorus, neonate. Note the yellow tail tip.
A. piscivorus, neonate. Note the yellow tail tip.

The color pattern consists of a brown, gray, tan, yellowish olive or blackish ground color, which is overlaid with a series of 10-17 crossbands that are dark brown to almost black. These crossbands, which usually have black edges, are sometimes broken along the dorsal midline to form a series of staggered half bands on either side of the body. These crossbands are visibly lighter in the center, almost matching the ground color, often contain irregular dark markings, and extend well down onto the ventrals. The dorsal banding pattern fades with ages, so that older individuals are an almost uniform olive brown, grayish brown or black. The belly is white, yellowish white or tan, marked with dark spots, and becomes darker posteriorly. The amount of dark pigment on the belly varies from virtually nothing to almost completely black. The head is a more or less uniform brown color, especially in A. p. piscivorus. Subadult specimens may exhibit the same kind of dark, parietal spots that are characteristic of A. contortrix, but sometimes these are still visible in adults. Eastern populations have broad dark postocular stripe, bordered with pale pigment above and below, that is faint or absent in western populations. The underside of the head is generally whitish, cream or tan.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 684 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Neonate Eastern Cottonmouth: Note yellow tail tip I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 514 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (587 × 684 pixel, file size: 88 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Neonate Eastern Cottonmouth: Note yellow tail tip I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Amphiesma stolata In snakes, the ventral scales, or gastrosteges, are the enlarged scales that extend down the underside of the body[1] from the head to the anal plate. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838...


Juvenile and subadult specimens generally have a more contrasting color pattern, with dark crossbands on a lighter ground color. The ground color is then tan, brown or reddish brown. The tip of the tail is usually yellowish, becoming greenish yellow or greenish in subadults, and then black in adults. On some juveniles, the banding pattern can also be seen on the tail.[4]


Common names

Water moccasin, cottonmouth, black moccasin, black snake, blunt-tail moccasin, congo, copperhead, cottonmouth water moccasin, cotton-mouthed snake, gapper, highland moccasin, lowland moccasin, mangrove rattler, moccasin, North American cottonmouth snake, North American water moccasin, North American water viper, pilot, rusty moccasin, saltwater rattler, rattler, stub-tail, stump moccasin, stump-tail moccasin, stump-tail viper, swamp lion, Texas moccasin, trap jaw, Troost's moccasin, true horn snake, true water moccasin, viper, water mokeson, water pilot, water rattlesnake, water viper,[2] cotton-mouth snake.[6]


Geographic range

Found in the eastern United States from Virginia, south through the Florida peninsula and west to Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, eastern and southern Oklahoma, and eastern and central Texas. A few records exist of the species being found along the Rio Grande in Texas, but these are thought to represent disjunct populations, now possibly extirpated. The type locality given is "Carolina," although Schmidt (1953) proposed that this be restricted to the area around Charleston, South Carolina.[1] This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... “Río Bravo” redirects here. ... In biology the term type locality is used to refer to the location at which a type specimen was collected. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ...


Campbell and Lamar (2004) mentions this species as being found in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Texas, and Virginia.[4] Maps provided by Campbell and Lamar (2004) and Wright and Wright (1957) also indicate its presence in eastern Tennessee, extreme southeastern Nebraska and limit it to the western part of Kentucky.[4][2] This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... For other uses, see Nebraska (disambiguation). ...


In Georgia it is found in the southern half of the state up to a few kilometers north of the fall line with few exceptions. Its range also includes the Ohio River Valley as far north as southern Illinois, and it inhabits many barrier islands off the coasts of the states where it is found.[4] The fall line has meanings in both geographical features and the sport of alpine skiing. ... The Ohio River is the largest tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. ... In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ...


Conservation status

This species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v3.1, 2001).[7] Species are listed as such due to their wide distribution, presumed large population, or because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. The population trend is stable. Year assessed: 2007.[8] The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ...


It does not hold any other conservation status, and because of its perceived aggressiveness and fear of its bite, many are killed by humans every year. Unfortunately, the far more common species of water snakes of the genus Nerodia are often mistaken for it, and many more of them are killed every year. Nerodia is a genus of non-venomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as water snakes. ...


Habitat

This is the most aquatic species of the genus Agkistrodon and is usually associated with bodies of water, such as creeks, streams, marshes, swamps and the shores of ponds and lakes.[4] The U.S. Navy (1991) describes it as inhabiting swamps, shallow lakes and sluggish streams, but that it is usually not found in swift, deep, cool water.[9] Behler and King (1979) list its habitats as including lowland swamps, lakes, rivers, bayheads, sloughs, irrigation ditches, canals, rice fields and small clear rocky mountain streams.[10] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Synonyms Agkistrodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Agkishodon - Palisot de Beauvois, 1799 Scytale - Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Cenchris - Daudin, 1803 Cenchurs - Link, 1807 Scytalus - Fischer, 1803 Tisiphone - Fitzinger, 1826 Ancistrodon - Wagler, 1830 Acontias - Troost, 1836 Toxicophis - Troost, 1836[1] Common names: moccasins, copperheads, cantils. ...


It is also found in brackish water habitats and is sometimes seen swimming in salt water. It has been much more successful at colonizing Atlantic and Gulf coast barrier islands than the copperhead, A. contortrix. However, even on these islands it tends to favor freshwater marshes. A study by Dunson and Freda (1985) describe it as not being particularly salt tolerant.[4] In geography, a bar is a linear shoaling landform feature within a body of water. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838...


Not limited to water, however, Gloyd and Conant (1990) mention that large specimens have been found more than a mile (1.6 km) from any visible sources of it.[5] In various locations the species is well adapted to less moist environments, such as palmetto thickets, pine-palmetto forest, pine woods in eastern Texas, pine flatwoods in Florida, eastern deciduous dune forest, dune and beach areas, riparian forest and prairies.[4] Binomial name (Bartram) J.K.Small Serenoa repens, the saw palmetto, is the sole species currently classified in the genus Serenoa. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... A well preserved Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie. ...


Frequency of encounters

Commonly, the average person will call any snake found in, or near, the water a cottonmouth or water moccasin. This is far from the case. Harmless water snakes (those of the genus Nerodia) are far more common than the cottonmouth, and will sometimes act aggressively and flatten their head to mimic the shape of the pit viper's head. This behavior can be very convincing to people not experienced with these snakes. On land the eastern hognose snake, (Heterodon platirhinos) is also frequently mistaken for the cottonmouth. It too can flatten its head, though not appearing as convincing as the water snake, and will often hiss loudly as a method of defense. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Nerodia is a genus of non-venomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as water snakes. ... Binomial name Heterodon platirhinos Latreille, 1801 The Eastern Hognose Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) is a species of colubrid snake. ...


Behavior

Within their range, cottonmouths have a reputation as being aggressive snakes. However, in tests designed to measure the suite of behavioral responses by free-ranging cottonmouths to encounters with humans, 51 percent of the test subjects tried to escape and 78 percent used threat displays or other defensive tactics. Only when the snakes were picked up with a mechanical hand were they likely to bite. [11]

A. p. conanti  (Florida Cottonmouth), swimming. Unlike non-venomous species, much of the body floats above the surface (found in over 12 U.S. states).

In addition, many of the snakes that did bite did not inject venom. Such a "dry" bite could also be another, more serious threat display. Unlike most snakes, including the copperhead, when startled the cottonmouth often will stand its ground and open its mouth ("gape" or "smile") to warn predators to stay away. That behavior is many times seen as aggressive, but if left alone they will leave.
Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 964 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Captive Agkistrodon piscivorous conanti swimming in man-made pond. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 453 pixelsFull resolution (1702 × 964 pixel, file size: 104 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Captive Agkistrodon piscivorous conanti swimming in man-made pond. ... It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838...


These snakes are semi-aquatic, spending almost all their time close to permanent water sources. They swim with much of their bodies floating above the surface distinguishing them from water snakes, which tend to swim mostly below the surface, sometimes with their heads protruding. For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... Nerodia is a genus of non-venomous colubrid snakes commonly referred to as water snakes. ...


They take a wide variety of prey including fish, small mammals, lizards, birds, small turtles, baby alligators, and even other snakes. Usually a victim is envenomated quickly with a bite and then released. If the prey does not succumb immediately, it is tracked by scent. Like all pit vipers, the cottonmouth has pits on the sides of its nose that sense bodyheat of warm blooded animals in the form of infrared light, thus its hunting ability is not impaired at night. The name "cottonmouth" is earned by the snake's tendency to open its mouth widely, displaying white tissue inside as a warning gesture. Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Alligator (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ...

Reproduction

A. p. piscivorus, light-colored adult.
A. p. piscivorus, light-colored adult.

A. piscivorus breeds in the spring and fall and is ovoviviparous, giving birth to 10 or so live young after a 3 month gestation period. The young average around 20 cm in length. There is little to no maternal care. Juvenile cottonmouths share a behavior with A. contortrix known as caudal luring. They use the bright color on the tip of their tail as a lure to entice prey items to approach within striking range (a form of aggressive mimicry). As they mature, this tail color fades along with the associated behaviour. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1371 × 906 pixel, file size: 824 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 529 pixelsFull resolution (1371 × 906 pixel, file size: 824 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ovoviviparous animals develop within eggs that remain within the mothers body up until they hatch or are about to hatch. ... Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside a female viviparous animal. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1766 Synonyms Boa contortrix - Linnaeus, 1766 Scytale contortrix - Sonnini & Latreille, 1801 Scytale Cupreus - Rafinesque, 1818 Scytale cupreus - Say, 1819 Tisiphone cuprea - Fitzinger, 1826 [Cenchris] marmorata - F. Boie, 1827 Acontias atro-fuscus - Troost, 1836 [Toxicophis atro-fuscus] - Troost, 1836 T[rigonocephalus]. cenchris - Schlegel, 1837 Trigonocephalus Contortrix - Holbrook, 1838... In zootomy, several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Prey can refer to: Look up Prey in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A prey animal eaten by a predator in an act called predation. ... Plate from Henry Walter Bates (1862) illustrating Batesian mimicry between Dismorphia species (top row, third row) and various Ithomiini (Nymphalidae) (second row, bottom row). ...

Venom

The venom of the cottonmouth is hemotoxic, causing swelling and necrosis near the site of the wound, and potentially death of the victim if treatment is not received promptly. The venom is more toxic than that of its close cousin the copperhead, but nowhere near as toxic as those of rattlesnakes and other vipers. Treatment generally includes intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and an antivenin like CroFab. Like many vipers, the cottonmouth is capable of inflicting what is referred to as a "dry bite", where no venom is injected, but any bite from a venomous snake should be treated as serious and immediate medical attention sought, even if no immediate effects from the venom are felt. Compared to other venomous snake species in its geographic range the venom of a cottonmouth is relatively weak and is unlikely to kill an otherwise healthy human adult. Antivenin is typically only administered in severe cases, and medical treatment can be necessary to prevent complications. The bite however is extremely painful, prone to gangrene, and loss of digits is possible with subpar treatment. Hemotoxins are toxins that destroy red blood cells (hemolysis), disrupt blood clotting, and/or cause organ degeneration and generalized tissue damage. ... Necrosis (in Greek Νεκρός = Dead) is the name given to accidental death of cells and living tissue. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Antivenin (or antivenom, or antivenene) is a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. ... CroFab is the commercial name for crotalidae polyvalent immune fragment antigen binding, manufactured by Savage Laboratories in Melville, New York. ...


Subspecies

Subspecies[3] Authority[3] Common name[5] Geographic range[5]
A. p. conanti Gloyd, 1969 Florida cottonmouth The United States, in extreme southern Georgia and virtually all of the state of Florida, including many of the islands off the coast.
A. p. leucostoma (Troost, 1836) Western cottonmouth The United States, from southern Alabama along coast of the Gulf of Mexico, including many offshore islands, to southeastern and central Texas, and north to Oklahoma, Missouri, Illinois and Indiana.
A. p. piscivorus (Lacépède, 1789) Eastern cottonmouth The United States in southeastern Virginia, the Atlantic Coastal Plain and lower Piedmont of North and South Carolina, including the banks, peninsulas and islands along the Atlantic coast, and west across Georgia.

Trinomial name Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti Gloyd, 1969 The Florida Cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti) is one of three subspecies of the cottonmouth, (Agkistrodon piscivorus) that is found east of the Mississippi River. ... Howard Kay Gloyd (1902–1978) was an American herpetologist who is credited with describing several new species of reptile, such as the Florida Cottonmouth, Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... Trinomial name Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma Troost, 1836 Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma is a venomous pit viper species found in the south central United States. ... Gerald Troost (1776-1850) was an American-Dutch medical doctor, naturalist, mineralogist, and founding member and first president of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Largest metro area Chicago Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 25th  - Total 57,918 sq mi (140,998 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 390 miles (629 km)  - % water 4. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83...

See also

  • List of crotaline species and subspecies
  • Crotalinae by common name
  • Crotalinae by taxonomic synonyms
  • Snakebite

A snakebite, or snake bite, is a bite inflicted by a snake. ...

References

  1. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré T. 1999. Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, vol. 1. Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  2. ^ a b c Wright AH, Wright AA. 1957. Handbook of Snakes. Comstock Publishing Associates. (7th printing, 1985). 1105 pp. ISBN 0-8014-0463-0.
  3. ^ a b c Agkistrodon piscivorus (TSN 174299). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved on 29 May 2007.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i Campbell JA, Lamar WW. 2004. The Venomous Reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca and London. 870 pp. 1500 plates. ISBN 0-8014-4141-2.
  5. ^ a b c d Gloyd HK, Conant R. 1990. Snakes of the Agkistrodon Complex: A Monographic Review. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. 614 pp. 52 plates. LCCN 89-50342. ISBN 0-916984-20-6.
  6. ^ Ditmars RL. 1933. Reptiles of the World. Revised Edition. The MacMillan Company. 329 pp. 89 plates.
  7. ^ Agkistrodon piscivorus at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 13 September 2007.
  8. ^ 2001 Categories & Criteria (version 3.1) at the IUCN Red List. Accessed 13 September 2007.
  9. ^ U.S. Navy. 1991. Poisonous Snakes of the World. US Govt. New York: Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  10. ^ Behler JL, King FW. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 743 pp. LCCCN 79-2217. ISBN 0-394-50824-6.
  11. ^ Whitfield Gibbons J, Dorcas ME. 2002. Defensive Behavior of Cottonmouths (Agkistrodon piscivorus) toward Humans. SREL Reprint #2583. Summary at the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory at the University of Georgia. Accessed May 29, 2007.

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

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