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Encyclopedia > Ages of Popes

Since 1500

Common name Pontificate Elected
at age
Died
at age
Years as
Pope
Benedict XVI from 19 April 2005 to present 78 - -
John Paul II from 16 October 1978 to 2 April 2005 58 84 26
John Paul I from 26 August 1978 to 28 September 1978 65 65 0
Paul VI from 21 June 1963 to 6 August 1978 65 80 15
John XXIII from 28 October 1958 to 3 June 1963 76 81 4
Pius XII from 2 March 1939 to 9 October 1958 63 82 19
Pius XI from 6 February 1922 to 10 February 1939 64 81 17
Benedict XV from 3 September 1914 to 22 January 1922 59 67 7
Pius X from 4 August 1903 to 20 August 1914 68 79 11
Leo XIII from 20 February 1878 to 20 July 1903 67 93 25
Pius IX from 16 June 1846 to 7 February 1878 54 85 31
Gregory XVI from 2 February 1831 to 1 June 1846 65 80 15
Pius VIII from 31 March 1829 to 1 December 1830 67 69 1
Leo XII from 28 September 1823 to 10 February 1829 63 68 5
Pius VII from 14 March 1800 to 20 August 1823 59 83 23
Pius VI from 15 February 1775 to 29 August 1799 57 81 24
Clement XIV from 19 May 1769 to 22 September 1774 63 68 5
Clement XIII from 6 July 1758 to 2 February 1769 65 75 10
Benedict XIV from 17 August 1740 to 3 May 1758 65 83 17
Clement XII from 12 July 1730 to 6 February 1740 78 87 9
Benedict XIII from 27 May 1724 to 21 February 1730 75 81 5
Innocent XIII from 8 May 1721 to 7 March 1724 66 68 2
Clement XI from 23 November 1700 to 19 March 1721 51 71 20
Innocent XII from 12 July 1691 to 27 September 1700 76 85 9
Alexander VIII from 6 October 1689 to 1 February 1691 79 80 1
Innocent XI from 21 September 1676 to 12 August 1689 65 78 12
Clement X from 29 April 1670 to 22 July 1676 79 86 6
Clement IX from 20 June 1667 to 9 December 1669 67 69 2
Alexander VII from 7 April 1655 to 22 May 1667 56 68 12
Innocent X from 16 September 1644 to 7 January 1655 70 80 10
Urban VIII from 6 August 1623 to 29 July 1644 55 76 20
Gregory XV from 9 February 1621 to 3 July 1623 67 69 2
Paul V from 16 May 1605 to 28 January 1621 54 70 15
Leo XI from 1 April 1605 to 12 April 1605 69 69 0
Clement VIII from 30 January 1592 to 3 March 1605 55 69 13
Innocent IX from 29 October 1591 to 30 December 1591 72 72 0
Gregory XIV from 5 December 1590 to 16 October 1591 55 56 0
Urban VII from 15 September 1590 to 27 September 1590 69 69 0
Sixtus V from 24 April 1585 to 27 August 1590 63 68 5
Gregory XIII from 13 May 1572 to 10 April 1585 70 83 12
Pius V from 7 January 1566 to 1 May 1572 55 68 12
Pius IV from 25 December 1559 to 9 December 1565 59 66 6
Paul IV from 23 May 1555 to 18 August 1559 78 83 4
Marcellus II from 9 April 1555 to 1 May 1555 53 54 0
Julius III from 7 February 1550 to 23 March 1555 62 67 5
Paul III from 13 October 1534 to 10 November 1549 66 81 15
Clement VII from 26 November 1523 to 25 September 1534 45 56 11
Adrian VI from 9 January 1522 to 14 September 1523 62 64 1
Leo X from 9 March 1513 to 1 December 1521 37 45 8
Julius II from 31 October 1503 to 21 February 1513 59 69 9
Pius III from 22 September 1503 to 18 October 1503 64 64 0
Ten oldest popes at election 1503-present
Pope Year elected Elected at age Death at age Years served as Pope
Clement X 1670 79 yrs, 290 days 86 6
Alexander VIII 1689 79 yrs, 177 days 80 1
Paul IV 1555 78 yrs, 330 days 83 4
Clement XII 1730 78 yrs, 100 days 87 9
Benedict XVI 2005 78 yrs, 3 days - -
John XXIII 1958 76 yrs, 337 days 81 4
Innocent XII 1691 76 yrs, 124 days 85 9
Benedict XIII 1724 75 yrs, 91 days 81 5
Innocent IX 1591 72 yrs, 104 days 72 0
Innocent X 1644 70 yrs, 151 days 80 10
Statistics
Date range Age at election Age at death Years served as Pope
Average 1700 to 2005 65 78 13
Average 1503 to 1700 63 70 7
Average 1503 to 2005 64 74 10

His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (in Latin Benedictus XVI) was born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on April 16, 1927. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Holiness Pope John Paul II, officially in Latin , born Karol Józef Wojtyla [1] (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Events January January 1 - The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... His Holiness Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), was elected pope on August 26, 1978, and died 33 days later on September 28, 1978. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Events January January 1 - The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... Events January January 1 - The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ... His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), served as Pope from 1963 to 1978. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Events January January 1 - The Copyright Act of 1976 takes effect, making sweeping changes to United States copyright law. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... October 28 is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 64 days remaining. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Events January-February January 11 - The Whisky A Go-Go night club in Los Angeles, the first disco in the USA, is opened. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958 in Rome, Italy), served as the Pope from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... March 2 is the 61st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (62nd in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in Leap years). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Pope Benedict XV Benedict XV, né Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854-January 22, 1922), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. He was born in Genoa, Italy, of a noble family. ... September 3 is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years). ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Saint Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (2 June 1835 – 20 August 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope St. ... August 4 is the 216th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (217th in leap years), with 149 days remaining. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Pope Leo XIII Supreme Pontiff (1878-1903) Leo XIII, né Gioacchino Pecci (March 2, 1810 - July 20, 1903) was Pope from 1878 to 1903. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Blessed Pius IX Supreme Pontiff (1846-1878) The Blessed Pius IX, né Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti (May 13, 1792 - February 7, 1878) was pope for a record term of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Gregory XVI, né Bartolommeo Alberto Cappellari (September 18, 1765 - June 1, 1846), was Pope from 1831 to 1846. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1831 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pius VIII, born as Francesco Saverio Castiglioni (November 20, 1761 - December 1, 1830) was Pope from 1829 to 1830. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining, as the final day of March. ... 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1830 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Leo XII, né Annibale della Genga (August 22, 1760- February 10, 1829) was Pope from 1823 to 1829. ... September 28 is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pius VII, né Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, (August 14, 1740 - August 20, 1823) was Pope from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in Leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... --66. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pius VI, born as Giovanni Angelo Braschi, (December 27, 1717 - August 29, 1799), pope from 1775 to 1799, was born at Cesena. ... February 15 is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 9 - American Revolutionary War: British Parliament declares Massachusetts in rebellion March 23 - American Revolutionary War: Patrick Henry delivers his speech - give me liberty or give me death in Williamsburg, Virginia. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Pope Clement XIV Clement XIV, né Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli (SantArcangelo di Romagna, October 31, 1705 - Rome, September 22, 1774) was pope from 1769 to 1774. ... May 19 is the 139th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (140th in leap years). ... Events Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen exhibits the Mechanical Turk, a chess-playing machine May 14 - Charles III of Spain sends Spanish missionaries, who found California missions in San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Francisco and Monterey and begin the settlement of California. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years). ... Events January 21 - Mustafa III, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his brother Abd-ul-Hamid I. May 10 - Louis XVI becomes King of France. ... Clement XIII, né Carlo della Torre Rezzonico (Venice, March 7, 1693 - Rome, February 2, 1769) was pope from 1758 to 1769. ... July 6 is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 178 days remaining. ... Events June 12 - French and Indian War: Siege of Louisbourg - James Wolfes attack at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia commences. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen exhibits the Mechanical Turk, a chess-playing machine May 14 - Charles III of Spain sends Spanish missionaries, who found California missions in San Diego, Santa Barbara, San Francisco and Monterey and begin the settlement of California. ... Scholar Pope, Benedict XIV Benedict XIV, né Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini (Bologna, March 31, 1675 - Rome, May 3, 1758) was pope from 1740 to 1758. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... Events June 12 - French and Indian War: Siege of Louisbourg - James Wolfes attack at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia commences. ... Clement XII, né Lorenzo Corsini (Florence, April 7, 1652 - Rome, February 6, 1740) (pope 1730‑1740), a Florentine aristocrat, had been a lawyer and financial manager under preceding pontiffs. ... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births July 12 - Josiah Wedgwood, potter (died 1795) July 26 - Charles Messier, astronomer (died 1817) November 23 - William... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... For Pedro de Luna, see Antipope Benedict XIII. Benedict XIII, born Pietro Francesco Orsini, and later in religion Vincenzo Maria Orsini (Gravina di Puglia, February 2, 1649 - February 23, 1730) was pope from 1724 to 1730. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births July 12 - Josiah Wedgwood, potter (died 1795) July 26 - Charles Messier, astronomer (died 1817) November 23 - William... Innocent XIII, né Michael Angelo Conti (Poli, near Rome, May 13, 1655 - Rome, March 7, 1724), pope from 1721 to 1724, became cardinal under Clement XI in 1706. ... May 8 is the 128th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (129th in leap years). ... Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Clement XI, né Giovanni Francesco Albani (July 23, 1649 - March 19, 1721) was pope from 1700 to 1721. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... Innocent XII, né Antonio Pignatelli (March 13, 1615 - September 27, 1700) pope from 1691 to 1700, was the successor of Alexander VIII. He came of a distinguished Neapolitan family and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome, he in his twentieth year became an official of the court of... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II (1687... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Alexander VIII, né Pietro Vitto Ottoboni (April 22, 1610 - February 1, 1691), pope from 1689 to 1691, was born of a noble Venetian family, was created cardinal, and then successively bishop of Brescia and datary. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II (1687... Innocent XI, né Benedetto Odescalchi (May 16, 1611 - August 12, 1689) was pope from 1676 to 1689. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Year in topic 1676 in literature 1676 in music 1676 in science Births May 8 - Frederick I of Sweden August 26 - Robert Walpole, first Prime Minister of... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Clement X, né Emilio Altieri (Rome, July 13, 1590 - Rome, July 22, 1676) was Pope from 29 April 1670-22 July 1676. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... Events January 21 – Highwayman Claude Duval is executed in Tyburn, Middlesex April - Pope Clement X is elected. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Year in topic 1676 in literature 1676 in music 1676 in science Births May 8 - Frederick I of Sweden August 26 - Robert Walpole, first Prime Minister of... Categories: Christianity-related stubs | 1600 births | 1669 deaths | Popes ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 - May 22, 1667) was pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... May 22 is the 142nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (143rd in leap years). ... Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Diego Velazquez portrait, which Innocent X found too truthful Innocent X, né Giovanni Battista Pamphili (May 6, 1574 - January 5, 1655), Pope from 1644 to 1655, was born in Rome in 1574, attained the dignity of cardinal in 1629. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events New Sweden (Delaware) attacked and captured by Dutch forces. ... Urban VIII, né Maffeo Barberini (April 1568 - July 29, 1644) was pope from 1623-1644. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ... Pope Gregory XV Gregory XV, né Alessandro Ludovisio (January 9, 1554–July 8, 1623), pope (1621-1623), born at Bologna in 1554, succeeded Paul V on February 9, 1621. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... July 3 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Events August 6 - Pope Urban VIII is elected to the Papacy. ... Painting of Pope Paul V by Caravaggio Paul V, né Camillo Borghese (Rome, September 17, 1550 - January 28, 1621) was Pope from May 16, 1605 until his death. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... Leo XI, born Alessandro Ottaviano de Medici (2 June 1535—27 April 1605), was pope from April 1, 1605 to April 27 of the same year. ... April 1 is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 274 days remaining. ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Clement, in the monument in Santa Maria Maggiore, Rome, erected by his Borghese heirs Clement VIII, born Ippolito Aldobrandini (March 1536 - March 5, 1605) was pope from 1592 to 1605. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 30 - The death of Pope Innocent IX during the previous year had left the Papal throne vacant. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... Events April 13 - Tsar Boris Godunow dies - Feodor II accedes to the throne May 16 - Paul V becomes Pope June 1 - Russian troops in Moscow imprison Feodor II and his mother. ... Innocent IX, born Gian Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce (July 22, 1519 - December 30, 1591), who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous commune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a canon lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... Gregory XIV, born Niccolò Sfondrato (February 11, 1535 - October 16, 1591) was Pope from December 5, 1590 - October 16, 1591. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... Urban VII, né Giovanni Battista Castagna (August 4, 1521 - September 27, 1590) was pope for thirteen days in September 1590, was of Genoese origin although born in Rome. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... Sixtus V, né Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events January 12 - The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar Beginning of the Eighth War of Religion in France (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) August 8 - John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the North West Passage. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... Events March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585) Gregory XIII, né Ugo Buoncampagno (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope (1572 – 1585). ... May 13 is the 133rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (134th in leap years). ... Events January 16 - The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... April 10 is the 100th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (101st in leap years). ... Events January 12 - The Netherlands adopts the Gregorian calendar Beginning of the Eighth War of Religion in France (also known as the War of the Three Henrys) August 8 - John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the North West Passage. ... Bold textHe was born as Antonio Ghislieri at Bosco in the duchy of Milan. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Events January 16 - The Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 - December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Pope Paul IV Paul IV, né Gianni Carafa (June 28, 1476 - August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 15 - Elizabeth I of England is crowned in Westminster Abbey. ... Marcellus II, né Marcellus Corvini (May 6, 1501 - May 6, 1555), cardinal of Santa Croce, a native of the area of Ancona, Italy, was elected pope to succeed Julius III on April 9, 1555, but his feeble constitution succumbed to the fatigues of the conclave, the exhausting ceremonies connected with... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Julius III, né Gian Maria del Monte or Giovan Maria Giocci (September 10, 1487 - March 23, 1555) pope from February 7, 1550 to 1555, the last of the High Renaissance popes, was born at Rome, the son of a famous jurist. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in Leap years). ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Pope Paul III, (1543) portrait by Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples Paul III, né Alessandro Farnese (February 29, 1468 - November 10, 1549) was pope from 1534 to 1549. ... October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years). ... Events May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. ... Events July - Ketts Rebellion Francis Xavier arrives in Japan. ... For the antipope (1378-1394) see Antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII Clement VII, né Giulio di Giuliano de Medici (1478 – September 25, 1534) was pope from 1523 to 1534. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April - Battle of Villalors - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years). ... Events May 10 - Jacques Cartier explores Newfoundland while searching for the Northwest Passage. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle... January 9 is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... September 14 is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years). ... Events April - Battle of Villalors - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Pope Leo X Leo X, né Giovanni di Lorenzo de Medici (December 11, 1475 - December 1, 1521), was the only pope who has bestowed his own name upon his age, and one of the few whose original extraction has corresponded in some measure with the splendour of the pontifical dignity. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... Events January 20 - Denmark and Norway. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining, as the final day of October. ... Events January 20 - Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events January 20 - Denmark and Norway. ... Pius III, né Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini (May 9, 1439 - October 18, 1503), was pope from September 22 to October 18, 1503. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years). ... Events January 20 - Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in Leap years). ... Events January 20 - Seville in Castile is awarded exclusive right to trade with the New World. ... Clement X, né Emilio Altieri (Rome, July 13, 1590 - Rome, July 22, 1676) was Pope from 29 April 1670-22 July 1676. ... Events January 21 – Highwayman Claude Duval is executed in Tyburn, Middlesex April - Pope Clement X is elected. ... Alexander VIII, né Pietro Vitto Ottoboni (April 22, 1610 - February 1, 1691), pope from 1689 to 1691, was born of a noble Venetian family, was created cardinal, and then successively bishop of Brescia and datary. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Pope Paul IV Paul IV, né Gianni Carafa (June 28, 1476 - August 18, 1559) was Pope from May 23, 1555. ... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ... Clement XII, né Lorenzo Corsini (Florence, April 7, 1652 - Rome, February 6, 1740) (pope 1730‑1740), a Florentine aristocrat, had been a lawyer and financial manager under preceding pontiffs. ... Events Pope Clement XII elected September 17 - Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed III (1703-1730) to Mahmud I (1730-1754) Anna Ivanova (Anna I of Russia) became czarina Births July 12 - Josiah Wedgwood, potter (died 1795) July 26 - Charles Messier, astronomer (died 1817) November 23 - William... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (in Latin Benedictus XVI) was born Joseph Alois Ratzinger on April 16, 1927. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Innocent XII, né Antonio Pignatelli (March 13, 1615 - September 27, 1700) pope from 1691 to 1700, was the successor of Alexander VIII. He came of a distinguished Neapolitan family and was educated at the Jesuit college in Rome, he in his twentieth year became an official of the court of... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II (1687... For Pedro de Luna, see Antipope Benedict XIII. Benedict XIII, born Pietro Francesco Orsini, and later in religion Vincenzo Maria Orsini (Gravina di Puglia, February 2, 1649 - February 23, 1730) was pope from 1724 to 1730. ... Events January 14 - King Philip V of Spain abdicates the throne February 20 - The premiere of Italian opera by George Frideric Handel, takes place in London June 23 - Treaty of Constantinople signed. ... Innocent IX, born Gian Antonio Facchinetti de Nuce (July 22, 1519 - December 30, 1591), who was born to a modest working family in the mountainous commune of Cravegna, in the diocese of Novara, northern Italy, was a canon lawyer, diplomat, and chief administrator during the reign of Pope Gregory XIV... Events June - Capture of Zutphen by the Dutch under Maurice of Nassau. ... Diego Velazquez portrait, which Innocent X found too truthful Innocent X, né Giovanni Battista Pamphili (May 6, 1574 - January 5, 1655), Pope from 1644 to 1655, was born in Rome in 1574, attained the dignity of cardinal in 1629. ... Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...

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Part IV - The Middle Ages: Lesson No. 20 - The Political Papacy (939 words)
The seeds for this transition in the nature of the papacy had been sown earlier in the form of territorial grants to the popes in virtual exchange for papal recognition of the status of temporal rulers.
It was decreed that the election of the popes would be primarily in the hands of the cardinals who would reach their decision after consultation with the clergy and people.
Finally, a compromise was reached between Henry V and Pope Calixtus II in the Concordat of Worms in 1122.
History of the Popes (22170 words)
For the early popes the main written source is the "Liber Pontificalis." This account of the lives of the popes was begun probably early in the sixth century while the Ostrogoths ruled Italy.
Pope Sylvester sent two legates to represent him Vitus and Vincentius, and it seems that it was the Pope who suggested the term consubstantial to describe the relation of Christ's nature to the Father.
The pallium is a vestment of white wool which a pope wears as a symbol of the fullness of his apostolic power and an archbishop wears as a symbol of his participation in that power.
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