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Encyclopedia > Agent Orange
A UH-1D helicopter from the 336th Aviation Company sprays a defoliation agent on a dense jungle area in the Mekong delta as part of Operation Ranch Hand, July 26, 1969.

Agent Orange and "Super Orange" were the nicknames given to the herbicide and defoliant used by the United States military in its herbicidal warfare program during the Vietnam War. During the Vietnam War, an estimated 19 million gallons of Agent Orange were deployed in South Vietnam.[1] Agent Orange typically refers to the code name for a powerful herbicide and defoliant used widely by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War. ... Image File history File links Defoliation_agent_spraying. ... Image File history File links Defoliation_agent_spraying. ... The Mekong is one of the world’s major rivers. ... Operation Ranch Hand was a part of the Vietnam War, lasting from 1962 until 1971. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... An herbicide is used to kill unwanted plants. ... A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause its leaves to fall off. ... The United States Armed Forces are the overall unified military forces of the United States. ... Herbicidal warfare is a form of chemical warfare in which the objective is to destroy the plant-based ecosystem of an area for the purpose of disrupting agricultural food production or destroying plants which provide cover to an enemy. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Agent Orange usage from 1961 to 1971 was by far the most used of the so-called "Rainbow Herbicides" utilized during the program. Degradation of Agent Orange (as well as Agents Purple, Pink, and Green) released dioxins, which have caused health problems for those exposed during the Vietnam War. Agents Blue and White were part of the same program but did not contain dioxins. The term Rainbow herbicides refers to several defoliants used by the U.S. military during the Vietnam War: Agent Orange Agent Purple Agent Pink Agent Green Agent Blue Agent White ... Agent Purple is a cousin of the Agent Orange and Agent Pink herbicides. ... Why are there links to a page that doesnt exist? ... US State Department officials have revived a controversial scheme to use biological weapons to forcibly eradicate coca and opium poppy crops in Colombia. ... Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins are a group of halogenated organic compounds which are significant because they act as environmental pollutants. ... Agent Blue is a herbicide used by the United States during the Vietnam War. ... Agent White is a cousin of Agent Orange and was used during WWII by the US military to to infect the Vietnamese cattle. ...


Studies of populations highly exposed to dioxin, though not necessarily Agent Orange, indicate increased risk of various types of cancer and genetic defects; the effect of long-term low-level exposure has not been established.


Since the 1980s, several lawsuits have been filed against the companies which produced Agent Orange, among them; Dow Chemical, Monsanto, and Diamond Shamrock (which produced 5%[2]). U.S. veterans obtained a $180 million settlement in 1984, with most affected veterans receiving a one-time lump sum payment of $1,200. The Dow Chemical Company (NYSE: DOW TYO: 4850) is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... Valero Energy Corporation NYSE: VLO is a Fortune 500 company based in San Antonio, Texas, with approximately 22,000 employees and annual revenue of about $70 billion. ...


American veterans of the Vietnam War were seeking recognition of Agent Orange syndrome, compensation and treatment for maladies that they and their children suffered from; many exposed to Agent Orange have not been able to receive promised medical care through the Veterans Administration medical system, and only with rare exception have their affected children received healthcare assistance from the government. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a government-run military veteran benefit system with Cabinet-level status. ...


Vietnam veterans and their families who brought the original Agent Orange lawsuit stated 25 years ago that the government "is just waiting for us all to die". They alleged that most of those still alive would succumb to the effects of toxic exposure before the age of 65.


In Australia, Canada and New Zealand, veterans obtained compensation in settlements that same year. In 1999, South Korean veterans filed a lawsuit in the Korean courts. In January 2006, the Korean Appeal Court ordered Monsanto and Dow to pay US$62 million in compensation. However, no Vietnamese have received compensation, and on March 10, 2006, Judge Jack B. Weinstein of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York dismissed the lawsuit filed by the Vietnamese victims of Agent Orange against the chemical companies which produced the defoliants and herbicides. For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ... USD redirects here. ... Jack B. Weinstein Jack B. Weinstein (born 1921, Kansas) is a United States federal judge in the Eastern District of New York. ... The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the entirety of Long Island and Staten Island. ...

Contents

Description

Agent Orange, given it name from the colour of the 55 U.S. gallon orange-striped barrels it was shipped in, is a (roughly) 1:1 mixture of two phenoxy herbicides in ester form, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T). These herbicides were developed during the 1940s by independent teams in England and the United States for use in controlling broad-leaf plants. Phenoxyl agents work by mimicking a plant growth hormone, indoleacetic acid (IAA). When sprayed on broad-leaf plants they induce rapid, uncontrolled growth, eventually defoliating them. When sprayed on crops such as wheat or corn, it selectively kills only the broad-leaf plants in the field, namely weeds, leaving the crop relatively unaffected. First introduced in 1946, these herbicides were in widespread use in agriculture by the middle of the 1950s and were first introduced in the agricultural farms of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. A phenoxy herbicide is any member of a family of chemicals related to the growth horomone indoleacetic acid (IAA). ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ... 2,4,5- trichlorophenoxyacetic acid is a herbicide used to defoliate broad leafed plants. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Indoleacetic acid is an auxin plant hormone. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Aguadilla is a small beach town in Northwest Puerto Rico. ...


At the time Agent Orange was sold to the U.S. government for use in Vietnam, internal memos of its manufacturers reveal it was known that a dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD), is produced as a byproduct of the manufacture of 2,4,5-T, and was thus present in any of the herbicides that contained it. The National Toxicology Program has classified TCDD to be a human carcinogen, frequently associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In a study by the Institute of Medicine, a link has been found between dioxin exposure and diabetes.[3] Diseases with limited evidence of an association with Agent Orange are respiratory cancers, prostate cancer, multiple myeloma, Porphyria cutanea tarda (a type of skin disease), acute and subacute transient peripheral neuropathy, spina bifida, Type 2 diabetes, and acute myelogenous leukemia found only in the second or third generation.[citation needed] 2,4,5-T has since been banned for use in the U.S. and many other countries. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... Non-Hodgkins lymphoma is a type of cancer. ... Hodgkins disease is a type of lymphoma described by Thomas Hodgkin in 1832, and characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. ... Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (also known as chronic lymphoid leukemia or CLL), is a type of leukemia, or cancer of the white blood cells (lymphocytes). ... The Institute of Medicine, a part of the National Academy of Sciences, is an American organization whose purpose is to provide national advice on issues relating to biomedical science, medicine, and health (National Academy of Sciences, n. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... HRPC redirects here. ... Multiple myeloma (also known as MM, myeloma, plasma cell myeloma, or as Kahlers disease after Otto Kahler) is a type of cancer of plasma cells which are immune system cells in bone marrow that produce antibodies. ... The porphyrias are inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... Peripheral neuropathy is the term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ... Diabetes mellitus type 2 or Type 2 Diabetes (formerly called non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM), obesity-related diabetes, or adult-onset diabetes) is a metabolic disorder that is primarily characterized by insulin resistance, relative insulin deficiency, and hyperglycemia. ... Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), also known as acute myeloid leukemia, is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells. ...


The herbicide 2,4-D does not contain dioxin, it remains one of the most-used herbicides in the world today.[citation needed]


The LD50, according to US EPA 2,4-D Reregistration Eligiblity Decision, 2006,is 639 mg/kg. Single oral doses of 5 and 30 mg/kg body weight did not cause any acute toxic effects in human volunteers.


The amine salt formulations can cause irreversible eye damage; ester formulations are considered non-irritating to the eyes.[citation needed]


On August 8, 2007, the United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a ruling which stated existing data do not support a conclusion that links human cancer to 2,4-D exposure.[citation needed]


Vietnam Case

During the Vietnam war, between 1962 and 1971, the American military sprayed 77 million liters of chemical defoliants in South Vietnam as part of a defoliant program to deny cover for their Vietnamese opponents. [4]


According to Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs, there are still 4.8 million Vietnamese people thought to be victims of agent orange. They live mainly in mountainous area along Truong Son (Long Mountains) and border between Vietnam and Cambodia. These people together with their affected descendants are living in sub-standard conditions and with many genetic diseases.[5]


Much of the information on the effects of Agent Orange in Vietnam until the 21st century, were mainly in Vietnamese and compiled under Vietnamese scientists' investigations; thus largely unavailable to the worldwide English reader. However, general public perception in Vietnam is that the effects are severe and clearly visible in children of veterans and people in affected areas. A gallery of pictures of the victims can be found by searching on photo sharing websites, for example with keywords "agent orange victim" on Flickr.com Agent Orange Victim on Flickr.com


Use outside of Vietnam

In September 2000, the Veteran Administration (VA) recognized that Agent Orange was used in Korea in the late 1960s. [1] Republic of Korea troops are reported to have done the spraying, which occurred along the demilitarized zone with North Korea. The VA has also acknowledged that Agent Orange was used domestically by U.S. forces [2].


Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, New Brunswick, Canada

The U.S. military, with the permission of the Canadian government, secretly tested many unregistered U.S. military herbicides, including Agent Orange, in the forests near the Canadian Forces Base Gagetown in New Brunswick in 1966 and 1967. On September 12, 2007, Greg Thompson, Minister of Veterans Affairs, announced that the government of Canada is offering a one-time ex gratia payment of $20,000 as the compensation package for Agent Orange exposure at CFB Gagetown.[6] Canadian Forces Base Gagetown, also referred to as CFB Gagetown, is a large Canadian Forces Base located in southwestern New Brunswick. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Gregory Francis Thompson (born March 28, 1947 in St. ... The position of Minister of Veterans Affairs was created in 1944. ... The Government of Canada is the federal government of Canada. ... Ex gratia (sometimes ex-gratia) is Latin (lit. ...


Globe, Arizona

Billee Shoecraft died in 1977 of cancer. She began suffering from cancer after a helicopter sprayed her with the defoliant Kuron. Before her death, Shoecraft wrote a book about her experience in which she said that after she was sprayed her eyes were nearly swollen shut, her arms and legs were swollen twice normal size and her hair was coming out in patches. Kuron, a herbicide related to Agent Orange, was sprayed by the U.S. Forest Service to thin foliage and increase water runoff in the Pinal Mountains of the Tonto National Forest near Globe, Arizona, in 1968 and 1969. Dow Chemical Company and the U.S.Forest Service paid an undisclosed sum to five families. Shoecraft wrote a book entitled, Sue the Bastards!, about her incident in 1971. Globe is a city in Gila County, Arizona, United States. ...


Effects of the program

New Jersey Agent Orange Commission

In 1980, New Jersey created the New Jersey Agent Orange Commission, the first state commission created to study its effects. The commission's research project in association with Rutgers University was called "The Pointman Project". It was disbanded by Governor Christine Todd Whitman in 1996.[7] This article is about the U.S. state. ... “Rutgers” redirects here. ... Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician and author, who served as the 50th Governor of New Jersey and was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ...


During Pointman I, commission researchers devised ways to determine small dioxin levels in blood. Prior to this, such levels could only be found in the adipose (fat) tissue. The project compared dioxin levels in a small group of Vietnam veterans who had been exposed to Agent Orange with a group of matched veterans who had not served in Vietnam. The results of this project were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1988.[8] Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue. ...


The second phase of the project continued to examine and compare dioxin levels in various groups of Vietnam veterans including Army, Marines and brown water riverboat Navy personnel. The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Brownwater Navy is a term in American naval speech referring to actions in near shore and riverine enviroments. ...


Lawsuits

In 1984, Agent Orange manufacturers paid Australian, Canadian and New Zealand veterans in an out-of-court settlement.[9]


U.S. Vietnamese victims class action lawsuit

On January 31, 2004, a victim's rights group, the Vietnam Association for Victims of Agent Orange/Dioxin (VAVA), filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York in Brooklyn, against several U.S. companies for liability in causing personal injury, by developing and producing the chemical. Dow Chemical and Monsanto were the two largest producers of Agent Orange for the U.S. military and were named in the suit along with the dozens of other companies (Diamond Shamrock, Uniroyal, Thompson Chemicals, Hercules, etc.). A number of lawsuits by American GIs were settled out of court - without admission of liability by the chemical companies - in the years since the Vietnam War. In 1984, some chemical companies that manufactured Agent Orange paid $180 million into a fund for United States veterans following a lawsuit. A victims rights group is a legal or political organization, formed for an espoused purpose of advocating social change or legal measures, on behalf of victims of various crimes, injustice, or malfeasance. ... The United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction is comprised of the entirety of Long Island and Staten Island. ... This article is about the New York City borough, or Kings County, New York. ... GI or G.I. is a term describing a US soldier or an item of their equipment. ...


On March 10, 2005, Judge Jack B. Weinstein - who had defended the U.S. veterans victims of Agent Orange - dismissed the suit, ruling that there was no legal basis for the plaintiffs' claims. The judge concluded that Agent Orange was not considered a poison under international law at the time of its use by the U.S.; that the U.S. was not prohibited from using it as a herbicide; and that the companies which produced the substance were not liable for the method of its use by the government. The U.S. government is not a party in the lawsuit, claiming sovereign immunity. is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A plaintiff, also known as a claimant or complainer, is the party who initiates a lawsuit (also known as an action) before a court. ... Providing a constitution for public international law, the United Nations was conceived during World War II International law is the term commonly used for referring to the system of implicit and explicit agreements that binds together nation-states in adherence to recognized values and standards, differing from other legal systems... Sovereign immunity or crown immunity is a type of immunity that, in common law jurisdictions traces its origins from early English law. ...


In order to assist those who have been impacted by Agent Orange/Dioxin, the Vietnamese have established "Peace villages", which each host between 50 to 100 victims, giving them medical and psychological help. As of 2006, there were 11 such villages, thus granting some social protection to fewer than a thousand victims. U.S. veterans of the war in Vietnam and individuals who are aware and sympathetic to the impacts of Agent Orange have also supported these programs in Vietnam. An international group of Veterans from the U.S. and its allies during the Vietnam war working together with their former enemy - veterans from the Vietnam Veterans Association - established the Vietnam Friendship Village[3] located outside of Hanoi. The center provides medical care, rehabilitation and vocational training for children and veterans from Vietnam who have been impacted by Agent Orange.


The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs has listed prostate cancer, respiratory cancers, multiple myeloma, type II diabetes, Hodgkin’s disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, soft tissue sarcoma, chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, peripheral neuropathy, and spina bifida in children of veterans exposed to Agent Orange as side effects of the herbicide.


South Korean lawsuit

In 1999, about 20,000 South Koreans filed two separated lawsuits against U.S. companies, seeking more than $5 billion in damages. After losing a decision in 2002, they filed an appeal.


In January 2006, the South Korean Appeals Court ordered Dow Chemical and Monsanto to pay $62 million in compensation to about 6,800 people. The ruling acknowledged that "the defendants failed to ensure safety as the defoliants manufactured by the defendants had higher levels of dioxins than standard", and, quoting the U. S. National Academy of Science report, declared that there was a "causal relationship" between Agent Orange and 11 diseases, including cancers of the lung, larynx and prostate. However, the judges failed to acknowledge "the relationship between the chemical and peripheral neuropathy, the disease most widespread among Agent Orange victims" according to the Mercury News. A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... The Mercs sections vary by day of the week, but Business, Sports, and The Valley are standard daily fare. ...


Canada lawsuit

In July 12, 2005, Merchant Law Group LLP on behalf of over 1,100 Canada veterans and civilians who were living in and around the CFB Gagetown filled a lawsuit to pursue class action litigation concerning Agent Orange and Agent Purple to the Court of Queen's Bench of Manitoba. Until September 30, 2007, the case is still going.[10] is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In law, a class action is an equitable procedural device used in litigation for determining the rights of and remedies, if any, for large numbers of people whose cases involve common questions of law and fact. ...


See also

Notes

  1. ^ http://archives.cbc.ca/war_conflict/vietnam_war/topics/1413/
  2. ^ Answers.com - Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation. Retrieved on 19 April 2007
  3. ^ Institute of Medicine - Veterans and Agent Orange: Herbicide/Dioxin Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved on 19 April 2007.
  4. ^ Vietnam Agent Orange Campaign - Agent orange and the war in Vietnam Prof Van-Tuan,Nguyen, Garvan Institute of Medical Research and University of New South Wales, Australia. Published by Giao Ðiem, 2005.
  5. ^ Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs - [http://www.mofa.gov.vn/vi/tt_baochi/nr041126171753/ns050118101044 Support Agent Orange Victims in Vietnamese.
  6. ^ "People angry with Agent Orange package turn to class-action lawsuit", The Canadian Press, Sep 13, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 
  7. ^ New York Times, 3 July 1996
  8. ^ Vol. 259 No. 11, 18 March 1988
  9. ^ "Korea orders Agent Orange payments", Mercury News, January 26, 2006. 
  10. ^ "Agent Orange Class Action", Merchant Law Group LLP. Retrieved on 2007-10-01. 

is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Weisman, Joan Murray. The Effects of Exposure to Agent Orange on the Intellectual Functioning, Academic Achievement, Visual Motor Skill, and Activity Level of the Offspring of Vietnam War Veterans. Doctoral thesis. Hofstra University. 1986.
  • Klein, Robert. Wounded Men, Broken Promises. New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1981.
  • Uhl, Michael, and Tod Ensign. GI Guinea Pigs. 1st Ed. New York: Playboy Press, 1981.
  • Linedecker, Clifford, Michael Ryan, and Maureen Ryan. Kerry: Agent Orange and an American Family. New York: St. Martins Press, 1982.
  • Wilcox, Fred A. Waiting for an Army to Die. 1st ed. New York: Random House, 1983.

External links

  • (http://www.jamesgraham-agentorange.com
  • Walks from Ho Chi Minh City to Hanoi to collect donations for Agent Orange victim children.
  • Letters from Agent Orange victims in Vietnam and additional information to provide assistance.
  • Operation Ranch Hand: Herbicides In Southeast Asia History of Operation Ranch Hand
  • NIEHS dioxin fact sheet
  • Blood Debt Members of Vietnam Veterans Against the War and Vietnamese victims come together to assess the legacy of Agent Orange (warning: graphic images - viewer discretion advised). From the Chicago FreeSpeechZone
  • Agent Orange legal case dismissed - report of the US Federal court ruling on the VAVA suit.
  • www.vietnam-dioxin.org, an information website on the consequences of Agent Orange and dioxin in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos.
  • http://www.ffrd.org/agentorange.htm Information about the long term health and environmental effects of Agent Orange in Southeast Asia and the US. Court documents from the Vietnamese AO lawsuit are also found on this site.
  • Assessment of the health risk of dioxins 1998 by the WHO and the IPCS (pdf).
  • Children and the Vietnam War 30-40 years after the use of Agent Orange, article with pictures (warning: uncensored, may be found shocking)
  • Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting Vietnam: War's Lasting Legacy. Video reports from the field on the lingering effects of Agent Orange.
WHO redirects here. ... The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a collaboration between three United Nations bodies—the World Health Organization, the International Labour Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Agent Orange Information (440 words)
Agent Orange was an herbicide employed during the Second Indochina War commonly referred to as the Vietnam War.
Agent Orange was not the only herbicide sprayed in Vietnam although, due to its intensified usage, it is the herbicide most commonly mentioned and blamed for health problems in connection with that period in history.
Agent White: code name for a mixture of an approximate ratio of 4:1 of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; 239.7 kg/m3) and picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid; 64.7 kg/m3) CS (o -chlorobenzalmalonitrile), an anti-personnel (harassing) agent, was used as an irritant from 1964 to 1970.
Agent Orange - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2548 words)
Agent Orange (as well as Agents Purple, Pink, Blue, White, and Green) contained dioxins which are known to have caused harm to the health of those exposed during the Vietnam War.
Agent Orange is a roughly 1:1 mixture of two phenoxy herbicides in ester form, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
The judge concluded that Agent Orange was not considered a poison under international law at the time of its use by the US; that the US was not prohibited from using it as an herbicide; and that the companies which produced the substance were not liable for the method of its use by the government.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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