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Encyclopedia > Ageing
The effects of ageing on a human face
Elderly woman

Ageing or aging is the process of systems' deterioration with time. This article focuses on the social, cognitive, cultural, and economic effects of ageing. The biology of ageing is treated in detail in senescence. Ageing is an important part of all human societies reflecting the biological changes that occur, but also reflecting cultural and societal conventions. Age is usually measured in full years (except for young children, where this downward rounding would be too crude) and a person's birthday is often an important event. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1100x1329, 339 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Old age Ageing Canon EOS 350D Image:Old Age. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1100x1329, 339 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Old age Ageing Canon EOS 350D Image:Old Age. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1968x2469, 1310 KB) photograph by Chalmers Butterfield File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1968x2469, 1310 KB) photograph by Chalmers Butterfield File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Longevity genes be merged into this article or section. ... A year (from Old English gēr) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A childs first birthday party. ...


The issues of an ageing population in which the average age of a society is an increasingly important issue in many nations of the world. The societal effects of age are great. Young people tend to commit most crimes, they are more likely to push for political and social change, to develop and adopt new technologies, and to need education. Older people have different requirements from society and government as opposed to young people, and frequently differing values as well. Older people are also far more likely to vote, and in many countries the young are forbidden from voting, and thus the aged have comparatively more political influence. In demographics population ageing occurs when the average age of a regions population gets older. ...

Contents

Senescence

Main article: Senescence

In biology, senescence is the state or process of ageing. Cellular senescence is a phenomenon where isolated cells demonstrate a limited ability to divide in culture (the "Hayflick Limit," discovered by Leonard Hayflick in 1965), while Organismal senescence is the ageing of organisms. It has been suggested that Longevity genes be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

A map showing median age figures for 2001

Ageing is believed to have evolved because of the increasingly smaller probability of an organism still being alive at older age, due to predation and accidents, both of which may be random and age-invariant. It is thought that strategies which result in a higher reproductive rate at a young age, but shorter overall lifespan, result in a higher lifetime reproductive success and are therefore favoured by natural selection. Essentially, ageing is therefore the result of investing resources in reproduction, rather than maintenance of the body (the "Disposable Soma" theory). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 54 KB) English version of Image:Promedio edad mundo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1357x628, 54 KB) English version of Image:Promedio edad mundo. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Organismal ageing is generally characterized by the declining ability to respond to stress, increasing homeostatic imbalance and increased risk of disease. Because of this, death is the ultimate consequence of ageing. Not all organisms age, presumably due to different selective pressures during evolution. Organisms that are suspected not to age include certain fish (e.g., Sturgeon), plants, and hydra. Stress (roughly the opposite of relaxation) is a medical term for a wide range of strong external stimuli, both physiological and psychological, which can cause a physiological response called the general adaptation syndrome, first described in 1936 by Hans Selye in the journal Nature. ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ... The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Some researchers are treating ageing as a "disease" in gerontology (specifically biogerontologists). That is, as genes that have an effect on ageing are discovered, ageing is increasingly being regarded in a similar fashion to other genetic conditions; potentially "treatable." As an example of genes known to affect the ageing process, the sirtuin family of genes have been shown to have a significant effect on the lifespan of yeast and nematodes. Numerous other examples exist of genes that affect lifespan including RAS1 and RAS2 (yeast genes, although a human homologue exists). Over-expression of RAS2 increases lifespan in yeast substantially. The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... It has been suggested that aging research be merged into this article or section. ... Gerontology is the study of the elderly, and of the aging process itself. ... Sirtuin is a class of NAD-dependent histone deacetylases (class 3) in both prokaryotes (organisms without a membrane for their cells nucleus) and eukaryotes (organisms whose cells nucleus have a membrane). ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum Nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 20,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ...


In addition to genetic ties to lifespan, diet has been shown to substantially affect lifespan in many animals. Specifically, caloric restriction (that is, restricting calories to 30-50% less than an ad libitum animal would consume, while still maintaining proper nutrient intake), has been shown to increase lifespan in mice up to 50%. Caloric restriction works on many other species beyond mice (including species as diverse as yeast and Drosophila), and appears (though the data is not conclusive) to increase lifespan in primates according to a study done on Rhesus monkeys at the National Institute of Health (US). Ad libitum is Latin for at ones pleasure, often shortened to Ad lib. ...

Hans Baldung Grien's The Ages And Death, c. 1540-1543

Drug companies are currently searching for ways to mimic the lifespan-extending affects of caloric restriction without having to severely reduce food consumption, and with respect to cellular senescence, it has been shown that individual cells can be immortalized by the introduction of an additional gene for telomerase. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (757x2010, 152 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Lebensalter und der Tod Technique: de: Holz Dimensions: de: 150,9 × 59,8 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Madrid Current location (gallery): de: Museo del Prado Other notes: de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (757x2010, 152 KB) Description: Title: de: Die Lebensalter und der Tod Technique: de: Holz Dimensions: de: 150,9 × 59,8 cm Country of origin: de: Deutschland Current location (city): de: Madrid Current location (gallery): de: Museo del Prado Other notes: de... Three Ages of the Woman and the Death 1510 Oil on limewood,48 x 32,5 cm Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Hans Baldung or Hans Baldung Grien/Grün (c. ... Telomerase is an enzyme that adds specific DNA sequence repeats (TTAGGG in all vertebrates) to the 3 (three prime) end of DNA strands in the telomere regions, which are found at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. ...


Dividing the lifespan

A human life is often divided into various ages. Because biological changes are slow moving and vary from person to person, arbitrary dates are usually set to mark periods of human life. In some cultures the divisions given below are quite varied.


In the USA, adulthood legally begins at the age of eighteen or nineteen, while old age is considered to begin at the age of legal retirement (approximately 65). See Adult. ... 80 year old man (Paul Kruger in later life) For the song by Hole and Nirvana, see Old Age. ...

Ages can also be divided by decade: A human ovum Sperm cells attempting to fertilize an ovum An ovum (plural ova) is a haploid female reproductive cell or gamete. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... In Abrahamic religions, pre-existence is the belief that each individual human soul existed before conception, and at conception (or later, depending on when it is believed that the soul enters the body) God places one of these pre-existent souls in the body. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Childhood (song) Childhood is a broad term usually applied to the phase of development in humans between infancy and adulthood. ... Young Men Organization Teenager and Teen also redirect here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A ghostly woman coming down the stairs. ... Cryogenics is a branch of physics (or engineering) that studies the production of very low temperatures (below –150 °C, –238 °F or 123 K) and the behavior of materials at those temperatures. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ...

  • Denarian: someone between 10 and 19 years of age
  • Vicenarian: someone between 20 and 29 years of age
  • Tricenarian: someone between 30 and 39 years of age
  • Quadragenarian: someone between 40 and 49 years of age
  • Quinquagenarian: someone between 50 and 59 years of age
  • Sexagenarian: someone between 60 and 69 years of age
  • Septuagenarian: someone between 70 and 79 years of age
  • Octogenarian: someone between 80 and 89 years of age
  • Nonagenarian: someone between 90 and 99 years of age
  • Centenarian: someone between 100 and 109 years of age
  • Supercentenarian: someone over 110 years of age

See also Seven ages of man for an older system of dividing the human life. A centenarian is a person who has attained the age of 100 years or more. ... A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated as super-centenarian) is someone who has reached the age of 110 years or more, something achieved by only one in a thousand centenarians (0. ... William Shakespeares As You Like It contains a soliloquy in Act II, Scene 7 by the melancholy Jacques. ...


In some cultures (for example Serbian and Russian) there are two ways to express age: by counting years with or without including current year. For example, it could be said about the same person that he is twenty years old or that he is in twenty-first year of his life. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) or christian turks are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in Croatia. ...


Society

Legal

A UK pensioner, 2005

There are variations in many countries as to what age a person legally becomes an adult. I am the copyright holder. ... I am the copyright holder. ... As far as we can tell from the hugely informative Little Britain pensioners are disgusting people who piss all over the floor. ...


In the United States there are issues such as voting age, drinking age, age of consent, age of majority, age of criminal responsibility, marriageable age, age where one can hold public office, and mandatory retirement age. Admission to a movie for instance, may depend on age according to a motion picture rating system. A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain in order to be eligible to vote in a public election. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... While the phrase age of consent typically does not appear in legal statutes,[1] when used with reference to criminal law the age of consent is the minimum age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to any contract or behaviour regulated by... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Defense of infancy is a form of defense by excuse; in which a defendant argues that, at the time a law was broken, they were not criminally liable for their actions, as they had not reached an age of criminal responsibility. ... . ... A mandatory retirement age is the age at which persons who hold certain jobs or offices are required by statute to step down, or retire. ... A motion picture rating system categorizes films with regard to suitability for children and/or adults in terms of issues such as sex, violence and profanity. ...


Similarly in the United States in jurisprudence, the defence of infancy is a form of defence by which a defendant argues that, at the time a law was broken, they were not liable for their actions, and thus should not be held liable for a crime. Many courts recognize that defendants, which are considered to be juveniles, may avoid criminal prosecution on account of their age. Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... In most litigation under the common law adversarial system the defendant, perhaps with the assistance of counsel, may allege or present defenses (or defences) in order to avoid liability, civil or criminal. ... A defendant or defender is any party who is required to answer the complaint of a plaintiff or pursuer in a civil lawsuit before a court, or any party who has been formally charged or accused of violating a criminal statute. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... In the most general sense, a liability is anything that is a hindrance, or puts individuals at a disadvantage. ... Action, as a concept in philosophy, is what humans can do. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ... In law, a person who is not yet a legal adult is known as a minor (known in some places as an infant or juvenile). ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of law that regulates governmental sanctions (such as imprisonment and/or fines) as retaliation for crimes against the social order. ...


Economics and marketing

The economics of ageing are also of great import. Children and teenagers have little money of their own, but most of it is available for buying consumer goods. They also have considerable impact on how their parents spend money.


Young adults are an even more valuable cohort. They often have jobs with few responsibilities such as a mortgage or children. They do not yet have set buying habits and are more open to new products.


The young are thus the central target of marketers.[1] Television is programmed to attract the 15 to 35 years olds. Movies are also built around appealing to the young. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as...


Impact of ageing on health care demand

In Europe, many societies have ageing populations. While the effects on society are complex, there is a concern about the impact on health care demand. Saltman et al. (2006) argue that the large number of suggestions in the literature for specific interventions to cope with the expected increase in demand for long-term care in ageing societies can be organized under four headings: improve system performance; redesign service delivery; support informal caregivers; and shift demographic parameters.


Cultural variations

An elderly Hmong person.
An elderly Iraqi man

Considerable numbers of cultures have less of a problem with age compared with what has been described above, and it is seen as an important status to reach stages in life, rather than defined numerical ages. Advanced age is given more respect and status. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1590x2159, 652 KB) Old Hmong Man (Sapa, Vietnam) Fotograf: Nico van Geldere, Apeldoorn, Holland The author has given his consent for publishing this image unter the GNU-FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Hair Man Hair color... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1590x2159, 652 KB) Old Hmong Man (Sapa, Vietnam) Fotograf: Nico van Geldere, Apeldoorn, Holland The author has given his consent for publishing this image unter the GNU-FDL. File links The following pages link to this file: Hair Man Hair color... Languages Hmong/Mong Religions Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (IPA:) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1295 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Keffiyeh ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1295 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Keffiyeh ...


Traditional Chinese culture use different ageing method, called Xusui (虛歲) with respect to common ageing which called Zhousui (周歲). In the Xusui method, people are born at age 1, not age 0. See also East Asian age reckoning for more information. Several East Asian cultures, such as Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese, share a traditional way of counting a persons age. ...


Effects

Cognitive

Steady decline in many cognitive processes are seen across the lifespan, starting in one's thirties. Research has focused in particular on memory and ageing, and has found decline in many types of memory with ageing, but not in semantic memory or general knowledge such as vocabulary definitions, which typically increases or remains steady. One of the key concerns of older adults is the experience of memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimers disease. ... Semantic memory refers to the memory of meanings, understandings, and other factual knowledge; in contrast to episodic memory. ...


Societal ageing

Societal ageing refers to the demographic ageing of populations and societies as described by Professor Sarah Harper in 2006 in her book "Ageing Societies: Myths, Challenges and Opportunities".


Emotional

Given the physical and cognitive declines seen in ageing, a surprising finding is that emotional experience improves with age. Older adults are better at regulating their emotions and experience negative affect less frequently than younger adults and show a positivity effect in their attention and memory. The emotional improvements show up in longitudinal studies as well as in cross-sectional studies, and so cannot be entirely due to only the happier individuals surviving. In psychology, affect is an emotion or subjectively experienced feeling. ... In psychology and cognitive science, the positivity effect is the tendency of people, when evaluating the causes of the behaviors of a person they like, to attribute positive behaviors to the persons inherent disposition and negative behaviors to situations surrounding the behaviors. ...


Successful ageing

The concept of "successful ageing", as Strawbridge et al. (2002), have pointed out, can be traced back to the 1950s, but was popularised in an article by Rowe and Kahn (1987). These authors believed that former research into ageing had exaggerated the extent to which health disabilities, such as diabetes or osteoporosis, could be attributed exclusively to age, and also criticised former research in gerontology for exaggerating the homogeneity of samples of elderly people. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... It has been suggested that aging research be merged into this article or section. ...


In a subsequent publication, Rowe and Kahn (1997) criticise earlier work for making what, to them, is an over-simplistic distinction between pathologic and non-pathologic ageing, and distinguish between "normal ageing" (marked by high risk of illness), and "successful ageing" (marked by low risk of disability and high cognitive and physical functioning). They define "successful ageing" more specifically as consisting of three components:

  1. Low probability of disease or disability;
  2. High cognitive and physical function capacity;
  3. Active engagement with life.

Criticisms of Rowe and Kahn's work has been noted by Strawbridge et al. (2002), who note that more liberal definitions of "successful ageing" than those proposed by Rowe and Kahn result in greater percentages of elderly adults reaching successful ageing, and that self-reported successful ageing suggests a greater number of elderly people reach successful ageing than does an operational measure based on Rowe and Kahn's conceptualisations. Indeed, Strawbridge et al. (2002) note that the term "successful ageing", insofar as it implies competitiveness and that "normal ageing" is a failure, is itself problematic, and review alternative terms (such as "healthy ageing") that have been proposed.


Aldwin and Gilmer (2004) have argued in favour of the term "optimal ageing" in favour of "successful ageing. They argue that the latter term is too likely to obscure how many elderly people do suffer some health detriments, and also note the cultural diversity in approaches to death that complicate usage of a term such as "successful ageing", noting how, in Western Europe and Northern America, how people may approach death may differ from approaches taken in other cultures. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Theories of aging

Modernization Theory


This is the view that the status of the elderly has declined since industrialization and the spread of technology.


Disengagement Theory


This is the idea that separation of older people from active roles in society is normal and appropriate, and benefits both society and older individuals.


Activity Theory


A view holding that the more active people are, the more likely they are to be satisfied with life.


Continuity Theory


The view that in aging people are inclined to maintain, as much as they can, the same habits, personalities, and styles of life that they have developed in earlier years.


Cognitive Theory


A view of aging that emphasizes individual subjective perception, rather than actual objective change itself, as the factor that determines behavior associated with advanced age.


Demographic Transition Theory


The idea that population aging can be explained by a decline in both birthrates and death rates following industrialization.


Exchange Theory


The idea that interaction in social groups is based on the reciprocal balancing of rewards depending on actions performed


Biological Theories

Wear-and-Tear theory


The idea that changes associated with aging are the result of chance damage that accumulates over time.


Somatic Mutation Theory


This is the biological theory that aging results from damage to the genetic integrity of the body’s cells.


Error Accumulation Theory


This is the idea that aging results from chance events that gradually damage the genetic code.


Accumulative-Waste Theory


The biological theory of aging that points to a buildup of cells of waste products that presumably interferes with metabolism.


Autoimmune Theory


This is the idea that aging results from gradual decline in the body’s autoimmune system.


Aging-Clock Theory


The idea that aging results from a preprogrammed sequence, as in a clock, built into the operation of the nervous or endocrine system of the body.


Cross-Linkage Theory


This is the idea that aging results from accumulation of cross-linked compounds that interfere with normal cell function.


Free-Radical Theory


The idea that free radicals (unstable and highly reactive organic molecules) create damage that gives rise to symptoms we recognize as aging.


Cellular Theory


This is the view that aging can be explained largely by changes in structure and function taking place in the cells of an organism.


See also

Look up ageing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ageing

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (from wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The human brain goes through several large-scale changes as the individual progresses from embryo through to old age. ... The Aging Research Centre (ARC) is an independent non-profit educational research centre with facilities in Berkeley, California and in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. ... Biodemography (bio ∙ demography [bio-di-mog-ruh-fee] - noun) is the science dealing with the integration of biology and demography. ... Biological immortality can be defined as the absence of a sustained increase in rate of mortality as a function of chronological age. ... World map of life expectancy, 2005 Life expectancy is a statistical measure defined as the expected (mean) survival of human beings based upon a number of criteria such as gender and geographic location. ... A population pyramid is two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups (also called cohorts). ... Following is a list of topics related to life extension: Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9 15 Global Challenges A Accelerated aging disease Cockayne... One of the key concerns of older adults is experiencing memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimers Disease. ... Orthomolecular medicine and optimum nutrition are controversial medical and health approaches[1] that posit that many diseases and abnormalities result from various chemical imbalances or deficiencies and can be prevented, treated, or sometimes cured by achieving optimal levels of naturally occurring chemical substances, such as vitamins, dietary minerals, enzymes, antioxidants... In demographics, population ageing or population aging (see English spelling differences) occurs when the median age of a country or region rises. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment. ... It has been suggested that Longevity genes be merged into this article or section. ...

Notes

  1. '^ Krulwich, Robert (2006). Does Age Quash Our Spirit of Adventure? NPRs "All Things Considered" (accessed August 22, 2006)

NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... All Things Considered, sometimes abbreviated ATC, is a news radio program in the United States, broadcast on the National Public Radio network. ...

Further reading

  • The arrow of time - a photo-essay of a family ageing, with yearly portraits over 30 years

References

  • Aldwin, C.M. & Gilmer, D.F. (2004). Health, Illness and Optimal Ageing. London: Sage. ISBN 0-7619-2259-8
  • Charles, S.T., Reynolds, C.A., & Gatz, M. (2001). Age-related differences and change in positive and negative affect over 23 years. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 136-151.
  • Mather, M., & Carstensen, L. L. (2005). Aging and motivated cognition: The positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9, 496-502. PDF
  • Masoro E.J. & Austad S.N.. (eds.): Handbook of the Biology of Aging, Sixth Edition. Academic Press. San Diego, CA, USA, 2006. ISBN 0-12-088387-2
  • Rowe, J.D. & Kahn, R.L. (1987). Human ageing: Usual and successful. Science, 237, 143-149
  • Rowe, J.D. & Kahn, R.L.(1997). Successful ageing. The Gerontologist, 37 (4) 433-40
  • Strawbridge, W.J., Wallhagen, M.I. & Cohen, R.D. (2002). Successful ageing and well-being: Self-rated compared with Rowe and Kahn. The Gerontologist, 42, (6)
  • Zacks, R.T., Hasher, L., & Li, K.Z.H. (2000). Human memory. In F.I.M. Craik & T.A. Salthouse (Eds.), The Handbook of Aging and Cognition (pp. 293-357). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Saltman, R.B., Dubois, H.F.W. and Chawla, M. (2006) The impact of aging on long-term care in Europe and some potential policy responses, International Journal of Health Services, 36(4): 719-746.
  • Thesaurus of Aging Terminology (5,1MB, 272p), 8th edition (2005), AARP

Moody, Harry R. Aging: Concepts and Controversies. 5th ed. California: Pine Forge Press, 2006. Current logo for AARP, in use since January 2007 For the AppleTalk protocol developed by Apple Computer, see AppleTalk address resolution protocol (AARP). ...


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