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Encyclopedia > Agama (text)

Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means "that which has come down" (i.e., that which has been handed down to the people of the present from the past). Agama refers to a set of scriptures in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, with a distinct meaning in each case. The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article is under construction. ...

Contents

Hinduism

In Hinduism, the Agamas are an enormous collection of Sanskrit scriptures which, are revered as śmriti (remembered scriptures). The Agamas are the primary source and authority for ritual, yoga, and temple construction. Each of the major denominations — Shaivism (Shaiva Agamas), Vaishnavism (Pancharatra and Vaikhanasas Samhitas) and Shaktism (Shakta Tantras) — has its unique Agama texts, which expand on the central theological and philosophical teachings of that denomination. Smartas recognize the Agamas, but don't necessarily adhere to them, relying mainly on the smriti texts. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages) is a religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific body of Hindu religious scripture. ... Statue of Shiva performing Yogic meditation Yoga (Devanagari: योग) is a group of ancient spiritual practices originating in India. ... Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Temple dedicated to the worship of Vishnu as Venkateswara. ... Pañcaratra is a pre-Puranic form of Hinduism, which equated Narayana with Vishnu. ... Vaikhanasas is one of the prinicipal traditions of Hinduism and primarily worships Vishnu (and his associated avatars) as the Supreme God. ... Shiva and Shakti as One Shaktism is a denomination of Hinduism that worships Shakti, or Devi Mata -- the Hindu name for the Great Divine Mother -- in all of her forms whilst not rejecting the importance of masculine and neuter divinity (which are however deemed to be inactive in the absence... The Tantra (Looms or Weavings), refer to numerous and varied scriptures pertaining to any of several esoteric traditions rooted in Hindu and Buddhist philosophy. ... Smarta is a Hindu follower of Smartism. ... Smriti (Sanskrit स्मॄति, that which is remembered) refers to a specific canon of Hindu religious scripture. ...


In the Malay languages the word Agama literally means religion. Look up Malay in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Buddhism


Early
Buddhism
Scriptures

Pali Canon
Agamas
Gandharan texts Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The term Early Buddhism can refer to: Pre-sectarian Buddhism, which refers to the Teachings and monastic organization and structure, founded by Gautama Buddha. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Agama (Sanskrit:आगम) literally means that which has come down (i. ... The Gandhāran Buddhist Texts are the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered and also the oldest Indian manuscripts yet discovered. ...

Councils

1st Council
2nd Council
3rd Council
4th Council Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka King Ajatasattu sponsored the First Buddhist council. ... The Second Buddhist Council took place in Vesali, about one hundred years after the Buddhas Parinibbāna, in order to settle a serious dispute on Vinaya. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Schools

First Sangha
 Mahāsaṃghika
 Sthaviravāda
     Sarvāstivāda
     Vibhajjavāda
         Theravāda
         Dharma-
             guptaka

Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... The term pre-sectarian Buddhism is used to refer to the Buddhism that existed before the various subsects of Buddhism came into being. ... The Mahāsaṃghika (Majority) sect of Buddhism was formed in the first Buddhist schism around 320 BCE. It split from the Sthaviravāda (Elders) school. ... Sthaviravāda (Sanskrit. ... The Sarvastivada (roughly, Proclaiming that all exist) --a reference to one of the distinguishing doctrines of the school, the existence of dharmas in all of the three times (past, present, and future). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Theravada (Pāli: theravāda; Sanskrit: स्थविरवाद sthaviravāda; literally, the Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and most of continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand). ... The Dharmaguptaka are one of the eighteen schools of early Buddhism. ...

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In Buddhism, the term 'agama' is used to refer to a class of sutras of the early Buddhist schools, which were preserved in the Mahayana tradition (specifically, in the Sarvastivada, Dharmaguptaka and Mahasanghika schools). Another term for the Agama scripts is the Sarvastivadin Canon. These sutras correspond to the first four Nikayas of the Sutta-Pitaka of the Pali Canon. In this sense, 'agama' is a synonym for one of the meanings of nikaya. Sometimes the word agama is used to refer not to a specific scripture, but to a class of scripture. In this case, its meaning can also encompass the Sutta-pitaka, the oldest and most historically accurate representation of the teachings of Gautama Buddha. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... SÅ«tra (sex) (Sanskrit) or Sutta (Pāli) literally means a rope or thread that holds things together, and more metaphorically refers to an aphorism (or line, rule, formula), or a collection of such aphorisms in the form of a manual. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... The Sarvastivada (roughly, Proclaiming that all exist) --a reference to one of the distinguishing doctrines of the school, the existence of dharmas in all of the three times (past, present, and future). ... The Dharmaguptaka are one of the eighteen schools of early Buddhism. ... The Mahāsaṃghika (Majority) sect of Buddhism was formed in the first Buddhist schism around 320 BCE. It split from the Sthaviravāda (Elders) school. ... The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiá¹­aka; or Suttanta Pitaka; Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or Pali Canon, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ... Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ...


According to Charles Muller[1], four collections of agamas appear in the East Asian Mahayana Canon: the Cháng Ahánjīng (長阿含經), the Zhōng Ahánjīng (中阿含經), the Zá Ahánjīng (雜阿含經), and the Ekottara Agama or Zēngyī Ahánjīng (增一阿含經). These correspond to the Digha Nikaya, the Majjhima Nikaya, the Samyutta Nikaya, and the Anguttara Nikaya of the Pali Canon, respectively. Charles Muller is a translator specializing in East Asian philosophical texts. ... Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive predominantly in primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan from original texts in Sanskrit or Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit. ... The Ekottara Agama is an old indian buddhist text, of which currently only a Chinese translation is extant. ... The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...


The agamas were translated from their original language to Sanskrit, and were later also converted into a version of Sanskrit that used Chinese characters. This version is currently available in the Mahayana Canon. The agamas are commonly compared to the Suttapitaka, and their existence and similarity is sometimes used by scholars to validate the teachings composed in them as a historically authentic representation of the Canon of the First Buddhist Council. Sometimes also the differences between them are used to cast an alternative meaning on the accepted meaning of a sutta in either of the two recensions. Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that were originally put in writing starting in the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools. ... Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka King Ajatasattu sponsored the First Buddhist council. ...


The Agamas contain the following scriptures in Chinese translation:

  1. Digha Nikaya, Majjhima Nikaya and Samyutta Nikaya of the Sarvastivāda.
  2. Digha Nikaya of the Dharmaguptaka.
  3. Anguttara Nikaya (Ekottara Agama) of the Mahāsaṅghika.

Small Text Sarvāstivāda is a Sanskrit term, meaning literally ‘the theory of all exists’. Although there is some dispute over how the word ‘sarvāstivāda’ is to be analyzed, the general consensus is that it is made of three parts: sarvāstivāda = sarva ‘all’ or ‘every’ + asti ‘exist... The Dharmaguptaka are one of the eighteen schools of early Buddhism. ... The Ekottara Agama is an old indian buddhist text, of which currently only a Chinese translation is extant. ... The Mahāsāṃghika was one of the early buddhist schools in ancient India which is now extinct (i. ...


Jainism

In Jainism, an agama is an ancient Jain textbook. There were many agamas in ancient times, but as time passed, many of them were lost or destroyed. At present, 45 agamas are available. Agamas are written in the Prakrit language. These are read and studied by Jain monks (sadhus) only. This article is under construction. ... Three textbooks. ... Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ... In Hinduism, sadhu is a common term for an ascetic or practitioner of yoga (yogi) who has given up pursuit of the first three Hindu goals of life: kama (pleasure), artha (wealth and power) and even dharma (duty). ...


See also

Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Muller, Charles. Digital Dictionary of Buddhism, entry on 阿含經

References


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Agama is used to a set of scriptures in Hinduism, in Buddhism, and in Jainism, with a distinct meaning in each case.
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