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Encyclopedia > Afterlife
Ancient Egyptian papyrus depicting the journey into the afterlife.

The afterlife or life after death is a generic term for a continuation of existence after death, typically in a spiritual or ghostlike afterworld. Deceased persons are usually believed to go a specific region or plane of existence in this afterworld, often depending on the type of person they are and the life they lived. Some believe the afterlife includes some form of preparation for the soul to be transferred to another body (reincarnation). Look up afterlife in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 168 pixelsFull resolution‎ (5,018 × 1,051 pixels, file size: 8. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 168 pixelsFull resolution‎ (5,018 × 1,051 pixels, file size: 8. ... For the philosophical movement, see Existentialism. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word plane, see plane. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ...


The major views on the afterlife derive from religion, esotericism and metaphysics. There are those who are skeptical of the existence of the afterlife, or believe that it is absolutely impossible, such as the materialist-reductionists, who state that the topic is supernatural, therefore does not really exist or is unknowable. Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Supernatural (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Types of views on the afterlife

There are two fundamentally different types of views on the afterlife: observation based views and faith based views. For other uses, see Observation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ...

Reincarnation research is a field of inquiry that records and analyzes memories that subjects claim to have of past lives. ... A near-death experience (NDE) is the perception reported by a person who nearly died or who was clinically dead and revived. ... An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, perceiving ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). ... This article is about the paranormal concept. ... EVP (Electronic Voice Phenomena), refers to spirit voices that are said to manifest themselves on audio recordings. ... Mediumship is a form of relationship to spirits practiced in many religions, including Spiritualism, Spiritism, Espiritismo, Candomblé, Voodoo, Kardecism, and Umbanda. ... This article is about the belief in life after death. ... Bruce Moen is an engineering consultant in his own firm as well as an author and international lecturer. ... Robert Allan Monroe (October 30, 1915–March 17, 1995) was an advertising executive from Virginia who became known for his research into altered consciousness. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ... Veda redirects here. ... The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ...

The afterlife in different metaphysical models

In metaphysical models, theists generally believe some sort of afterlife awaits people when they die. Atheists generally believe that there is not a life after death. Members of some generally non-theistic religions such as Buddhism, tend to believe in an afterlife like reincarnation but without reference to God. Theism is the belief in one or more gods or goddesses. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Agnostics generally hold the position that like the existence of God, the existence of supernatural phenomena, such as souls or life after death, is unverifiable and therefore unknowable. Some philosophies (i.e. posthumanism, Humanism, and often empiricism) generally hold that there is not an afterlife. Agnosticism (from the Greek a, meaning without, and gnosticism or gnosis, meaning knowledge) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims—particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality—is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ...


Many religions, whether they believe in the soul’s existence in another world like Christianity, Islam and many pagan belief systems, or in reincarnation like many forms of Hinduism and Buddhism, believe that one’s status in the afterlife is a reward or punishment for their conduct during life. To the extent that the afterlife is a form of justice, it is usually restricted to humans, as animals are not held responsible for their actions. Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is...


Afterlife in modern science

Modern science, in general, either describes the universe and human beings without reference to a soul or to an afterlife, or tends to remain mute on the issue. A notable exception is a famous study conducted in 1901 by physician Duncan MacDougall, who sought to measure the weight purportedly lost by a human body when the soul departed the body upon death.[1] MacDougall weighed dying patients in an attempt to prove that the soul was material, tangible and thus measurable. These experiments are widely considered to have had little if any scientific merit, and although MacDougall's results varied considerably from "21 grams," for some people this figure has become synonymous with the measure of a soul's mass.[2] The title of the 2003 movie 21 Grams is a reference to MacDougall's findings. Dr. Duncan MacDougall was an early 20th century doctor in Haverhill, Massachusetts who sought to measure the weight purportedly lost by a human body when the soul departed the body upon death. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... 21 Grams is a 2003 drama starring Sean Penn, Naomi Watts and Benicio del Toro. ...


Others, such as Francis Crick in 1994, have attempted a ‘scientific search for the soul’.[3] Frank Tipler has argued that physics can explain immortality, though such arguments are not falsifiable and thus do not qualify as science.[4] Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was an English molecular biologist, physicist, and neuroscientist, who is most noted for being one of the co-discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953. ... Frank J. Tipler is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University, New Orleans, physicist, theologian and cornucopian philosopher. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ...


Some investigations have been conducted which failed to find evidence that “out-of-body” experiences transcend the confines of the brain. For example, one hospital placed an LED marquee above its patients’ beds which displayed a hidden message that could only be read if one were looking down from above. As of 2001, no one who claimed near-death experience or out-of-body experience within that hospital had reported having seen the hidden message. [5] NDE redirects here. ...


Afterlife in Ancient Egyptian Religion

The afterlife played an important role in Ancient Egyptian religion, and its belief system is one of the earliest known. When the body died, a part of its soul known as ka (body double) would go to the Kingdom of the Dead. While the soul dwelt in the Fields of Aaru, Osiris demanded work as payback for the protection he provided. Statues were placed in the tombs to serve as substitutes for the deceased. Egyptian goddess Isis protecting a mummified pharaoh, a late Ptolemic relief from the Philae Temple, which was first built in the thirtieth dynasty, c. ... In Egyptian mythology, the fields of Aaru (alternatives: Yaaru, Iaru, Aalu), are the heavenly underworld where Osiris ruled. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ...


Arriving at one's reward in afterlife was a demanding ordeal, requiring a sin-free heart and the ability to recite the spells, passwords, and formulae of the Book of the Dead. In the Hall of Two Truths, the deceased's heart was weighed against the Shu feather of truth and justice taken from the headdress of the goddess Ma'at.[6] If the heart was lighter than the feather, they could pass on, but if it were heavier they would be devoured by the demon Ammit. The Book of the Dead comd A Section of Plate 3 from the Papyrus of Ani. ... For other uses, see Maat (disambiguation). ... A depiction of PAJARO in a late period papyrus, showing his decorated leonine body, and crocodile head. ...


Egyptians also believed that being mummified was the only way to have an afterlife. Only if the corpse had been properly embalmed and entombed in a mastaba, could the dead live again in the Fields of Yalu and accompany the Sun on its daily ride. Due to the dangers the afterlife posed, the Book of the Dead was placed in the tomb with the body. Embalming, in most modern cultures, is a process used to temporarily preserve a human cadaver to forestall decomposition and make it suitable for display at a funeral. ... A mastaba was a flat-roofed, mud brick, rectangular building with inward sloping sides that marked the burial site of many eminent Egyptians of Egypts ancient period. ...


Afterlife in Zoroastrianism

Zoroaster, who lived in Iran around 1000 BCE, teaches that the dead will be swallowed by terror and purified to live in a perfected material world at the end of time. Zoroaster (Greek Ζωροάστρης, Zōroastrēs) or Zarathustra (Avestan: Zaraθuštra), also referred to as Zartosht (Persian: ; Kurdish: ), was an ancient Iranian prophet and religious poet. ...


The Pahlavi text Dadestan-i Denig ("Religious Decisions") from about 900 CE, describes the particular judgment of the soul three days after death, with each soul sent to heaven, hell, or a neutral place (hamistagan) to await Judgment Day. The Pahlavi script was used broadly in the Sasanid Persian Empire to write down Middle Persian for secular, as well as religious purposes. ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... As described in the 9th century Zoroastrian text Dadestan-i Denig (Religious Decisions)[1], hamistagan is a neutral place or state for the departed souls of those whose good deeds and bad deeds were equal in life. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven...


Afterlife in ancient Greek and Roman religion

The dead Danaides punished by having to pour water into a leaking cauldron.

In the Odyssey, Homer refers to the dead as "burnt-out wraiths." An afterlife of eternal bliss exists in Elysium, but is reserved for Zeus's mortal descendants. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (572x766, 82 KB) John William Waterhouse, The Danaides - 1904 - Oil on canvas - Private collection Source : http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (572x766, 82 KB) John William Waterhouse, The Danaides - 1904 - Oil on canvas - Private collection Source : http://www. ... Danaus, or Danaos (sleeper) was a Greek mythological character, twin of Aegyptus and son of Belus, a mythic king of Egypt. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Elysium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


In his Myth of Er, Plato describes souls being judged immediately after death and sent either to the heavens for a reward or underground for punishment. After their respective judgments have been enjoyed or suffered, the souls are reincarnated. The Myth of Er is an analogy used in Platos Republic. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


The Greek god Hades is known in Greek mythology as the king of the underworld, a bleak place in between the place of torment and the place of rest, where most souls live after death. Some heroes of Greek legend are allowed to visit the underworld. The Romans had a similar belief system about the afterlife, with Hades becoming known as Pluto. The Trojan prince Aeneas, who founds the nation that would later become Rome, visits the underworld according to the epic poem Aeneid. Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


Afterlife in Norse religion

The Prose Edda describes Hel as an unpleasant abode for those unworthy of Valhalla, which is reserved for chosen warriors who die in battle. The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Niflheim. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ...


Afterlife in Abrahamic religions

Judaism

Writing that would later be incorporated into the Hebrew Bible names sheol as the afterlife, a gloomy place where all are destined to go after death. The Book of Numbers identifies sheol as literally underground (Numbers 16:31-33), in the Biblical account of the destruction of the rebellious Korah, Dathan and Abiram and their 250 followers, although it is speculated that this passage should be read literally, signifying an earthquake or split in the earth. 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... The Book of Numbers is the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew ba-midbar במדבר, i. ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at...


The Book of Enoch describes sheol as divided into four compartments for four types of the dead: the faithful saints who await resurrection in Paradise, the merely virtuous who await their reward, the wicked who await punishment, and the wicked who have already been punished and will not be resurrected on Judgment Day.[7] It should be noted that the Book of Enoch is considered apocryphal by most denominations of Christianity and all denominations of Judaism. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... Paradise, Jan Bruegel Paradise is an English word from Persian roots that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. ...


The book of 2 Maccabees gives a clear account of the dead awaiting a future resurrection and judgment, plus prayers and offerings for the dead to remove the burden of sin. 2 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which focuses on the Jews revolt against Antiochus and concludes with the defeat of the Syrian general Nicanor in 161 BC by Judas Maccabeus, the hero of the work. ...


Maimonides describes the Olam Haba ("World to Come") in spiritual terms, relegating the prophesied physical resurrection to the status of a future miracle, unrelated to the afterlife or the Messianic era. Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Jewish eschatology is concerned with Mashiach (the Jewish Messiah) the continuation of the Davidic line, and Olam Haba (Hebrew for the world to come; i. ...


The Zohar describes Gehenna not as a place of punishment for the wicked but as a place of spiritual purification for the souls of almost all mortals.[1] The Zohar (Hebrew: זהר Splendor, radiance) is widely considered the most important work of Kabbalah, Jewish mysticism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Christianity

The Early Church: 1 CE to 500 CE

Jesus and the New Testament writers of the Bible books mention notions of an afterlife and resurrection that involve ideas like heaven and hell. The author of Luke recounts the story of Lazarus and the rich man, which shows people in Hades awaiting the resurrection either in comfort or torment. The author of the Book of Revelation writes about God and the angels versus Satan and demons in an epic battle at the end of times when all souls are judged. There is mention of ghostly bodies of past prophets, and the transfiguration. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Look up Resurrection in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... The Gospel of Luke (literally, according to Luke; Greek, Κατά Λουκαν, Kata Loukan) is a synoptic Gospel, and the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament. ... Dives and Lazarus or Lazarus and Dives is a parable[1] attributed to Jesus that is reported only in the Gospel of Luke (Luke 16:19-16:31). ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... The phrase Bosom of Abraham refers to the place of comfort in sheol (Greek: hades) where the Jews said the righteous dead awaited Judgment Day. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... This page is about the core essence of a being. ... The word Transfiguration means a changing of appearance or form. ...


The non-canonical Acts of Paul and Thecla speak of the efficacy of prayer for the dead, so that they might be "translated to a state of happiness."[8] The Acts of Paul and Thecla (Acta Pauli et Theclae) is an apocryphal story of St Pauls influence on a young virgin named Thecla. ...


Hippolytus of Rome pictures Hades as a place where the righteous dead, awaiting in the bosom of Abraham their resurrection, rejoice at their future prospect, while the unrighteous are tormented at the sight of the "lake of unquenchable fire" into which they are destined to be cast. In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ... The phrase Bosom of Abraham refers to the place of comfort in sheol (Greek: hades) where the Jews said the righteous dead awaited Judgment Day. ... In the Book of Revelation, the beast, the false prophet, the Satan, death, hades, and all those whose names arent written in the Book of Life are thrown into the lake of fire[1]. In some interpretations, the servants of iniquity are tortured forever in the lake. ...


Gregory of Nyssa formulates belief in the possibility of purification of souls after death.[9] Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ...


Saint Augustine counters Pelagius, arguing that original sin means that the unbaptized go to hell, including infants, albeit with less suffering than is experienced by those guilty of actual sins. Augustinus redirects here. ... Pelagius (ca. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


Medieval Christianity

Pope Gregory I repeats the concept, articulated over a century earlier by Gregory of Nyssa that the saved suffer purification after death, in connection with which he wrote of "purgatorial flames". The noun "purgatorium" (Latin: place of cleansing[10]) is used for the first time to describe a state of painful purification of the saved after death. The same word in adjectival form (purgatorius -a -um, cleansing), which appears also in non-religious writing,[11] was already used by Christians such as Augustine of Hippo and Pope Gregory I to refer to an after-death cleansing. “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ...


The Protestant Reformation

Martin Luther denounces the doctrine of particular judgment as contrary to the Bible, professing instead the belief that the soul sleeps until Judgment Day. John Calvin denounces Luther's doctrine, writing instead that the souls of the elect rest in blessedness while awaiting the resurrection of the dead. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... In Christian eschatology, particular judgment is the doctrine that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Psychopannychism (from Greek psuche (soul, mind) + pannucizein (to last the night)) refers to the belief that the soul remains conscious after death (i. ... This article or section should be merged with End times and Last judgment The Last Judgement - Tympanum sculpture at the Abbey Church of Ste-Foy, Conques-en-Rouergue, France In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgement is the ethical-judicial trial, judgement, and punishment/reward of individual humans (assignment to heaven... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all variously describe a resurrection of the dead, usually a resurrection of all people to face God on Judgment Day. ...


Swedenborg and the Enlightenment

During the Age of Enlightenment, theologians and philosophers presented various philosophies and beliefs. A notable example is Emanuel Swedenborg who wrote some 18 theological works which describe in detail the nature of the afterlife according to his claimed spiritual experiences, the most famous of which is Heaven and Hell. The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Emanuel Swedenborg, 75, holding the manuscript of Apocalypsis Revelata (1766). ... Heaven and Hell is the common English title of a book written by mystic Emanuel Swedenborg in Latin, published in 1758. ...


On the other hand, the enlightenment produced more rationalist philosophies such as deism. Many deist freethinkers held that belief in an afterlife with reward and punishment was a necessity of reason and good moral order. For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ...


Afterlife in Latter-Day Saints (Mormonism)

President Joseph F. Smith of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints presents an elaborate vision of the Afterlife. It is revealed as the scene of an extensive missionary effort by righteous spirits to redeem those still in darkness - a spirit prison or "hell" where the spirits of the dead remain until judgement. It is divided into two parts: Spirit Prison and Paradise. Together these are also known as the Spirit World (also Abraham's Bosom; see Luke 16:19-25). They believe that Christ visited spirit prison (1 Peter 3:18-20) and opened the gate for those who repent to cross over to Paradise. This is similar to the Harrowing of Hell doctrine of some mainstream Christian faiths. Both Spirit Prison and Paradise are temporary according to Latter-day Saint beliefs. After the resurrection spirits are assigned "permanently" to three degrees of heavenly glory (1 Cor 15:44-42; Doctrine and Covenants, Section 76) or are cast with Satan into Outer Darkness. (See Doctrine and Covenants, Section 76.) This continues to be the belief system of most Mormons. Joseph Fielding Smith, Sr. ... For other uses, see Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (disambiguation). ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ...


Christian fiction

C. S. Lewis writes The Great Divorce. In this work of fiction, people who are already in hell are given a "field trip" to heaven. They get to look around and decide whether they would like to leave Hell and stay in Heaven. Every one of the subjects finds reason to reject heaven. Lewis is not suggesting that this will actually happen ("It is appointed to man once to die, and then comes judgment," Hebrews 9:27). He is showing that the excuses people used to reject Christ when they were alive on earth would be retained even if they got a second chance, because their character hasn't changed, and God's ways are still abhorrent to them. Clive Staples Jack Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... The Great Divorce: A Dream is a work of fantasy by C. S. Lewis . ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ...


Salvation, faith, and merit from ancient to modern Christianity

Most Christians deny that entry into Heaven can be properly earned, rather it is a gift that is solely God's to give through his unmerited grace. This belief follows the theology of St. Paul: For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith--and this not from yourselves, it is the gift of God, not by works, so that no one can boast. The Augustinian, Thomist, Lutheran, and Calvinist theological traditions all emphasize the necessity of God's undeserved grace for salvation, and reject so-called Pelagianism, which would make man earn salvation through good works. Not all Christian sects accept this doctrine, leading many controversies on grace and free will, and the idea of predestination. In particular, the belief that heaven is a reward for good behavior is a common folk belief in Christian societies, even among members of churches which reject that belief. Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of St. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


Christian theologians Thomas Aquinas and Jonathan Edwards wrote that the saved in heaven will delight in the suffering of the damned. Hell, however, doesn't fit modern, humanitarian concepts of punishment because it can't deter the unbeliever nor rehabilitate the damned. Many Christian believers have come to downplay the punishment of hell. Universalists teach that salvation is for all. Jehovah's Witnesses and Seventh-day Adventists, though they have among the strictest rules on how to conduct their lives, teach that sinners are destroyed rather than tortured forever. Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For other persons named Jonathan Edwards, see Jonathan Edwards (disambiguation). ... Universalism may refer to: In comparative religion, universalism is the belief that all religions are equal roads to heaven, although the adherent may chose only one or a few religions for his/her/its primary focus. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...


The dead as Angels in Heaven

In the informal folk beliefs of many Christians, the souls of virtuous people ascend to Heaven and are converted into angels. More formal Christian theology makes a sharp distinction between angels, who were created by God before the creation of humanity, and saints, who are people who have received immortality from the grace of God through faith in the Son of God Jesus (John 3:16). This page is about the core essence of a being. ... The Annunciation - the Angel Gabriel announces to Mary that she will bear Jesus (El Greco, 1575) An angel is an ethereal being found in many religions, whose duties are to assist and serve God. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


Universalists

Some sects, such as the Universalists, believe in universalism which holds that all will eventually be rewarded regardless of what they have done or believed. Universalism refers to any concept or doctrine that applies to all persons and/or all things for all times and in all situations. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses understand Ecclesiastes 9:5 to preclude an afterlife: Ecclesiastes, Qohelet in Hebrew, is a book of the Hebrew Bible. ...


For the living are conscious that they will die; but as for the dead, they are conscious of nothing at all, neither do they any more have wages, because the remembrance of them has been forgotten.


They believe that following Armageddon a resurrection in the flesh[12] to an Edenic Earth[13] will be rewarded to both righteous and unrighteous (but not wicked) dead and that eternal death (non-existence) is the punishment for sin lacking repentance after Armageddon. Although those who are not dead when Armageddon occurs will be judged and possibly slain during Armageddon because of their potential regretless sins. They believe that death is the price for sinning (that is why most dead will be resurrected - they paid the price already).[14][15]


The Modern Catholic Church

In the 1990s, the Catechism of the Catholic Church defined hell not as punishment imposed on the sinner but rather as the sinner's "self-exclusion" from God. The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Islam

The Islamic belief in the afterlife as stated in the quran is similar in most ways to the Christian belief in the afterlife, though its official description is more detailed. The Islamic equivalent to heaven is jannah and the equivalent to hell is jahannam. Jannah and Jahannem both have different levels. Souls will not get there until after the Judgment Day, but their level of comfort while in the grave depends on their belief in Islam and their conduct during life. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Jahannam (Arabic: )(in Turkish: cehennem, in Bosnian: džehennem) is the Islamic equivalent to Gei Hinnom. ...


Afterlife as reincarnation

An afterlife concept that is found among Hindus, Rosicrucians, Spiritists, and Wicca is reincarnation, as evolving humans life after life in the physical world, that is, acquiring a superior grade of consciousness and altruism by means of successive reincarnations. This succession is conceived to lead toward an eventual liberation or spiritual rebirth as spiritual beings. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages)[1] is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Temple of the Rose Cross, Teophilus Schweighardt Constantiens, 1618. ... This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological concept. ... The Physical Plane or Physical Universe in Hermeticism, Theosophical and New Age thought refers to the visible reality of space and time, energy and matter. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Born again is a term used originally and mainly in Christianity, where it is associated with salvation, conversion and spiritual rebirth. ...


Some practitioners of eastern religions follow a different concept called metempsychosis which purposes that human beings can transmigrate into animals, vegetables, or even minerals.[citation needed] One consequence of the Hindu and Spiritist beliefs is that our current lives are also an afterlife. According to those beliefs events in our current life are consequences of actions taken in previous lives, or Karma. Metempsychosis is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to the belief of transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Minerals are natural compounds formed through geological processes. ... For other uses, see Karma (disambiguation). ...


Eastern Religions

Hinduism

The Upanishads describe reincarnation, or samsara. The Bhagavad Geeta, the holy book of Hinduism talks extensively about the afterlife. Here, the Lord Krishna says that just as a man discards his old clothes and wears new ones; similarly the soul discards the old body and takes on a new one. In Hinduism, the belief is that the body is but a shell, the soul inside is immutable and indestructible and takes on different lives in a cycle of birth and death. The end of this cycle is Mukti or salvation. However, not all Hindus believe in reincarnation. The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... For other uses, see Samsara (disambiguation). ...


Buddhism

Buddhists believe that rebirth takes place without a self (similar to soul) and that the process of rebirth is simply a continuation of the previous life. The process of being reborn as any other being is based on your karma. From a Buddhist perspective, the current life is a continuation of the past life. If one dies with a peaceful state of mind, this will cause fortunate karma to ripen and a fortunate rebirth as a human or god will follow. If one dies with a negative state of mind, this will ripen negative karma and a lower rebirth such as an animal, hungry ghost, or hell-being will follow. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ... Karma (Sanskrit: कर्मन karman, Pāli: कमा Kamma) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...


In Tibetan Buddhism the Tibetan Book of the Dead explains the intermediate state of humans between death and reincarnation. The deceased will find the bright light of wisdom, which shows a straightforward path to move upward and leave the cycle of reincarnation. There are various reasons why the deceased do not follow that light. Some had no briefing about the intermediate state in the former life. Others only used to follow their basic instincts like animals. And some have fear, which results from foul deeds in the former life or from insistent haughtiness. In the intermediate state the awareness is very flexible, so it is important to be virtuous, adopt a positive attitude, and avoid negative ideas. Ideas which are rising from subconsciousness can cause extreme tempers and cowing visions. In this situation they have to understand, that these manifestations are just reflections of the inner thoughts. No one can really hurt them, because they have no more material body. The deceased get help from different Buddhas who show them the path to the bright light. The ones who do not follow the path after all will get hints for a better reincarnation. They have to release the things and beings on which or whom they still hang from the life before. It is recommended to choose a family where the parents trust in the Dharma and to reincarnate with the will to care for the welfare of all beings. Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Bardo Thodol, Liberation through Hearing in the Intermediate State, sometimes incorrectly called the Tibetan Book of the Dead, is a funerary text that describes the experiences of the consciousness after death during the interval known as bardo between death and rebirth. ... For the historical founder of Buddhism, see Gautama Buddha. ... Dharma (Sanskrit: धर्म) or Dhamma (Pāli: धम्म) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ...


Sikhism

Sikhs also believe in reincarnation. They believe that the soul belongs to the spiritual universe which has its origins in God. It is like a see-saw, the amount of good done in life will store up blessings, thus uniting with God. A soul may need to live many lives before it is one with God. A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Other believers in reincarnation

Rosicrucians,[16] in the same way of those who have had near-death experiences, speak of a life review period occurring immediately after death and before entering the afterlife's planes of existence (before the silver cord is broken), followed by a judgment, more akin to a Final Review or End Report over one's life.[17] A near-death experience (NDE) is the perception reported by a person who nearly died or who was clinically dead and revived. ... A life review is a phenomenon widely reported in near-death experiences in which a person having died (though in a handful of cases also while alive) rapidly sees much or the totality of their life history in chronological sequence and in extreme detail. ... In metaphysics and esoteric cosmology, a plane of existence (sometimes called simply a plane, dimension, vibrating plane, or an inner, invisible, spiritual, supraphysical world, or egg) is conceived as a subtle region of space (and/or consciousness) beyond, but permeating, the known physical universe (or a portion of the physical... Silver cord is in metaphysical literature a term referring to the connection between the physical body, astral body and Higher Self. ... This article is about the Christian concept. ...


Some Neopagans believe in personal reincarnation, whereas some believe that the energy of one's soul reintegrates with a continuum of such energy which is recycled into other living things as they are born.[citation needed] Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ...


Many Wiccans, though not all, profess a belief in an afterlife called the Summerland, a peaceful and sunny place where the souls of the newly dead are sent. Here, souls rest, recuperate from life, and reflect on the experiences they had during their lives. After a period of rest, the souls are reincarnated, and the memory of their previous lives is erased. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


See also


Akhirah is the day of judgment in the Islamic fatih. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... The Tibetan word Bardo means literally intermediate state - also translated as transitional state or in-between state. In Sanskrit the concept has the name antarabhāva. ... For other uses, see Believe. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Bruce Moen is an engineering consultant in his own firm as well as an author and international lecturer. ... The word cognitivism is used in several ways: In ethics, cognitivism is the philosophical view that ethical sentences express propositions, and hence are capable of being true or false. ... Not to be confused with cryogenics. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation), Dead (disambiguation), or Death (band). ... Look up doomsday in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Electronic voice phenomenon (EVP) is a term used to refer to sounds captured on recorded media or other electronic devices that are said by paranormal investigators to be voices of paranormal origin. ... For other uses, see Elysium (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightenment broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... Exaltation or Eternal Progression is a seminal doctrinal belief among devout members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church or Mormons) that mankind, as spirit children of their Father in Heaven, can become like, not equivalent to, Him. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation). ... The Harrowing of Hell is a doctrine in Christian theology referenced in the Apostles Creed and the Athanasian Creed (Quicumque vult), which states that Jesus descended into Hell. ... Reputed ghost of a monk. ... For other uses, see Heaven (disambiguation). ... This article is about the theological or philosophical afterlife. ... This article discusses Humanism as a non-theistic life stance. ... This article is about living for infinite period of time. ... In Christian theology, the intermediate state refers to a persons existence between their death and resurrection. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Life (disambiguation). ... Life extension refers to an increase in maximum or average lifespan, especially in humans, by slowing down or reversing the processes of aging. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... In Aztec mythology, Mictlan was the lowest (ninth) level of the underworld, located far to the north. ... NDE redirects here. ... Omega point is a term invented by French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin to describe the ultimate maximum level of complexity-consciousness, considered by him the aim towards which consciousness evolves. ... An out-of-body experience (OBE or sometimes OOBE), is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of ones body and, in some cases, perceiving ones physical body from a place outside ones body (autoscopy). ... Pre-Birth communication is described by one web site on the subject as follows: What is Pre-Birth Communication? Its something that many people experience, yet very few talk about -- the sense that somehow we are in contact with a being who is not yet born! It may be... A 1930 Soviet poster propagating breast care. ... This article is about the theological concept. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Scientific method is a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. ... In Hebrew, ²² Sheol (שאול, Shol) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of humankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go at... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... This article is about suspended animation in a medical context. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Undead is a collective name for mythological beings that are deceased yet behave as if alive. ... For other uses, see Valhalla (disambiguation). ... In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods. ...

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Afterlife

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References

  1. ^ Roach, Mary (2005). Spook – Science Tackles the Afterlife. W. W. Norton & Co.. ISBN 0-393-05962-6. 
  2. ^ Urban Legends - Reference Page (Soul man).
  3. ^ Crick, Francis (1995). The Astonishing Hypothesis – the Scientific Search for the Soul. Touchstone Books. ISBN 0-684-80158-2. 
  4. ^ Tipler, Franl, J. (1997). The Physics of Immortality – Modern Cosmology, God and the Resurrection of the Dead. Anchor. ISBN 0385467990. 
  5. ^ Alper, Matthew (2001). The "God" Part of the Brain - a Scientific Interpretation of Human Spirituality and God. Rogue Press. ISBN 0-9660367-0-0. 
  6. ^ Bard, Katheryn (1999). Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Routledge. ISBN 0-4151-8589-0. 
  7. ^ Fosdick, Harry Emerson. A guide to understanding the Bible. New York: Harper & Brothers. 1956. page 276.
  8. ^ Acts of Paul and Thecla 8:5
  9. ^ He wrote that a person "may afterward in a quite different manner be very much interested in what is better, when, after his departure out of the body, he gains knowledge of the difference between virtue and vice and finds that he is not able to partake of divinity until he has been purged of the filthy contagion in his soul by the purifying fire" (emphases added) - Sermon on the Dead, AD 382, quoted in The Roots of Purgatory
  10. ^ "purgatory." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003. Answers.com 06 Jun. 2007.
  11. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary
  12. ^ Acts 24:15 KJV
  13. ^ Insight on the Scriptures vol. 2 pp 574-6
  14. ^ Reasoning From the Scriptures pp 168-175
  15. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses website on Hell
  16. ^ Max Heindel, The Rosicrucian Christianity Lectures (The Riddle of Life and Death), 1908, ISBN 0-911274-84-7
  17. ^ Max Heindel, Death and Life in Purgatory - Life and Activity in Heaven

Harry Emerson Fosdick (1879-1969) was the most prominent liberal baptist minister of the early 20th Century. ... Max Heindel (1865-1919) Max Heindel - born Carl Louis von Grasshoff in Aarhus, Denmark on July 23, 1865 - was a Christian occultist, astrologer, and mystic. ...

Further reading

  • Life After Death: A History of the Afterlife in Western Religion by Alan F. Segal, Doubleday, 2004
  • Brain & Belief: An Exploration of the Human Soul by John J. McGraw, Aegis Press, 2004

Alan F. Segal is a professor of religion and Ingeborg Rennert Professor of Jewish Studies at Barnard College. ... John J. McGraw (Born 1974) is an American writer and philosopher. ...

External links

  • Is there life after death? - An Evangelical Christian perspective
  • www.spiritualtravel.org - A Tibetian Buddhist View of the Afterlife
  • What Happens When You Die? - A Luciferian's View of the Death Process and Collective Reincarnation
  • Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Death and Immortality
  • Near-Death Experiences and the Afterlife
  • www.yourafterlife.nu - Various Accounts of the Afterlife
  • Common problems with the concept of Heaven
  • Rosicrucians: The Light Beyond Death
  • Afterlife at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • VERITAS Research Program
  • The Destiny of the Soul: A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life, available at Project Gutenberg. (Extensive 1878 text by William Rounseville Alger)
  • Eternal Perspectives - Articles About Eternity from a Biblical Point of View by Randy Alcorn
  • Buddhist View of Death & Dying
  • Afterlife Kids
  • http://www.rafed.net/english/books/death/01.html#9

  Results from FactBites:
 
Egypt - Afterlife - Coffins - Mummy Masks - Crystalinks (2321 words)
To enjoy the afterlife, all these elements had to be sustained and protected from harm.
In effect, they democratized the afterlife, eliminating the royal exclusivity of the Pyramid Text.Mostly, as the modern name of this collection of spells implies, the text was found on Middle Kingdom coffins of officials and their subordinates.
This vision is vividly depicted in the sculptures, reliefs, and wall paintings of Egyptian tombs, with the deceased portrayed in the way he or she wished to remain forever accompanied by images of family and servants.
Afterlife - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2042 words)
The afterlife (or life after death) is a generic term referring to a continuation of existence, typically spiritual and experiential, beyond this world, or after death.
Another afterlife concept which is found among Hindus, Rosicrucians, Spiritists, and Wiccans is reincarnation, as evolving humans life after life in the physical world, that is, acquiring a superior grade of consciousness and altruism by means of successive reincarnations.
Schopenhauer in particular argued that the idea of an afterlife or immortal soul is contradicted by the fact that it is impossible to attach sense to such a concept as the soul without reference to characteristics such as consciousness, which depend on such physical entities as the brain.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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