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Encyclopedia > Afrocentrism
see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa.
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Afrocentricity, or Afrocentrism, is a cultural movement emphasizing a distinctive identity and contributions of African cultures to world history. Afrocentrists commonly contend that Eurocentrism led to the neglect or denial of the contributions of African people and focused instead on a generally European-centered model of world civilization and history. Therefore, they view Afrocentrism as a paradigmatic shift from a European-centered history to an African-centered history. More broadly, Afrocentrism is concerned with distinguishing African achievements apart from the influence of European peoples.[1] Some Afrocentric ideas have been assessed as pseudohistorical by Western mainstream scholars, especially claims regarding Ancient Egypt as contributing directly to the development of Greek and Western culture.[2] Contemporary Afrocentrists may view the movement as multicultural rather than ethnocentric.[3] According to US professor Victor Oguejiofor Okafor, concepts of Afrocentricity lie at the core of the disciplines such as African American studies.[4] Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... An Africanist is a specialist in African affairs, cultures, or languages. ... Download high resolution version (1497x1213, 395 KB)1812 map of Africa by Arrowsmith and Lewis, printed in Boston by Thomas & Andrews This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1497x1213, 395 KB)1812 map of Africa by Arrowsmith and Lewis, printed in Boston by Thomas & Andrews This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixel Image in higher resolution (2759 × 1404 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/png) this is a boring map of africa!!!!!!!!!!!! World map depicting Africa; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community[1] for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Kwanzaa (or Kwaanza) is a week-long Pan-African festival primarily honoring African-American heritage. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Kiswahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... African Philosophy is a disputed term, used in different ways by different philosophers. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Black orientalism is a terminology that is used for an intellectual and cultural movement within primarily African American circles which, while similar to the general movement of Orientalism in its negative outlook upon Western Asian - especially Arab - culture and religion, is different from the same in its emphasis upon the... FESPACO (La Festival Panafricain du Cinéma et de la Télévision de Ouagadougou) is a biennial African film festival held in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. ... Yoruba bronze head sculpture, Ife, Nigeria c. ... Established in 1992, The Pan African Film Festival (PAFF) is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the promotion of cultural and racial tolerance and understanding through the exhibition of film, art and creative expression. ... George Padmore (1902-1959), born Malcolm Nurse was a Trinidadian communist and later a leading Pan-Africanist with anti-communist sympathies. ... Walter Rodney (March 23, 1942 - June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Thomas Sankara Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (born December 21, 1949 in Yako – died October 15, 1987 in Ouagadougou) was the leader of Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta) from 1983 to 1987. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was a French author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced ) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was a journalist, and a prominent socialist theorist and writer. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... A cultural movement is a change in the way a number of different disciplines approach their work. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The European peoples are the various nations and ethnic groups of Europe. ... Pseudohistory is the historical equivalent of pseudoscience. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... Ethnocentrism (Greek ethnos nation + -centrism) is a set of beliefs or practices based on the view that ones own group is the center of everything. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ...

Contents

History

A 1911 copy of the NAACP journal The Crisis depicting an Afrocentric artist's interpretation of "Ra-Maat-Neb, one of the kings of the Upper Nile"

The origins of Afrocentricity can be found in the work of African and African-diaspora intellectuals in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Afrocentricity has changed over time, and has been hotly debated both outside and within Afrocentric circles. Download high resolution version (516x810, 89 KB)cover of The Crisis File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (516x810, 89 KB)cover of The Crisis File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), is one of the oldest and most influential hate organizations in the United States. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Afrocentrism developed first as a movement and argument among leaders and intellectuals in the Western Hemisphere. It arose following social changes in the United States and Africa due both to the end of slavery and expansion of British colonialism. Great Britain had abolished slavery in the early 19th c., and slavery ended in the 1860s in the United States as a result of the Civil War. In the US, efforts to aid and resist the freedmen were part of massive social changes and internal power shifts in the South after the war. The four million freedmen overwhelmingly wanted to stay in their native United States, but some whites supported programs to "repatriate" ethnic Africans to Africa. Wanting to establish their own identities, Africa Americans left white-dominated churches to establish their own. African Americans eagerly sought education, and their leaders took more active public roles, but discrimination was severe into the 20th century. [5] The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ...


Before the late 19th c. Great Britain had become a world power. Through the century Great Britain and France governments, travelers, scholars, artists and writers had increasingly turned their attentions to Africa and the Near East as places of exploration (both physical and intellectual), settlement, exploitation of new resources, and playing out of their longstanding rivalries. They completed the Suez Canal in 1869, simplifying ship passage between Europe and the Far East. Based on their self-appraisal of the value of technology, industrialization, and Western infrastructure, these European nations assumed their superiority to the peoples and cultures they encountered in Africa. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Near East is a term commonly used by archaeologists, geographers and historians, less commonly by journalists and commentators, to refer to the region encompassing Anatolia (the Asian portion of modern Turkey), the Levant (modern Israel/Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, Jordan, Syria and Lebanon), Georgia, Armenia, and... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... The far east as a cultural block includes East Asia, Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia and South Asia. ...


19th and early 20th century

Edward Wilmot Blyden, an Americo-Liberian educator and diplomat active in the pan-Africa movement, acknowledged a change in perception taking place among Europeans towards Africans in his 1908 book African Life and Customs, which originated as a series of articles in the Sierra Leone Weekly News.[6] In it, he put forth the notion that Africans were beginning to be seen simply as different and not as inferior, in part because of the work of English writers such as Mary Kingsley and Lady Lugard, who traveled and studied in Africa.[6] Such an enlightened view was fundamental to refute prevailing ideas among Western peoples about African cultures and Africans. Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912) was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Bold textMary jone brown Kingsley (October 13, 1862 - June 3, 1900) was an English writer and explorer who greatly influenced European ideas about Africa and African people. ... Flora Louise Shaw was born in 1852 in Dublin, as the daughter of major-general George Shaw. ...


Blyden used that standpoint to show how the traditional social, industrial, and economic life of Africans untouched by "either European or Asiatic influence", was different, complete in itself.[6] In a letter responding to Blyden's original series of articles, Fante journalist and politician J.E. Casely Hayford commented, "It is easy to see the men and women who walked the banks of the Nile" passing him on the streets of Kumasi.[6] Hayford suggested building a University to preserve African identity and instincts. In that university, the history chair would teach Photograph of J.E. Casely Hayford Joseph Ephraim Casely-Hayford or Ekra-Agiman (September 29, 1866–August 11, 1930) was a Fante journalist, author, lawyer, educator, and politician who supported pan-African nationalism. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Kumasi is the capital city of the Ashanti region of Ghana. ...

"...universal history, with particular reference to the part Ethiopia has played in the affairs of the world. I would lay stress upon the fact that while Ramses II was dedicating temples to "the God of gods, and secondly to his own glory", the God of the Hebrews had not yet appeared unto Moses in the burning bush; that Africa was the cradle of the world's systems and philosophies, and the nursing mother of its religions. In short, that Africa has nothing to be ashamed of in its place among the nations of the earth. I would make it possible for this seat of learning to be the means of revising erroneous current ideas regarding the African; of raising him in self-respect; and of making him an efficient co-worker in the uplifting of man to nobler effort."[6] Usermaatre-setepenre The Justice of Re is Powerful, Chosen of Re Nomen Ramesses (meryamun) Born of Re, (Beloved of Amun) Horus name Kanakht Merymaa Nebty name Mekkemetwafkhasut Golden Horus Userrenput-aanehktu Consort(s) Isetnofret, Nefertari Maathorneferure Issues Bintanath, Khaemweset, Merneptah, Amun-her-khepsef Meritamen Father Seti I Mother Queen Tuya... For other uses, see Yahweh (disambiguation). ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...

The exchange of ideas between Blyden and Hayford embodied the fundamental concepts of Afrocentricism.


In the United States, writers and editors of publications such as The Crisis and The Journal of Negro History sought to counter the prevailing view that Sub-Saharan Africa had contributed nothing of value to human history that was not the result of incursions by Europeans and Arabs.[7] Authors in these journals theorized that Ancient Egyptian civilization was the culmination of events arising from the origin of the human race in Africa. They investigated the history of Africa from that perspective. A 1911 copy of the NAACP journal The Crisis depicting Ra-Maat-Neb, one of the black kings of the Upper Nile. ... The Journal of Negro History was founded in 1916. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...


Afrocentrists claimed The Mis-Education of the Negro (1933), by Carter G. Woodson, an African American historian, as one of its foundational texts. Woodson's critiqued education of the African Americans as "mis-education", because he held that it denigrated the black while glorifying the white. For these early Afrocentrists, the goal was to break what they saw as a vicious cycle of the reproduction of black self-abnegation. In the words of W. E. B. Du Bois, the world left African Americans with a "double consciousness," and a sense of "always looking at one's self through the eyes of others, of measuring one's soul by the tape of a world that looks on in amused contempt and pity."[8]


In his early years, editor of The Crisis and US scholar W.E.B. Du Bois researched West African cultures and attempted to construct a pan-Africanist value system based on West African traditions. Du Bois later envisioned and received funding from Ghanaian president Kwame Nkrumah in the 1950s to produce an Encyclopedia Africana to chronicle the history and cultures of Africa. Du Bois died before being able to complete his work. Some aspects of Du Bois's approach are evident in later work by Cheikh Anta Diop in the 1950s and 1960s. Diop identified a pan-African protolanguage and presented evidence that ancient Egyptians were, indeed, Africans. This article or section needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... Proto-language may either refer to a language that preceded a certain set of given languages, or to system of communication during a stage in glottogony that may not yet be properly called a language. ...


Du Bois inspired a number of authors, including Drusilla Dunjee Houston. After reading his work The Negro (1915), Houston embarked upon writing her own Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire (1926). The book was a compilation of evidence related to the historic origins of Cush and Ethiopia, and assessing their influences on Greece. Cush (כּוּשׁ Black, Standard Hebrew Kuš, Tiberian Hebrew Kûš) was the eldest son of Ham, brother of Canaan and the father of Nimrod, mentioned in the table of nations in the Book of Genesis (x. ...


50s, 60s and 70s

The 50s, 60s and 70s were characterized by ethnocentric Afrocentritry that was often political in nature.

You have all heard of the African Personality; of African democracy, of the African way to socialism, of negritude, and so on. They are all props we have fashioned at different times to help us get on our feet again. Once we are up we shan't need any of them any more. But for the moment it is in the nature of things that we may need to counter racism with what Jean-Paul Sartre has called an anti-racist racism, to announce not just that we are as good as the next man but that we are much better.
—Chinua Achebe, 1965[9] Négritude, a concept developed in the 1930s by a group that included future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor and Francophone poet Aimé Césaire, is the belief that one should identify ones blackness without reference to ones homeland, native language, religion or spatial/geographical location. ...

Tejumola Olaniyan writes that Chinua Achebe might have easily included Afrocentrism in his list of "props." In this context ethnocentric Afrocentrism was not intended to be essential or permanent, but rather it was a consciously fashioned strategy of resistance to the Eurocentrism of the time.[8] During this time Afrocentric scholars adopted two approaches: a deconstructive rebuttal of what they called "the whole archive of European ideological racism" and a bold reconstructive act of writing new authentic self-constructed histories.[8] Afrocentricity gained an international forum when Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop attacked the long history of biased scholarship at a 1974 UNESCO symposium in Cairo. The several-day symposium on "The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Decipherment of Meroitic Script" brought together scholars of Egypt from around the world.[10] Chinua Achebe (IPA: ), born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe on November 16, 1930, is a Nigerian novelist, poet and critic. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture...


Key texts from this period include:

  • The Stolen Legacy (1954) by George G. M. James
  • The Destruction of Black Civilization (1971) by Chancellor Williams
  • The African Origins of Civilization: Myth or Reality (1974) by Cheikh Anta Diop
  • They Came Before Columbus (1976) by Ivan Van Sertima

George James claimed that Greek philosophy was "stolen" from ancient Egyptian traditions and that the latter had developed from distinctively "African" cultural roots. James considered the works of Aristotle and other Greek thinkers to be poor synopses of aspects of ancient Egyptian wisdom. According to James, the Greeks were a violent and quarrelsome people, unlike the Egyptians, and therefore were not naturally capable of philosophy. In his book, James famously claimed in his book that Aristotle had physically "stolen" his ideas and works from an "African" Library of Alexandria. Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ...


Scholars have noted, however, that in fact Greeks built the Library of Alexandria, and stocked it with scrolls collected from Egyptian temples. This work took place during the Hellenistic period of Egypt, many years after Aristotle's death. James' claims are thus disproved. He is considered as having contributed more by encouraging pride in Africa than by making significant contributions to the historical record. Inscription regarding Tiberius Claudius Balbilus of Rome (d. ...


Some Afrocentric writers focused on study of indigenous African civilizations and peoples, to emphasize African history unencumbered by European or Arab influence. Primary among them was Chancellor Williams, whose book The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D. set out to determine a "purely African body of principles, value systems (and) philosophy of life". Because he published the first version in 1971 and the second edition in 1987, his book reached at least two generations of audiences.[11] For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Chancellor James Williams (1898-1992), writer, university professor, and historian, was the author of , a book which has become a cornerstone of the highly-controversial field of academics known as Afrocentrism. ...


80s and 90s

In the 80s and 90s Afrocentritry grew more conservative, less revolutionary and was frequently seen as a possible curative force for social ills and a means of grounding community efforts for economic empowerment.


In his (1992) article "Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism", US anthropologist Linus A. Hoskins wrote:

The vital necessity for African people to use the weapons of education and history to extricate themselves from this psychological dependency complex/syndrome as a necessary precondition for liberation. [...] If African peoples (the global majority) were to become Afrocentric (Afrocentrized), ... that would spell the ineluctable end of European global power and dominance. This is indeed the fear of Europeans. ... Afrocentrism is a state of mind, a particular subconscious mind-set that is rooted in the ancestral heritage and communal value system. [12]

Although Afrocentricity is often associated with liberal politics, the movement is not homogeneously liberal. During the 80s and 90s, as politics became more conservative in the United States, sociological research became increasingly preoccupied with the problem of the "black underclass". Some Afrocentric scholars, influenced by the conservative climate, began to reframe Afrocentric values as a remedy for what they perceived to be the cultural poverty of poor African Americans. American educator Jawanza Kunjufu made the case that Hip Hop culture, rather than being creative expression of the culture, was the root of many social ills.[13] For some Afrocentrists, the contemporary problems of the ghetto stemmed not from race and class inequality, but rather from a failure to socialize black youth with Afrocentric values.[14] Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... Conservative may refer to: Conservatism, political philosophy A member of a Conservative Party Conservative extension, premise of deductive logic Conservativity theorem, mathematical proof of conservative extension Conservative Judaism britney spears Category: ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... For the rapper, see Ghetto (rapper). ...


Afrocentric ideas also received a considerable boost from the cultural shift known as postmodernism and its privileging of difference, micro-struggles, and the politics of identity. Postmodernism's general assault on the authority and universalist claims of Western "culture" is also the mainstay of any Afrocentric agenda. In turn, postmodern pluralism has begun to permeate Afrocentric thought.[8] Postmodernism is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ...

In the West and elsewhere, the European, in the midst of other peoples, has often propounded an exclusive view of reality; the exclusivity of this view creates a fundamental human crisis. In some cases, it has created cultures arrayed against each other or even against themselves. Afrocentricity’s response certainly is not to impose its own particularity as a universal, as Eurocentricity has often done. But hearing the voice of African American culture with all of its attendant parts is one way of creating a more sane society and one model for a more humane world. -Asante, M. K. (1988)[15]

By the end of this time period, the ethnocentric Afrocentrism of the 50s, 60s and 70s had largely fallen out of favor. US cultural historian Nathan Glazer described Afrocentricity as a form of multiculturalism in 1997. He wrote that its influence ranged from sensible proposals about inclusion of more African material in school curriculums to what he called senseless claims about African primacy in all major technological achievements. Glazer argued that Afrocentricity became more important in this time period due to the failure of mainstream society to assimilate all African Americans. Anger and frustration at their continuing separation gave black Americans the impetus for rejecting traditions that excluded them.[16]


Contemporary

Today, Afrocentritry takes many forms including serving as a tool for creating a more multicultural and balanced approach to the study of history and sociology. Afrocentricity contends that race still exists as a social and political construct.[14] It argues that for centuries in academia, Eurocentric ideas about history were dominant: ideas such as blacks having no civilizations, no written languages, no cultures, and no histories of any note before coming into contact with Europeans. Further, according to the views of some Afrocentrists, European history has commonly received more attention within the academic community than the history of sub-Saharan African cultures or those of the many Pacific Island peoples. Afrocentrists contend it is important to divorce the historical record from past racism. Molefi Kete Asante's book Afrocentricity (1988) argues that African-Americans should look to African cultures "as a critical corrective to a displaced agency among Africans." Less concerned about specific claims about the race of the Egyptians or other controversial topics, some Afrocentrists believe that the burden of Afrocentricity is to define and develop African agency in the midst of the cultural wars debate. By doing so, Afrocentricity can support all forms of multiculturalism.[17] Social scientists and literary scholars have claimed that many things are social constructions or social constructs, or that they have been socially constructed. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Molefi Kete Asante (born August 14, 1942) is a contemporary African American scholar in the field of African studies and African American Studies. ... The culture war (or culture wars) in American usage is a metaphor used to claim that political conflict is based on sets of conflicting values. ...


Afrocentrists argue that Afrocentricity is important for people of all ethnicities who want to understand African history and the African diaspora. For example, the Afrocentric method can be used to research African indigenous culture. Queeneth Mkabela writes in 2005 that the Afrocentric perspective provides new insights for understanding African indigenous culture, in a multicultural context. According to Mkabela and others, the Afrocentric method is a necessary part of complete scholarship and without it, the picture is incomplete, less accurate, and less objective.[18] Contemporary Afrocentrists may view the movement as multicultural rather than ethnocentric.[3]They see Afrocentricity as one part of a larger multicultural movement that has begun to shift the focus of historical and cultural studies away from Eurocentrism.[19] Studies of African and African-diaspora cultures have shifted understanding and created a more positive acceptance of influence by African religious, linguistic and other traditions, both among scholars and the general public. For example Lorenzo Dow Turner's seminal 1949 study of the Gullah language, a dialect spoken by black communities in Georgia and South Carolina, demonstrated that its idiosyncrasies were not simply incompetent command of English, but incorporated West African linguistic characteristics in vocabulary, grammar, sentence structure, and semantic system.[20] Likewise, religious movements such as Vodou are now less likely to be characterized as "mere superstition", but understood in terms of links to African traditions. Scholars who adopt such approaches may or may not see their work as Afrocentrist in orientation.[citation needed] The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... Ethnocentrism (Greek ethnos nation + -centrism) is a set of beliefs or practices based on the view that ones own group is the center of everything. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Gullah language (Sea Island Creole English, Geechee) is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called Geechees), an African American population living on the Sea Islands and the coastal region of the U.S. states of South Carolina and Georgia. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Voodoo redirects here. ...


Eurocentrism

Main article: Eurocentrism

In part in response to the pressure of Afrocentrists, the study of history and sociology has changed, gradually incorporating Afrocentic ideas as a part of a broader push toward multiculturalism in academia. Afrocentricity has had an impact on the disciplines of African studies, Black studies and Africana studies, as well as anthropology, sociology, and the study of history as a whole. Adisa A. Alkebulan writes that the Afrocentric idea has been a guiding paradigm in postcolonial African studies and Africana studies.[21] These changes were necessary due to the limits of Eurocentrism, especially in earlier western scholarship. For example: Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... An Africanist is a specialist in African affairs, cultures, or languages. ... African American studies, or Black studies, is an interdisciplinary academic field devoted to the study of the history, culture, and politics of African Americans. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... An Africanist is a specialist in African affairs, cultures, or languages. ... African studies (also known as Africana studies) is the study of Africa, and can encompass such fields as social and economic development, politics, history, culture, sociology, anthropology or linguistics. ...

I am apt to suspect the Negroes to be naturally inferior to the Whites. There scarcely ever was a civilized nation of that complexion, nor even any individual, eminent either in action or speculation. No ingenious manufactures amongst them, no arts, no sciences. ...[In] our colonies, there are Negro slaves dispersed all over Europe, of whom none ever discovered the symptoms of ingenuity; though low people, without education, will start up amongst us, and distinguish themselves in every profession. In Jamaica, indeed, they talk of one Negro as a man of parts and learning; but it is likely he is admired for slender accomplishments, like a parrot who speaks a few words plainly. - David Hume 18th century European historian, philosopher and essayist.[22] This article is about the philosopher. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...

By the mid-20th century many such overtly derogatory ideas had been rejected, but Afrocentrists contended that the denial, denigration and appropriation of black historical and cultural achievements made it important to study world history from a new perspective. Thus, Afrocentric scholars have worked to engage the biased methods and approaches used by some European scholars and the European-dominated intellectual community, in relation to all the people of Africa and the diaspora. Some elements of Eurocentrism have continued to deny Africans' agency in the creation of their own history. For example until recently, Western scholars believed cities such as Dakar, Banjul (Bathhurst), Abidjan, Conakry and others were created by Western colonizers. Although the cities were transformed by colonization (in both negative and positive ways), each of them predated colonization. Similarly, many of the existing economic and institutional patterns in Africa had origins well before colonialism.[23] (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Location of Banjul in The Gambia Street in Banjul city Banjul (formerly Bathurst) is the capital of The Gambia. ... Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: Kɔnakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea. ...


Nathan Glazer acknowledges that Afrocentricity and multiculturalism have played a role in shaping trends in the teaching of history and the social sciences, but also stresses that they are not the only cultural movements responsible for the move away from now obsolete forms of Eurocentrism.[16]


Definitions of Pan-African identity

The indigenous Papuans of New Guinea have Australoid and Negroid physical characteristics and are considered black in some cultures despite being genetically closer to Southeast Asians than to Africans. [24][citation needed]

Afrocentic scholars have struggled to reconcile the relationships among racial, cultural and continental identities. Some authors have used the concept of black racial identity to gather under the umbrella of "African" peoples widely dispersed populations traditionally classified and thought of as non-Africans. These include the Dravidians of India, the people of the rest of the Indian subcontinent, and the Australoid (sometimes called "Veddoid") aboriginal peoples of Australia and New Guinea. Image File history File links Village_people_in_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Image File history File links Village_people_in_Papua_New_Guinea. ... Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Australoid is a broad racial classification, no longer used by many anthropologists, of Australasian peoples, most notably the Indigenous Australians and Melanesians. ... Negroid is an adjective derived from the term Negro and refers to a presumed race of people mostly from sub-Saharan Africa. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Dravidian may refer to: in the spiritualistic interpretations: the people who are the drav i. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... Australoid is a broad racial classification, no longer used by many anthropologists, of Australasian peoples, most notably the Indigenous Australians and Melanesians. ... The Wanniyala-Aetto, or forest beings, perhaps more commonly known as Veddas or Veddahs (transliteration of වැද්දා in Sinhalese, IPA væððɑː) are an indigenous people of Sri Lanka, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. ...


Some Afrocentric writers[attribution needed] also include in the African diaspora the "Negritos" of Southeast Asia (Thailand, Java, Borneo, Sumatra and Malaysia, and Cambodia); and the "Africoid," aboriginal peoples of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia. Some Afrocentrists claim that the Olmecs of Mexico came from Africa. Historians of Mesoamerica do not share that view.[citation needed] The African diaspora is the diaspora created by the movements and cultures of Africans and their descendants throughout the world, to places such as the Americas, (including the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Central America, and South America); Europe and Asia. ... Ati woman Negrito refers a dwindling ethnic group which is now restricted to parts of Southeast Asia. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Borneo is the third largest island in the world and is located at the centre of Maritime Southeast Asia. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatera) is the sixth largest island in the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the largest island entirely in Indonesia (two larger islands, Borneo and New Guinea, are partially in Indonesia). ... Carving from the ridgepole of a Māori house, ca 1840 Polynesia (from Greek: πολύς many, νῆσος island) is a large grouping of over 1,000 islands scattered over the central and southern Pacific Ocean. ... Olmec stone head The Olmec were an ancient people living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, roughly what would now be the Veracruz and Tabasco regions of the Mexican isthmus. ...


Afrocentrists who adopt this approach contend that such peoples are African in a racial sense, just as the white inhabitants of modern Australia may be said to be European.[attribution needed] In doing so, they ignore the drastically different time frames for migration of whites from Europe to Australia within the last 200 years, and ancient peoples from the African continent to India or Polynesia tens of thousands of years ago.


DNA studies have definitively shown that some of these darker-skinned ethnic groups are genetically closer to neighboring "Mongoloid" East Asians than they are to indigenous Africans. Jared Diamond's 1998 Guns, Germs and Steel synthesized such findings with extensive linguistic, genetic, paleontological, physiological, archeological and anthropological scholarship to trace the migrations of peoples through 13,000 years and create a "deep" history of the world. In recognition of his contributions to the understanding of human history, his book received both the Phi Beta Kappa Award in Science and a Pulitzer Prize. Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies cover Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies is a 1997 book by Jared Diamond, professor of physiology at UCLA. It won the Pulitzer Prize for 1998, as well as the Aventis Prize for best science book in the... The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an honor society which considers its mission to be fostering and recognizing excellence in undergraduate liberal arts and sciences. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


Critics of Afrocentrism further note that the Southeast Asian and Melanesian peoples did not emigrate out of Africa within any time span that relates them to ancient African civilizations or the diaspora of the last 500 years. According to the Out of Africa model of human migration, one might as well consider the entire population of the world as part of an African race, since humans originated in Africa.[citation needed] In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... Net migration rates for 2006: positive (blue), negative (orange) and stable (green). ...


To try to reconcile such intractable facts, Afrocentrists have adopted a pan-Africanist perspective that such people of color are all "African people" or "diasporic Africans." As Afrocentric scholar Runoko Rashidi writes, they are all part of the "global African community." This conclusion, however, totally disregards how most "Mongoloid" East Asians and other peoples identify themselves. It also denies the significant work by geneticists who can base theories of population relatedness on DNA facts.[citation needed] Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Runoko Rashidi is an historian, research specialist, writer, world traveler, and public lecturer based in Los Angeles. ... Typical Mongoloid Skull A portrait of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan; the Mongolians, for which the term Mongoloid was named after, are an example of the prototype Northern Mongoloid. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Views on race

Proponents of the Dynastic race theory would classify supermodel Alek Wek, a Sudanese Dinka, as Caucasoid.

Afrocentrists hold that Africans exhibit a range of types and physical characteristics, and that such elements as wavy hair or aquiline facial features are part of a continuum of African types that do not depend on admixture with Caucasian groups. Work by Hiernaux [25] and Hassan [26] demonstrated that populations could vary based on microevolutionary principles (climate adaptation, drift, selection), and that such variations existed in both living and fossil Africans.[27] Afrocentrists condemned attempts to split African peoples into racial clusters as new versions of older, discredited theories such as the "Hamitic Hypothesis" and the Dynastic Race Theory. These had attempted to identify certain African ethnicities such as Nubians, Ethiopians and Somalians, as "Caucasoid" groups that entered Africa to bring civilization to the natives. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 523 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1172 × 1344 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alek Wek at FashionWeekLive in San Francisco, March 15, 2007. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 523 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1172 × 1344 pixel, file size: 346 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Alek Wek at FashionWeekLive in San Francisco, March 15, 2007. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Dynastic Race Theory was the earliest thesis to attempt to explain how predynastic Egypt developed into the Pharonic monarchy. ...


Afrocentrists charged that a double standard existed as Western academics had made limited attempts to define a "true white".[28] They believed that Western academics had traditionally limited the peoples they defined as Black Africans, but used broader "Caucasoid" or related categories to classify peoples of Egypt or certain other African cultures.


Afrocentric writer C.A. Diop expressed this belief in a double standard as follows in 1964:

"But it is only the most gratuitous theory which considers the Dinka, the Nouer and the Masai, among others, to be Caucasoids. What if an African ethnologist were to persist in recognising as white only the blond, blue-eyed Scandinavians, and systematically refused membership to the remaining Europeans, and Mediterraneans in particular--the French, Italians, Greek, Spanish, and Portuguese? Just as the inhabitants of Scandinavia and the Mediterranean countries must be considered as two extreme poles of the same anthropological reality, so should the Negroes of East and West Africa be considered as the two extremes in the reality of the Negro world. To say that a Shillouk, a Dinka, or a Nouer is a Caucasoid is for an African as devoid of sense and scientific interest as would be, to a European, an attitude which maintained that a Greek or a Latin were not of the same race."[29]

Afrocentrists believed that European scholars defined Black peoples as narrowly as possible, defining as the extreme "true Negro" only those peoples living south of the Sahara. All those who did not meet the definition of this extreme were allocated to "Caucasoid" groupings, including Ethiopians, Egyptians and Nubians (C. G. Seligman's Races of Africa, 1966)[30] Some anthropologists pointed out there was little evidence to suggest that these populations were closely related to "Caucasoids" of Europe and western Asia.[25]


French historian Jean Vercoutter claimed that selective grouping was common among scholars assessing the ethnicity of the ancient Egyptians. He said that workers routinely classified Negroid remains as "Mediterranean", even though archaeological workers found such remains in substantial numbers with ancient artifacts.( Vercoutter 1978- The Peopling of ancient Egypt)[31]


More recent work by DNA analysts, however, overturns Afrocentrist cultural and racial theories as it provides new evidence that East African groups, including Ethiopians and Somalis, do have strong genetic similarities to Caucasians. Such analysis suggests not that Somalis are descended from Caucasians, but that Caucasians are related to (descended from) peoples who migrated north and east out of what is now Somalia.[32] In addition, physical similarities among Somalis and Europeans exist at a higher structural level, such as shapes of skulls, according to anthropologist Loring Brace. "When the nonadaptive aspects of craniofacial configuration are the basis for assessment, the Somalis cluster with Europeans before showing a tie with the people of West Africa or the Congo Basin".[33] Genetic analyses of male DNA in the 21st century have indicated that male Somali people, in particular, are overwhelmingly indigenous. [34] C. Loring Brace C. Loring Brace (born 1930) is an anthropologist at the University of Michigan. ... The Somalis are an ethnic group located in the Horn of Africa. ...


Role of Ancient Egypt

See also: Ancient Egypt and race
The ancient pyramids of Egypt

Several Afrocentrists have said that important cultural characteristics of ancient Egypt were indigenous to Africa and that these features were present in other African civilizations.[35] Critical of much of mainstream Egyptology, Afrocentrists wrote that the study of ancient Egyptian culture had been artificially disconnected from other early African civilizations, such as Kerma and the Meroitic civilizations of Nubia — particularly in light of the fact that archaeological evidence clearly indicated a confluence among this cultural triad.[36] This perspective, championed by the Senegalese scholar Cheikh Anta Diop in the 1960s, was known formally as the Cultural Unity Theory. These related theories had proponents in the 1980s outside Afrocentric circles, among them Bruce Williams of the Oriental Institute, Chicago.[37] Questions of race and the ancient Egyptians have been a subject of debate and controversy dating back to the 18th century. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB) Summary Pyramids of Giza, Egypt Author: Ahmed Dokmak Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1331 KB) Summary Pyramids of Giza, Egypt Author: Ahmed Dokmak Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Look up mainstream in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza against Khafres Pyramid at the Giza pyramid complex. ... Kerma can refer to: Kerma was a city in Ancient Nubia and the capital of the Kingdom of Kerma. ... Aerial view of the pyramids at Meroe. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... The Art-Deco doors of the Oriental Institute, sculpture by Ulric Ellerhusen Head of a bull that once guarded the entrance to the Hundred-Column Hall in Persepolis The Oriental Institute (OI), established in 1919, is the University of Chicagos archeology museum and research center for ancient Near Eastern...


Afrocentrists also claimed that the ancient Egyptians made significant contributions to ancient Greece and Rome during their formative periods. They also claimed that Egyptians were black, as understood in the 20th and 21st century.[attribution needed] For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Mainstream archaeologists and Egyptologists such as Frank J. Yurco and Fekri Hassan have stated that ancient Egyptian peoples comprised a mix of North and sub-Saharan African peoples that have typified Egyptians ever since. They said that the Egyptian people were generally coextensive with other Africans in the Nile valley.[38]


Early Afrocentrists pointed to the work in the 1960s of Czech anthropologist Eugene Strouhal, which described physical, cultural and material links of ancient Egypt with the peoples of Nubia and the Sahara ( Strouhal (1968, 1971- Strouhal, E., ‘Evidence of the early penetration of Negroes into prehistoric Egypt).[39], the analyses of Falkenburger (1947) which show a clear Negroid element, especially in the southern population and sometimes as predominating in the predynastic period.[40]


Research by archaeologist Bruce Williams argued for Nubian cultural influence on formation of the Egyptian kingships. [41]


This early Afrocentric view arose in opposition to conclusions of mid-20th c. Eurocentric scholars such as British historian Arnold Toynbee. Toynbee believed the ancient Egyptian cultural sphere had died out without leaving a successor. He regarded as "myth" the idea that Egypt was the "origin of Western civilization." Arnold Joseph Toynbee (April 14, 1889 - October 22, 1975) was a British historian whose twelve-volume analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations, A Study of History, 1934-1961, was a synthesis of world history, a metahistory based on universal rhythms of rise, flowering and decline. ...


There is historiography, accounts in the historical record dating back several centuries, in which writers noted Egypt's contributions to Mediterranean civilizations.[42]


Afrocentrists have claimed a growing scholarly acceptance of Egypt as an African culture with its own unique elements. They cite mainstream scholars like Bruce Trigger, who in 1978 decried that approaches of the past were 'marred by a confusion of race, language, and culture and by an accompanying racism'.[43] and Egyptologist Frank Yurco, who in the late 1990s viewed the Egyptians, Nubians, Ethiopians, Somalians, and others as one localized Nile valley population, that need not be artificially clustered into racial percentages.[44] Afrocentrists have cited 1990s mainstream studies that confirmed the varied physical character of the Egyptian people, and influence on them from other peoples of the Nile (Nilotic influence).[45]


Criticism

Critics contend that some Afrocentric research lacks scientific merit and that it essentially supplants and counters one form of racism with another, rather than attempting to arrive at the truth. Among these critics, Mary Lefkowitz's Not out of Africa is regarded by some as the foremost critical work. In it, she contends Afrocentric historical claims are grounded in identity politics and myth rather than sound scholarship. Like most other mainstream scholars, she rejects George G. M. James's views on Egypt, on the grounds that his sources predated the deciphering of Egyptian hieroglyphs and that his theories were overturned by later findings. She contends that actual ancient Egyptian texts showed little similarity to Greek philosophy. She also contends that Bernal underestimated the distinctiveness of Greek intellectual culture. US scholar Molefi Kete Asante and others, however, in turn disputed her conclusions.[46] Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Mary R. Lefkowitz (born 1935) and Professor Emerita of Classical Studies at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, USA. She earned her B.A. from Wellesley College in 1957, and received her Ph. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... For other uses, see Mythology (disambiguation). ... A section of the Papyrus of Ani showing cursive hieroglyphs. ...


Dinesh D'Souza is a conservative writer and speaker who rejects the equation of slavery with racism. [47] Some Afrocentric writers classify D'Souza as a major spokesman for the Eurocentric view of African history.[48] Dinesh DSouza (born April 25, 1961 in Bombay, India) is an author currently serving as the Robert and Karen Rishwain Fellow at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University. ...


Mary Lefkowitz has criticized Afrocentricity as "an excuse to teach myth as history".[49] Similarly, African-American History professor Clarence E. Walker has criticized Afrocentrism as "a mythology that is racist, reactionary, and essentially therapeutic". He thinks it is unfortunate that Afrocentric scholars do not help African Americans realize the creative strengths of their own culture and history.[50]Nathan Glazer writes that although Afrocentricity can mean many things, the popular press has generally given most attention to its most outlandish theories.[16] Glazer supports many of the findings in Mary Lefkowitz book Not Out of Africa but also recognizes that Afrocentricity may, at times, take the form of legitimate and relevant scholarship.[16] Mary R. Lefkowitz (born 1935) and Professor Emerita of Classical Studies at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, USA. She earned her B.A. from Wellesley College in 1957, and received her Ph. ...


Often, the work that critics of Afrocentricity call "bad scholarship" is also rejected by Afrocentrists. Adisa A. Alkebulan writes that critics have used claims of what she calls "a few non-Afrocentrists" as "an indictment against Afrocentricity."[21]


Cain Hope Felder, a supporter of Afrocentric ideas, warned that Afrocentrists had to avoid certain pitfalls.[51] These include:

  • Demonizing categorically all white people, without careful differentiation between persons of goodwill and those who consciously perpetuate racism.
  • Adopting multiculturalism as a curricular alternative that eliminates, marginalizes, or vilifies European heritage to the point that Europe epitomizes all the evil in the world.
  • Gross over-generalizations and using factually or incorrect material is bad history and bad scholarship.[51]

According to an article in Time Magazine, a fringe group of Afrocentrists have asserted that blacks possess superior and supernatural traits that can be ascribed to the magical qualities of melanin. They also assert that the Ancient Egyptians could fly with gliders. These ideas represent the views of extremists within the Afrocentric movement. (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...


While approving the legitimate aims of Afrocentricity to enlarge the study of history and cultures, many educators, both black and white, are concerned that the excesses of this relatively small group will subvert the very goals which Afrocentricity seeks to accomplish. "It defeats what we're trying to do because it's going to be discredited," says David Pilgrim, a sociologist at Ferris State University in Big Rapids, Michigan. "All the good reasons why it was proposed are going to come back tenfold as negatives on the black community -- and on the black intellectual community specifically." Pilgrim, who is black, calls the claims of the extremists "pseudoscience" and "reverse Jensenism," In the latter, he referred to controversial theories of Arthur Jensen, who argued that blacks were genetically less intelligent on average than whites. Jensen's theories have been discredited in academia.[52] These fringe theories are not usually incorporated into Afrocentric curriculum. Many Afrocentric academics see them as trivial distractions from the central issues.[53] For the Danish actor, see Arthur Jensen (actor). ...


List of prominent authors

  • Molefi Kete Asante, professor, author: Afrocentricity: The theory of Social Change; The Afrocentric Idea; The Egyptian Philosophers: Ancient African Voices from Imhotep to Akhenaten
  • Ishakamusa Barashango, college professor and lecturer; founder, Temple of the Black Messiah, School of History and Religion; co-founder and creative director, Fourth Dynasty Publishing Company, Silver Spring, Maryland
  • Hakim Bey, leader of the Moorish Science Temple, author of the "Journal of the Moorish Paradigm"
  • Jacob Carruthers, Egyptologist; founding director of the Association for the Study of Classical African Civilization; founder and director of the Kemetic Institute, Chicago
  • Cheikh Anta Diop [1],[2], author: The African Origin of Civilization: Myth or Reality; Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology; Precolonial Black Africa; The Cultural Unity of Black Africa: The Domains of Patriarchy and of Matriarchy in Classical Antiquity; The Peopling of Ancient Egypt & the Deciphering of the Meroitic Script
  • H. B. ("Barry") Fell, Harvard professor, linguist, author: Saga America, 1980 [3]
  • Charles S. Finch, medical doctor and author: Echoes of the Old Darkland: Themes from the African Eden (1991), Africa and the Birth of Science and Technology (1991), The Star of Deep Beginnings (1998), Biblio Africana: An Annotated Reader's Guide to African Cultural History and Related Subjects (1999), The African Background to Medical Science: Essays on African History, Science & Civilizations (2000), The Afrikan Origins of the Major World Religions (with Yosef Ben-Jochannan and Modupe Oduyoye) (1987)
  • Drusilla Dunjee Houston, lecturer, syndicated columnist, author: Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire, 1926.
  • Yosef Ben-Jochannan, author: African Origins of Major "Western Religions"; Black Man of the Nile and His Family; Africa: Mother of Western Civilization; New Dimensions in African History; The Myth of Exodus and Genesis and the Exclusion of Their African Origins; Africa: Mother of Western Civilization; Abu Simbel to Ghizeh: A Guide Book and Manual
  • Runoko Rashidi [4], author: Introduction to African Civilizations; The global African community: The African presence in Asia, Australia, and the South Pacific
  • J.A. Rogers, author: Sex and Race: Negro-Caucasian Mixing in All Ages and All Lands : The Old World; Nature Knows No Color Line; Sex and Race: A History of White, Negro, and Indian Miscegenation in the Two Americas : The New World; 100 Amazing Facts About the Negro With Complete Proof: A Short Cut to the World History of the Negro
  • Ivan van Sertima, author: They Came before Columbus: The African Presence in Ancient America, African Presence in Early Europe ISBN 0887386644; Blacks in Science Ancient and Modern; African Presence in Early Asia; African Presence in Early America; Early America Revisited; Egypt Revisited: Journal of African Civilizations; Nile Valley Civilizations; Egypt: Child of Africa (Journal of African Civilizations, V. 12); The Golden Age of the Moor (Journal of African Civilizations, Vol. 11, Fall 1991); Great Black Leaders: Ancient and Modern; Great African Thinkers: Cheikh Anta Diop[5]
  • Chancellor Williams, author: The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D.
  • Bekeh Ukelina Utietiang, author: "Afridentity: Essays on Africa" Silver Spring: Africa Reads Books, 2007.
  • Théophile Obenga, author: Ancient Egypt and Black Africa : a student's handbook for the study of Ancient Egypt in philosophy, linguistics, and gender relations
  • Asa Hilliard, III, author: SBA: The Reawakening of the African Mind; The Teachings of Ptahhotep

Molefi Kete Asante (born August 14, 1942) is a contemporary African American scholar in the field of African studies and African American Studies. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... Peter Lamborn Wilson is a political writer, poet, and self-described anarchist ontologist. He sometimes writes under the name Hakim Bey (which may mean Mr Judge in Turkish, and which may or may not have been a name-of-convenience used by other radical writers since the 1970s). ... The Moorish Science Temple of America is a religion founded in the early 20th century claiming to be a sect of Islam, but having equal influences in Buddhism, Christianity, Freemasonry, Gnosticism and Taoism. ... Jacob Hudson Carruthers (February 15, 1930 in Dallas, Texas-January 4, 2004 in Chicago) was an American academic, noted as an African-centered scholar. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... Barry Fell (born Howard Barraclough Fell June 6, 1917 in Lewes, Sussex, England and died on April 21, 1994, of heart failure in San Diego, California) was Professor of invertebrate zoology at the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology. ... Yosef A.A. Ben-Jochannan (born December 24, 1918, Gondar, Ethiopia) is an American historian. ... Runoko Rashidi is an historian, research specialist, writer, world traveler, and public lecturer based in Los Angeles. ... Joel Augustus Rogers (1880—1966) was born in Negril, Jamaica and migrated to the United States in 1911. ... Ivan van Sertima is an American historian, linguist and anthropologist at Rutgers University. ... Chancellor James Williams (1898-1992), writer, university professor, and historian, was the author of , a book which has become a cornerstone of the highly-controversial field of academics known as Afrocentrism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dr. Asa Hilliard III, professor at the University of Denver continues to be a dominant force in the shaping of the educational system. ...

References

  1. ^ Moses, Greg. "Afrocentricity as a Quest for Cultural Unity: Reading Diop in English". National Association for African American Studies. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  2. ^ Sherwin, Elisabeth. Clarence Walker encourages black Americans to discard Afrocentrism. Davis Community Network. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.
  3. ^ a b Olaniyan, T. (2006). "From Black Aesthetics To Afrocentrism (or, A Small History Of An African And African American Discursivepractice)". West Africa Review. ISSN 1525-4488. 
  4. ^ The Place of Africalogy in the University Curriculum. Victor Oguejiofor Okafor Journal of Black Studies, v26 n6 p688-712 Jul 199
  5. ^ Reconstruction, accessed 11/19/2007
  6. ^ a b c d e Blyden, Edward Wilmot (1994-03-01). African Life and Customs. Black Classic Press. ISBN 978-0933121430. 
  7. ^ The African Origin of the Grecian Civilisation, Journal of Negro History, 1917, pp.334-344
  8. ^ a b c d From Black Aesthetics to Afrocemtrism Tejumola Olaniyan. West Africa Review Issue 9 (2006)
  9. ^ The Novelist as Teacher Chinua Achebe 1965
  10. ^ The Peopling of Ancient Egypt and the Decipherment of Meroitic Script: Proceedings of the Symposium Held in Cairo from 28 January to 3 February 1974 by UNESCO, Review author[s]: Bruce G. Trigger, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 13, No. 2 (1980), pp. 371-373
  11. ^ The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of a Race from 4500 B.C. to 2000 A.D., p. 19 1987
  12. ^ Linus A. Hoskins, Eurocentrism vs. Afrocentrism: A Geopolitical Linkage Analysis, Journal of Black Studies (1992), pp. 249, 251, 253.
  13. ^ Hip-Hop vs MAAT : A Psycho/Social Analysis of Values Jawanza Kunjufu 1993
  14. ^ a b Achieving Blackness: Race, Black Nationalism, and Afrocentrism By Algernon Austin. ISBN 0814707076
  15. ^ Asante, M. K. (1988). Afrocentricity. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press Inc. Page 28
  16. ^ a b c d We Are All Multiculturalists Now By Nathan Glazer Published 1997 Harvard University Press ISBN 067494836X
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  18. ^ Using the Afrocentric Method in Researching Indigenous African Culture by Queeneth Mkabela The Qualitative Report Volume 10 Number 1 March 2005 178-189
  19. ^ Banks, J.A. (1993). "The Canon Debate, Knowledge Construction, and Multicultural Education". Educational Researcher 22 (5): 4. doi:10.3102/0013189X022005004. 
  20. ^ Wade-Lewis, Margaret (2007) "Lorenzo Dow Turner: Father of Gullah Studies," University of South Carolina Pres
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  23. ^ The History of African Cities South of the Sahara by Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch P. 329
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  28. ^ Keita, op. cit
  29. ^ Evolution of the Negro world' in Presence Africaine (1964)
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  33. ^ Brace, C.L.; Tracer, D.P.; Yaroch, L.A.; Robb, J.; Brandt, K.; Nelson, A.R. (1993). "Clines and clusters versus “Race”: A test in ancient Egypt and the case of a death on the Nile". Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 36: 1-31. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330360603. 
  34. ^ High frequencies of Y chromosome lineages characterized by E3b1, DYS19-11, DYS392-12 in Somali males. European Journal of Human Genetics (2005-03-09). Retrieved on 2007-02-12.
  35. ^ Diop, C.A. (1964). "Evolution of the Negro world'" 23 (51): 5-15. 
  36. ^ Bruce Williams, 'The lost pharaohs of Nubia', in Ivan van Sertima (ed.), Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction, 1993).
  37. ^ Forebears of Menes in Nubia: Myth or Reality? Bruce Williams Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 46, No. 1 (Jan., 1987), pp. 15-26
  38. ^ Yurco, Frank. “Were the Ancient Egyptians Black or White?”. BAR magazine. Retrieved on 2007-10-03.
  39. ^ [http://www.search.com/reference/Badarian Strouhal, E., 1971, ‘Evidence of the early penetration of Negroes into prehistoric Egypt’, Journal of African History, 12: 1-9)
  40. ^ Falkenburger F. (1947) La composition racialel’ hcienne Egypt. L’Anthropologie 51239-250
  41. ^ Bruce Williams, 'The lost pharaohs of Nubia', in Ivan van Sertima (ed.), Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction, 1993).
  42. ^ Roth, A. (1995). "Building Bridges to Afrocentrism: A Letter to My Egyptological Colleagues". Newsletter of the American Research Center in Egypt: 167-8. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb23151.x. 
  43. ^ Bruce Trigger, 'Nubian, Negro, Black, Nilotic?', in Sylvia Hochfield and Elizabeth Riefstahl (eds), Africa in Antiquity: the arts of Nubia and the Sudan, Vol. 1 (New York, Brooklyn Museum, 1978).
  44. ^ Frank Yurco, "An Egyptological Review", 1996 -in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Guy MacLean Rogers, Black Athena Revisited, 1996, The University of North Carolina Press, p. 62-100
  45. ^ S.O.Y. KEITA, "Studies of Ancient Crania From Northern Africa", AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 83:35-48 (1990)]
  46. ^ Race in Antiquity: Truly Out of Africa By Molefi Kete Asante
  47. ^ Science and the politics in the work of William Julius Wilson S Steinberg - New Politics, 1997 - wpunj.edu
  48. ^ The Afrocentric Historical and Linguistic Methods Journal article by Clyde A. Winters; The Western Journal of Black Studies, Vol. 22, 1998
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  50. ^ Banner-haley, C.P. (2003). "We Can't Go Home Again: An Argument about Afrocentrism.". Journal of Southern History 69 (3): 663-665. Retrieved on 2007-11-13. 
  51. ^ a b Cain Hope Felder, "Afrocentrism, the Bible, and the Politics of Difference." The Princeton Seminary Bulletin ( 1994) Volume XV, Number 2.
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  53. ^ Sundiata, Ibrahim. AFROCENTRISM The Argument We're Really Having. DISSONANCE. Retrieved on 2007-11-13.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Edward Wilmot Blyden (1832-1912) was an educator, writer, diplomat, and politician in Liberia and Sierra Leone. ... The Journal of Black Studies is—in the words of its publisher—a “leading source for dynamic, innovative, and creative research on the Black experience. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... EJHG (Volume 14, Issue 7 (July 2006)) The European Journal of Human Genetics is an official monthly Human genetics publication. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1990). Kemet, Afrocentricity, and knowledge. Africa World Press. 
  • Bailey, Randall C. (editor) (2003). Yet with a steady beat: contemporary U.S. Afrocentric biblical interpretation. Society of Biblical Literature. 
  • Berlinerblau, Jacques (1999). Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. Rutgers University Press. 
  • Binder, Amy J. (2002). Contentious curricula: Afrocentrism and creationism in American public schools. Princeton University Press. 
  • Browder, Anthony T. (1992). Nile Valley Contributions To Civilization: Exploding the Myths, Volume 1. Washington, DC: Institute of Karmic Guidance. 
  • Crawford, Clinton (1996). Recasting Ancient Egypt In The African Context: Toward A Model Curriculum Using Art And Language. Trenton, New Jersey: Africa World Press. 
  • Henderson, Errol Anthony (1995). Afrocentrism and world politics: towards a new paradigm. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. 
  • Henke, Holger and Fred Reno (editors) (2003). Modern political culture in the Caribbean. University of the West Indies Press. 
  • Howe, Stephen (1998). Afrocentrism: mythical pasts and imagined homes. London: Verso. 
  • Houston, Drusilla Dunjee (1926). Wonderful Ethiopians of the Ancient Cushite Empire. Oklahoma: Universal Publishing Company. 
  • Kershaw, Terry (1992). ""Afrocentrism and the Afrocentric method." Western Journal of Black Studies" 16 (3): 160-168. 
  • Konstan, David. "Inventing Ancient Greece: [Review article]", History and Theory, Vol. 36, No. 2. (May, 1997), pp. 261–269.
  • Lefkowitz, Mary R. (1996). Not out of Africa: how Afrocentrism became an excuse to teach myth as history. New York: BasicBooks. 
  • Lefkowitz, Mary R. and Guy MacLean Rogers (editors) (1996). Black Athena Revisited. University of North Carolina Press. 
  • Lewis, Martin W. (1997). The myth of continents: a critique of metageography. University of California Press. 
  • Magida, Arthur J. (1996). Prophet of rage a life of Louis Farrakhan and his nation. New York: BasicBooks. 
  • Morton, Eric. "Race and Racism in the Works of David Hume." Journal on African Philosophy. (2002) ISSN: 1533-1067. Africa Resource Center. Retrieved on 2006-11-06.
  • Moses, Wilson Jeremiah (1998). Afrotopia: the roots of African American popular history. Cambridge University Press. 
  • Sniderman, Paul M. and Thomas Piazza (2002). Black pride and black prejudice. Princeton University Press. 
  • Spivey, Donald (2003). Fire from the soul: a history of the African-American struggle. Carolina Academic Press. 
  • Walker, Clarence E. (2000). We Can't Go Home Again: An Argument about Afrocentrism. Oxford University Press. 
  • Wells, Spencer (2002). The Journey of Man: A Genetic Odyssey. Princeton University Press. 
  • Osei-Yaw, Emmanuel. D.(2006)
  • Ani, Marimba (1994). Yurugu: An African-centered Critique of European Thought and Behavior. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-248-1. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1988). Afrocentricity, rev. ed., Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-067-5. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1990). Kemet, Afrocentricity, and Knowledge. Trenton, N.J.: Africa World Press. ISBN 0-86543-188-4. 
  • Asante, Molefi Kete (1998). The Afrocentric Idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 1-56639-594-1. 
  • Karenga, Maulana (1993). Introduction to Black Studies, 2nd ed., Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press. ISBN 0-943412-16-1. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Molefi Kete Asante (born August 14, 1942) is a contemporary African American scholar in the field of African studies and African American Studies. ... Ron Karenga (born July 14, 1941), also known as Ron Everett, is an African American author and Marxist political activist. ...

See also

The African Renaissance is a concept popularized by South African President Thabo Mbeki in which the African people and nations are called upon to solve the many problems troubling the African continent. ... Black Athena: The Afroasiatic Roots of Classical Civilization is a work by Martin Bernal. ... This box:      Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Eurocentrism is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing emphasis on European (and, generally, Western) concerns, culture and values at the expense of those of other cultures. ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ... Nuwaubian flag as designed by Malachi Z. York The various doctrines and practices of the followers of Malachi Z. York are sometimes referred to as “Nuwaubu”/“Nuwaupu”, “Wu-Nuwaubu”, “Right Knowledge”, “Sound Right Reasoning”, “Overstanding”, and “Factology” but have had many other names through the years. ... The Ausar Auset Society is a Pan-African religious organization founded in 1973 by Ra Un Nefer Amen. ... A tomb painting of Seti I as reconstructed by Giovanni Battista Belzoni (d. ... African Philosophy is a disputed term, used in different ways by different philosophers. ...

External links

  • 'Were the Ancient Egyptians Black or White' Biblical Archaeology Review for September – October, 1989. Frank Joseph Yurco's perpective on the race controversy of the ancient Egyptians
  • Afrocentrism by Robert Todd Carroll, Skeptic's Dictionary
  • Afrocentrism: The Argument We're Really Having by Ibrahim Sundiata
  • Building Bridges to Afrocentrism by Ann Macy Roth, for the University of Pennsylvania's African Studies Center
  • Afrocentrist multicultural pseudo-history by The Association for Rational Thought
  • Ex Africa Lux? by T. A. Schmitz (PDF)
  • Fallacies of Afrocentrism by Grover Furr, for the Montclair State University
  • "Not Out Of Africa Excerpt," by Mary Lefkowitz
  • Racism and the Rediscovery of Ancient Nubia
  • UC Davis History Professor Clarence Walker's take on Afrocentrism
  • Safari Scholarship Reinvents History by Ilana Mercer
Afrocentric websites
  • returntoglory.org
  • ankhonline.com
  • afrostyly.com
  • asante.net

  Results from FactBites:
 
Guadalupe (3588 words)
Afrocentricity as a theory of change intends to re-locate the African person as subject, thus destroying the notion of being objects in the Western project of domination.
Afrocentricity is generally opposed to theories that "dislocate" Africans in the periphery of human thought and experience.
Afrocentricity is not the reverse of Eurocentricity but a particular perspective for analysis which does not seek to occupy all space and time as Eurocentrism has often done.
Afrocentrism (269 words)
Afrocentrism is a term used to refer to the belief that ancient Africa was the source of cultural and intellectual achievements that have been systematically denied or suppressed by Europeans.
Typically Afrocentrism concentrates on the achievements of the ancient Egyptians, presenting them as a fl race.
Critics assert that Afrocentrism is myth presented as history, and that it is a projection of modern American racial and geographical categories onto ancient cultures in which they did not exist.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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