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Encyclopedia > Africanized bee
Africanized honey bee

Closeup of Africanized honey bees (AHBs) surrounding a European queen honey bee (EHB), marked with a pink dot for identification.
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Suborder: Apocrita
Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Apinae
Tribe: Apini
Genus: Apis
Species

HYBRID (see text) Image File history File links Africanized_Bee. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - spiders,scorpions, etc. ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Suborders Apocrita Symphyta Hymenoptera is one of the larger orders of insects, comprising the sawflies, wasps, bees, and ants. ... Superfamilies Apoidea Ceraphronoidea Chalcidoidea Chrysidoidea Cynipoidea Evanioidea Ichneumonoidea Megalyroidea Proctotrupoidea Sphecoidea Stephanoidea Triganalyoidea Vespoidea Many families, see article Apocrita is a suborder of insects in the order Hymenoptera. ... Subfamilies Apinae - Honeybees Bombinae - Bumblebees Euglossinae - Orchid bees Meliponinae - Stingless bees Nomadinae Xylocopinae - Carpenter bees The Apidae are a large family of bees, comprising the common honeybees, stingless bees (which are also cultured for honey), carpenter bees, and bumblebees. ... Tribes Ancylini Anthophorini Apini Bombini Centridini Ctenoplectrini Emphorini Ericrocidini Eucerini Euglossini Exomalopsini Isepeolini Melectini Meliponini Osirini Protepeolini Rhathymini Tapinotaspidini Tetrapediini The Apinae is the subfamily that includes the majority of bees in the family Apidae, including the familiar corbiculate bees (honeybees, stingless bees, orchid bees, and bumblebees), plus all the... Species A. mellifera— western honeybee A. cerana— eastern honeybee Honeybees are a subset of bees which fall into the Order Hymenoptera and Suborder Apocrita. ... Apis Species Categories: Stub | Insects ...

Africanized honey bees (AHB), known colloquially as "killer bees", are hybrids of the African honey bee, Apis mellifera scutellata (not A. m. adansonii; see Collet et al., 2006), with various European honey bees such as the Italian bee A. m. ligustica and A. m. iberiensis. // This article is about a biological term. ... The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... Subspecies A. m. ... Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera). ...

Contents

History

The Africanized bees in the western hemisphere descended from 26 Tanzanian queen bees (A. m. scutellata) accidentally released in 1957 near Rio Claro, São Paulo State in the south of Brazil from hives operated by biologist Warwick E. Kerr, who had interbred honey bees from Europe and southern Africa. Hives containing these particular queens were noted to be especially defensive. Kerr was attempting to breed a strain of bees that would be better adapted to tropical conditions (i.e., more productive) than the European bees used in North America and southern South America. The African queens eventually mated with local drones, and their descendants have since spread throughout the Americas. Making it so that us up here in the north are now all screwed because of the retard who let them out. The only why they got out in the first place is because he was shoving his woo hoo into the hunny and was trying to get some from a local prositute. The geographical western hemisphere of Earth, highlighted in yellow. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Rio Claro (in Spanish means clear river or clean river) can refer to one of several geographic places: Rio Claro is the largest town in southeastern Trinidad and Tobago. ... This article is about the city. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... Warwick Estevam Kerr. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... A noontime scene from the Philippines on a day when the Sun is almost directly overhead. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


The Africanized hybrid bees have become the preferred type of bee for beekeeping in Central America and in tropical areas of South America because of improved productivity. However, in most areas the Africanized hybrid is initially feared because it tends to retain certain behavioral traits from its African ancestors that make it less desirable for domestic beekeeping. Specifically (as compared with the European bee types), the Africanized bee: Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ...

  • Tends to swarm more frequently.
  • Is more likely to migrate as part of a seasonal response to lowered food supply.
  • Is more likely to "abscond"—the entire colony leaves the hive and relocates—in response to repeated intrusions by the beekeeper.
  • Has greater defensiveness when in a resting swarm.
  • Lives more often in ground cavities than the European types.
  • Guards the hive aggressively, with a larger alarm zone around the hive.
  • Has a higher proportion of "guard" bees within the hive.
  • Deploys in greater numbers for defense and pursues perceived threats over much longer distances from the hive.
  • Cannot survive extended periods of forage deprivation, preventing intrusion into areas with harsh winters or extremely dry late summers.

A swarm about to land Swarming is the natural means of reproduction of honey bee colonies (considering the colony as the organism rather than individual bees which cannot survive alone), including the domesticated Western honey bee. ...

Geographic spread

Map showing the spread of Africanized honey bees in the United States from 1990 to 2003

As of 2002, Africanized honey bees had spread from Brazil south to northern Argentina and north to South and Central America, Trinidad (West Indies), Mexico, Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Florida and southern California. Their expansion stopped for a time at eastern Texas, possibly due to the large number of European-bee beekeepers in the area. However, discoveries of the bees in southern Louisiana indicate this species of bee has penetrated this barrier[1], or has come as a swarm aboard a ship. In June 2005, it was discovered that the bees had penetrated the border of Texas and had spread into Southwest Arkansas. Image File history File links Killerbees_ani. ... Image File history File links Killerbees_ani. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami metropolitan area Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) No official language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Largest metro area Dallas–Fort Worth Metroplex Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Little Rock Largest city Little Rock Largest metro area Little Rock Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 29th  - Total 53,179 sq mi (137,002 km²)  - Width 239 miles (385 km)  - Length 261 miles (420 km)  - % water 2. ...


At their peak rate of expansion, they spread north at a rate of almost two kilometers (about one mile) a day. In tropical climates they compete effectively against European bees. There had been discussions about slowing the spread by placing large numbers of docile European-strain hives in strategic locations, particularly at the Isthmus of Panama, but various national and international agricultural departments were unable to prevent the bee's expansion. The genetics of these bees, however (below), suggest that such a strategy, had it been attempted, would not have been successful.[citation needed] To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 1 km and 10 km (103 and 104 m). ...


Curiously, their arrival in Central America is a threat to the ancient art of keeping stingless bees in log gums. As honey productivity of the Africanized bees far exceeds the productivity of the native stingless bees, economic pressures force beekeepers to switch. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Genera Lestrimelitta Melipona Trigona, sensu lato: (21 genera) The stingless bees belong to the tribe Meliponini (usually called the stingless honeybee) in the family Apidae, which also comprise the common honeybees, carpenter bees, orchid bees and bumblebees. ... The log gum was esentially a bee tree cut into a short section that contained a colony of honey bees. ...


Africanized honey bees have generally been considered as an invasive species in many regions. Lantana invasion of abandoned citrus plantation; Moshav Sdey Hemed, Israel The term invasive species refers to a subset of introduced species or non-indigenous species that are rapidly expanding outside of their native range. ...


On September 11, 2007, Commissioner Bob Odom of the Department of Agriculture and Forestry said that africanized honeybees established themselves in the New Orleans area.[1] New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Geographic limits

Recent evidence suggests that Africanized honey bees may be able to endure cold winters. They have been seen as far as Kansas City, Missouri, though they are more commonly found farther to the south. There are now stable geographic zones in which either Africanized bees dominate, a mix of Africanized and European bees is present, or only non-Africanized bees are found (as in southern South America). As the Africanized honey bee migrates further north through Mexico, colonies are interbreeding with European honey bees. This appears to be resulting in a dilution of the genetic contribution of the African stock and a gradual reduction of their aggressive behaviors. Thus Africanized bees are expected to be a hazard mostly in the Southern States of the United States, reaching as far north as the Chesapeake Bay in the East. In California they have been seen on the Pacific Coast as far north as Santa Barbara and are expected to eventually occupy the San Francisco Bay Area.[citation needed] Within the Central Valley in 2004, Africanized bees were involved in an attack in Modesto, having previously (2003) been seen in Bakersfield. The cold-weather limits of the Africanized bee have driven professional bee breeders from Southern California into the harsher wintering locales of the northern Sierra Nevada (U.S.) and southern Cascade range. This is a more difficult area in which to prepare bees for early pollination placement, such as is required for the production of almonds. The reduced available winter forage in northern California means that bees must be fed for early spring buildup. Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... This article is 88 kilobytes or more in size. ... The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ... The Pacific Coast is any coast fronting the Pacific Ocean. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , County Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - City 111. ... USGS satellite photo of the San Francisco Bay Area. ... This article is about Californias Central Valley. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Modesto is the county seat of Stanislaus County in the U.S. state of California. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Bakersfield, California Coordinates: , Country United States State California County Kern County Founded 1869 Government  - Mayor Harvey Hall Area  - City  131 sq mi (339. ... This article is about the mountain range in the Western United States. ... “Cascades” redirects here. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ... Binomial name (Mill. ...


Morphology and Genetics

The popular term 'Africanized bee' has only limited scientific meaning today because there is no generally accepted fraction of genetic contribution used to establish a cut-off. While the native African bees are smaller, and build smaller comb cells, than the European bee, their hybrids are not smaller. They do have slightly shorter wings, which can be reliably recognized only by performing a statistical analysis on micro-measurements of a substantial sample. One problem with this test is that there is also an Egyptian bee, present in the southeastern United States, that has the same morphology. Currently testing techniques have moved away from external measurements to DNA analysis, but this means the test can only be done by a sophisticated laboratory. Trinomial name Apis mellifera lamarckii Cockerell, 1906 Lamarcks honeybee or the Egyptian honeybee is a subspecies of honeybee native to the Nile valley of Egypt and Sudan, named after Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... Genetic fingerprinting or DNA testing is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ...


There are two lineages of Africanized bees in the Americas; those which are actual matrilinial descendants of the original escaped queens (carrying African mitochondrial DNA, but partially European nuclear DNA) are in the vast majority, though there are also a much smaller number which have become Africanized through hybridization (thus carrying European mitochondrial DNA, and partially African nuclear DNA). This is supported by DNA analyses performed on the bees as they spread northwards; those that were at the "vanguard" were over 90% African mitochondrial DNA, indicating an unbroken matriline (Smith et al., 1989), but after several years in residence in an area interbreeding with the local European strains, as in Brazil, the overall representation of African mitochondrial DNA drops to some degree. However, these latter hybrid lines (with European mtDNA) do not appear to propagate themselves well or persist. [2] Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


The consequences of selection

The chief difference between the European races or subspecies of bees kept by American beekeepers and the Africanized stock is attributable to selective breeding. The most common race used in North America today is the Italian bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, which has been used for several thousand years. Beekeepers have tended to eliminate the fierce strains, and the entire race of bees has thus been gentled by selective breeding. Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Italy South of the Alps and North of Sicily. ... Selective breeding in domesticated animals is the process of developing a cultivated breed over time. ...


In central and southern Africa, bees have had to defend themselves against other aggressive insects, as well as honey badgers, an animal that also will destroy hives if the bees are not sufficiently defensive. In addition, there was formerly no tradition of beekeeping, only bee robbing. When one wanted honey, one would seek out a bee tree and kill the colony, or at least steal its honey. The colony most likely to survive either animal or human attacks was the fiercest one. Thus the African bee has been naturally selected for ferocity. Binomial name Mellivora capensis (Schreber, 1776) The Ratel (Mellivora capensis), also known as the Honey Badger, is a member of the Mustelidae family. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


Defensiveness

Africanized bees are characterized by greater defensiveness in established hives than European honey bees. They are more likely to attack a perceived threat and, when they do so, attack in larger numbers. This defensiveness has earned them the nickname "killer bees," the aptness of which is debated. Over the decades, several deaths in the Americas have been attributed to Africanized bees. The venom of an Africanized bee is no more potent than that of a normal honey bee, but since the former subspecies tends to sting in greater numbers, the number of deaths from them are greater than any other subspecies. However, allergic reaction to bee venom from any bee can kill a person, and it is difficult to estimate how many more people have died due to the presence of Africanized bees. Binomial name Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee comprised of several subspecies or races. ... Apitoxin, or honey bee venom, is a bitter colorless liquid. ...


Most human incidents with Africanized bees occur within two or three years of the bees' arrival and then subside. Beekeepers can greatly reduce this problem by culling the queens of aggressive strains and breeding gentler stock. Beekeepers keep A. m. scutellata in South Africa using common beekeeping practices without excessive problems.


The fear factor

The Africanized bee is widely feared by the public, a reaction that has been amplified by sensationalist movies and some of the media reports. Since their introduction to the United States there have been 14 deaths from Africanized bees over the several year period, which makes them less hazardous than venomous snakes. As the bee spreads through Florida, a densely populated state, officials worry that public fear may force misguided efforts to combat them. The Florida African Bee Action Plan states, "News reports of mass stinging attacks will promote concern and in some cases panic and anxiety, and cause citizens to demand responsible agencies and organizations to take action to help insure their safety. We anticipate increased pressure from the public to ban beekeeping in urban and suburban areas. This action would be counter-productive. Beekeepers maintaining managed colonies of domestic European bees are our best defense against an area becoming saturated with AHB. These managed bees are filling an ecological niche that would soon be occupied by less desirable colonies if it were vacant. " [3]


Impact on agriculture

Side view of the africanized honey bee

It has been established that in a partially Africanized hive these aggressive bees can even "recruit" more gentle bees in attacks upon intruders. If true, this habit can make Africanized bees dangerous in areas where European bees are kept for agricultural purposes, since an existing queen may be replaced without the usual out-swarming or supersession, conditions more readily observable by the beekeeper. To the extent that the Africanized bees make pollination management more difficult, they are a threat to the production of all crops which require bee pollination. Image File history File linksMetadata Africanizedbee. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Africanizedbee. ... Pollination Management is the label for horticultural practices that accomplish or enhance pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality, by understanding of the particular crops pollination needs, and by knowledgeable management of pollenizers, pollinators, and pollination conditions. ...


Queen management in Africanized bee areas

In Mexico, where Africanized bees are well established, pollination beekeepers have found that a purchased and pre-bred non-Africanized queen may be used to locally create a first generation of virgin queens that are then bred in an uncontrolled fashion with the local wild Africanized drones. These first generation Africanized queens produce worker bees that are manageable, not exhibiting the intense and massive defense reactions of subsequent generations. This offers a relatively economical method of safe local beekeeping conditions that would otherwise quickly lead to hazardous conditions.


Impact on existing apiculture

In areas of suitable temperate climate, the survival traits of africanized queens and colonies outperform western honey bee colonies. This competitive edge leads to the dominance of African traits. In Brazil, the africanized hybrids are known as Assassin Bees, for their supposed habit of taking over an existing colony of European bees. According to this lore, their queen waits outside while several worker bees infiltrate the hive by bringing in food, where they will then locate and kill the queen. The new queen will then enter and take over the hive. There is no published research to support this claim, however. Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ...


Gentle Africanized bees

Not all Africanized hives are defensive; some are quite gentle, which gives a beginning point for beekeepers to breed a gentler stock. This has been done in Brazil, where bee incidents are much less common than they were during the first wave of the Africanized bees' colonization. Now that the Africanized bee has been "re-domesticated", it is considered the bee of choice for beekeeping in Brazil. It is better adapted to the tropics and so is healthier and more industrious than European bees.


"Killer bees" in popular culture

  • In the 1970s concerns about a possible "killer bee" threat to the U.S. were exploited in numerous fictional thrillers, including Arthur Herzog's novel The Swarm (adapted into a 1978 film by Irwin Allen) and the TV movies The Savage Bees (1976) and Terror Out of the Sky (1978).
  • The rap group Wu-Tang Clan released a compilation album in 1998 entitled Wu-Tang Killa Bees: The Swarm.
  • The television series The X-Files featured specially bred africanized bees that were to be employed as a delivery system for an alien virus.
  • Documentarian film-maker and satirist Michael Moore addresses this popular scare in his 2002 film Bowling for Columbine, making an implicit suggestion that the media portrayal of africanized bees was tied to race relations in the United States.
  • On Yvon of the Yukon, Yvon is exiled from the town because of his literally harmful and asphyxiating body odour, which he refuses to shower. However, the town is directly in the path of a massive killer bee attack, which Yvon exterminates with a giant physical manifestation of his body odour.
  • The Central Hockey League team The Rio Grande Valley Killer Bees is based out of Hidalgo/McAllen, Texas where africanized bees were first sighted in the United States.

The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Swarm, see Swarm (disambiguation). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Irwin Allen (June 12, 1916 – November 2, 1991) was a television and film producer nicknamed The Master of Disaster for his work in the disaster film genre. ... A television movie (also TV movie, TV-movie, made-for-TV movie, etc. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the American television series. ... This list includes write-ups for animal-themed recurring sketches that appeared on Saturday Night Live. ... “Wu-Tang” redirects here. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The X-Files is a Peabody- and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... Michael Francis Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American political-activist, a film director, author, social commentator, and political humorist. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Bowling for Columbine is a controversial documentary film written, directed, produced by, and starring Michael Moore. ... Poor Yvon Ducharme – he was a simpleton explorer booted from France in the 17th century – only to end up frozen in Arctic ice for 300 years! Luckily for Yvon, he was defrosted when he was urinated on by a sled dog, owned by Tommy, a hip Inuit teenager. ... Attack of the Killer Bs is the name of the fourth EP by the Thrash Metal band Anthrax. ... In recorded music, the terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 7 inch vinyl records on which singles have been released since the 1950s. ... Major league affiliations National League (1962–present) Central Division (1994–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 5, 24, 25, 32, 33, 34, 40, 42, 49 Name Houston Astros (1965–present) Houston Colt . ... MLB and Major Leagues redirect here. ... Derek Bell can refer to different people: Derek Bell (1935-2002), the Irish musician and composer, long with the Chieftains. ... Jeffrey Robert Bagwell (born May 27, 1968) is a former Major League Baseball first baseman, who spent his entire major league baseball career with the Houston Astros. ... Craig Alan Biggio (born December 14, 1965 in Smithtown, New York) is a seven-time All-Star Major League baseball player who has played his entire career with the Houston Astros. ... William Lance Berkman (born February 10, 1976 in Waco, Texas) is a Major League Baseball player for the Houston Astros. ...

See also

 

Honey bee types and characteristics (edit)
Queen bees
Worker and drone bees
Worker bee | Laying worker bee | Drone
Lifecycle
Beehive | Honey bee life cycle | Brood
Bee learning and communication | Swarming
Western honey bee subspecies and breeds
Buckfast bee | Carniolan honey bee | European dark bee | Italian bee
Africanized bee | Apis mellifera scutellata
Cultivation
Beekeeping | Beeswax | Honey | Honey extraction
Apiary | Beehive | Langstroth hive | Top-bar hive
Apiology | Honey extractor
Lists
Topics in beekeeping | Honey bee races
Diseases of the honey bee

The honeybee is a colonial insect that is often maintained, fed, and transported by farmers. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... A worker bee is a female honeybee which performs certain tasks in support of a bee hive. ... A laying worker bee is a worker bee that lays unfertilized eggs usually in the absence of a queen bee. ... Blue-Russian drone honeybees drinking. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... The honey bee life cycle, here referring exclusively to the domesticated Western honey bee, depends greatly on their social structure. ... Recently hatched honey bee larvae are feeding on royal jelly for three days. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ... A swarm about to land Swarming is the natural means of reproduction of honey bee colonies (considering the colony as the organism rather than individual bees which cannot survive alone), including the domesticated Western honey bee. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Apis mellifica Linnaeus, 1761 The Western honey bee or European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a species of honey bee. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera carnica Pollman, 1879 The Carniolan honey bee (Apis mellifera carnica) is a subspecies of Western honey bee. ... Trinomial name Apis mellifera mellifera Linaneus, 1758 The European dark bee (Apis mellifera mellifera) was domesticated in modern times, and taken to North America in colonial times. ... Apis mellifera ligustica is the Italian bee which is a sub-species of the Western honeybee (Apis mellifera). ... Subspecies A. m. ... Beekeeping, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) Beekeeping (or apiculture, from Latin apis, a bee) is the practice of intentional maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. ... For the rock song by Nirvana, see Beeswax (song). ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... A very uniform completely filled frame, before uncapping. ... An Apiary in South Carolina, Langstroth hives on pallets An apiary (also known in the US as a bee yard) is a place where beehives of honeybees are kept. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... Langstroth hives on pallets The Langstroth bee hive is the standard beehive used in many parts of the world for bee keeping. ... Top-bar hives are a style of beehive used for beekeeping. ... Apiology is the scientific study of bees, a branch of entomology. ... A honey extractor is a mechanical device to extract the honey from the beeswax or honey comb. ... This is a list of topics concerning beekeeping and honey bees. ... Races of honey bees Some biologists use race synonymously with subspecies or - in botany- variety, to refer to divisions within a species. ... Common diseases, parasites, pests, and ailments of the honey bee include: // Varroa mite on a honey bee larva Main articles: Varroa destructor Varroa destructor and Varroa jacobsoni are parasitic mites that feed off the bodily fluids of adult, pupal and larval bees. ...

References

  • Collet, T., Ferreira, K.M., Arias, M.C., Soares, A.E.E. and Del Lama, M.A. (2006). Genetic structure of Africanized honeybee populations (Apis mellifera L.) from Brazil and Uruguay viewed through mitochondrial DNA COI–COII patterns. Heredity 97, 329–335. doi:10.1038/sj.hdy.6800875
  • Smith, D.R., Taylor, O.R., Brown, W.M. (1989). Neotropical Africanized honey bees have African mitochondrial DNA. Nature 339: 213–215.

External links

  • U.S. Department of the Interior National Biological Service
  • Barry Sergeant, keeper of "killer bees"
  • AFRICANIZED BEES: They are here to stay. See how these bees spread to Florida.

Notes

  1. ^ Yahoo.com, 'Killer bees' descend on New Orleans

 
 

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